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Background: Little is known about post-traumatic stress (PTSD) prevalence rates in community samples. This is especially true for the African continent where child-soldiers, HIV/AIDS affected and orphans have been the target for PTSD prevalence studies. Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the indirect and direct exposure to 20 potentially traumatic events and its relation with PTSD in a Ugandan sample of senior 3rd year students and to perform cross-cultural comparisons with previous studies examining this age group. Socio-economic status, coping styles, negative affect, and somatization are further examined. Method: A convenience sample of 408 senior secondary school students, from eight schools, across three major towns, Kampala, Mbarara, and Jinja, were selected. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) was used to establish PTSD prevalence rates, The Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ) was used to assess coping styles, and the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC) were used to measure negative affect and somatization. Results: The subjects had been exposed to a mean of 6.6 direct events and a mean of 7.2 indirect events. The estimated prevalence rate of PTSD was 37.7% and a further 28.2% reached a subclinical level, missing one symptom to have the full diagnosis. Variables related to a PTSD diagnosis were female gender, number of directly experienced events, emotional coping, negative affect, and somatization. Conclusions: Ugandan youth have been exposed to significantly more potentially traumatic events and negative life events than European youth, and subsequently PTSD prevalence rates are higher. In addition, fewer gender differences are found in the Ugandan sample compared to the European samples.
leadership plays an important role in safe patient care. The aim of this paper
was to understand and improve the
implementation outcomes identified by empirical studies based on Proctors et al.’s key concepts, acceptability
appropriateness, feasibility and fidelity, and to propose recommendations for
further research. Methods: An interdisciplinary approach using mixed methods.
Results: A total of twenty papers based on data from this interdisciplinary
study have been published. Overall, our published empirical studies revealed
that the CCM intervention had positive results due to staff members’ engagement
to improve care, their awareness of the need for collaboration and willingness
to assume responsibility for patient care. From the perspective of the
depressed elderly persons the results of the research project indicated their
need for support to increase self-management. In conclusion, an improved
understanding of the implementation outcomes will have an impact on best
practice for depressed elderly persons and dissemination purposes. Quality management
and highly action-oriented involvement are necessary in implementation
research. These will also affect the professional development of
interdisciplinary teams as well as constitute a basis for further research on
understanding and improving the care of depressed elderly individuals.