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Family Planning Awareness, Perceptions and Practice among Community Members in the Kintampo Districts of Ghana  [PDF]
Obed Ernest A. Nettey, Yeetey A. Enuameh, Emmanuel Mahama, Abubakari Sulemana, George Adjei, Stephaney Gyaase, Samuel Afari-Asiedu, Robert Adda, Abena Konadu Yawson, Gifty Fosuaa Nuamah, Edward Apraku Anane, Livesy Abokyi, Charles Zandoh, Martha Abdulai, Ellen Abrafi Boamah, Kwame Adjei, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Francis Dzabeng, Charlotte Tawiah-Agyeman, Frank Baiden, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Advances in Reproductive Sciences (ARSci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/arsci.2015.31001
Abstract: Family planning is known to prevent maternal deaths, but some social norms, limited supplies and inconsistent use makes this difficult to achieve in most low- and middle-income countries. In spite of the high fertility levels in most sub-Saharan African countries and the potential economic benefits of family planning, its patronage remains very low in the sub-region. This study was with the objective of identifying the levels of awareness, utilization, access to and perceptions about family planning and contraception. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study, with data collected from multiple sources using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Relevant findings included a marked disconnect between family planning/contraceptive knowledge and use. The pills and injectables were the most frequently used, but females in the study population poorly patronised emergency contraception. Supplies of most family planning methods were found to be health facility based, requiring clients to have to necessarily go there for services. Some respondents harboured perceptions that family planning was the responsibility of females alone and that it fuelled promiscuity among female users. Recommendations made include ensuring that health facilities had adequate staff and expertise to provide facility-based family planning services and also to disabuse the minds of community members of the negative perceptions towards family planning.
Community perceptions of malaria and malaria treatment behaviour in a rural district of Ghana: implications for artemisinin combination therapy
Kwaku P Asante, Livesy Abokyi, Charles Zandoh, Ruth Owusu, Elizabeth Awini, Abubakari Sulemana, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Robert Adda, Owusu Boahen, Sylvester Segbaya, Emmanuel Mahama, Constance Bart-Plange, Daniel Chandramohan, Seth Owusu-Agyei
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-409
Abstract: Two surveys were conducted; a cross-sectional survey of 729 randomly selected household heads (urban-362, rural-367) and 282 women with children < 5 years (urban-121, rural-161) was conducted in 2006. A district wide survey was conducted in 2007 to assess awareness of AS-AQ. These were complemented with twenty-eight focus group discussions (FGDs) and 16 key informant interviews (KII) among community members and major stakeholders in the health care delivery services. All nine (9) health facilities and five (5) purposively selected drug stores were audited in order to identify commonly used anti-malarials in the study area at the time of the survey.Majority of respondents ( > 75%) in the sampled survey mentioned mosquito bites as the cause of malaria. Other causes mentioned include environmental factors (e.g. dirty surroundings) and standing in the sun. Close to 60% of the household heads and 40% of the care-givers interviewed did not know about AS-AQ. The community respondents who knew about and had ever taken AS-AQ perceived it to be a good drug; although they mentioned they had experienced some side effects including headaches and body weakness. Co-blistered AS-AQ was available in all the government health facilities in the study area. Different formulations of ACTs were however found in urban chemical shops but not in rural chemical stores where monotherapy antimalarials were predominant.The knowledge of fever as a symptom of malaria is high among the study population. The awareness of AS-AQ therapy and its side-effect was low in the study area. Community education and sensitization, targeting all categories of the population, has to be intensified to ensure an efficient implementation process.It has been estimated that about 3000 malaria deaths occur among African children each day [1], with about 0.5 billion clinical malaria cases and 2-3 million severe malaria episodes occurring annually [2]. The children who do not die from the severe form of malaria may suff
Dry Eyes: An Adverse Effect of Systemic Antihistamine Use in Allergic Conjunctivitis Management
Samuel Abokyi,George Asumeng Koffuor,Emmanuel Kwasi Abu,Samuel Kyei,Carl Halladay Abraham
Research Journal of Pharmacology , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/rjpharm.2012.71.77
Abstract: Systemic antihistamines are crucial in the management of allergic conjunctivitis in Ghana. This study, therefore, determined the incidence of dry eyes in patients with allergic conjunctivitis and the risk of developing dry eyes associated with the management of allergic conjunctivitis using systemic antihistamines. A retrospective cohort study involving the review of medical records of 738 cases of allergic conjunctivitis before and after treatment in two prominent referral eye care centers in Ghana was conducted. Associations between variables were determined using Binary Logistical Regression and Fisher s Exact Chi-Square (χ2). The 1 month incidence of dry eyes among Allergic Conjunctivitis (AC) patients was 17.5% (15.1% in those below 45 years and 27.2% in those above 45 years). Age was significantly associated (aOR:1.02, p<0.001) with dry eyes. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis was the commonest (62.2%) ocular allergy while perennial allergic conjunctivitis patients were the most susceptible (aOR:1.79; p = 0.454) to Dry Eyes (DEs). A significant (p<0.001) association existed between occupation and DEs. Students 304 (41.2%) suffered AC most but were significantly less susceptible (aOR:0.24; p<0.001) to DEs while teachers 29 (3.9%) had the least prevalence of AC but had the highest risk (aOR:1.42; p = 0.483) of DEs. Of 60 (8.1%) AC patients with pterygium, 16 (26.7%) were found to have DEs (aOR:1.16; p = 0.050). Burning sensation was significantly (p<0.001) associated to DEs. Out of 441 (59.8%) patients treated with cetirizine (a systemic antihistamine) on the first visit, 103 (23.4%) had DEs on the second visit. Cetirizine usage was the most significant risk factor (aOR:2.79; p<0.001) for DEs. Allergic conjunctivitis patients treated with systemic antihistamines had a significantly high risk of dry eyes.
Impact of Place of Delivery on Neonatal Mortality in Rural Tanzania
Justice Ajaari, MSc,Honrati Masanja, PhD,Renay Weiner, MSc,Shalom Akonyi Abokyi, MPH
International Journal of MCH and AIDS , 2012,
Abstract: Objectives:Studies on factors affecting neonatal mortality have rarely considered the impact of place of delivery on neonatal mortality. This study provides epidemiological information regarding the impact of place of delivery on neonatal deaths.Methods:We analyzed data from the Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (RHDSS) in Tanzania. A total of 5,124 live births and 166 neonatal deaths were recorded from January 2005 to December 2006. The place of delivery was categorized as either in a health facility or outside, and the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) was calculated as the number of neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between neonatal mortality and place of delivery and other maternal risk factors while adjusting for potential confounders.Results:Approximately 67% (111) of neonatal deaths occurred during the first week of life. There were more neonatal deaths among deliveries outside health facilities (NMR = 43.4 per 1,000 live births) than among deliveries within health facilities (NMR = 27.0 per 1,000 live births). The overall NMR was 32.4 per 1,000 live births. Mothers who delivered outside a health facility experienced 1.85 times higher odds of experiencing neonatal deaths (adjusted odds ratio = 1.85; 95% confidence interval = 1.33–2.58) than those who delivered in a health facility.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Place of delivery is a significant predictor of neonatal mortality. Pregnant women need to be encouraged to deliver at health facilities and this should be done by intensifying education on where to deliver. Infrastructure, such as emergency transport, to facilitate health facility deliveries also requires urgent attention.
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