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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3855 matches for " Lisa; "
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“Community” as a Reference for American Minority Groups: A Theory of Unintended Negative Consequences  [PDF]
Lisa Fisher
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.56020
Abstract: The phrase “the _____ community” is commonly used in naming minority groups in the US, for example, the African American community or the Muslim community. The phrase carries some benefits in terms of voice, sentiment, solidarity and empowerment, and it is widely accepted as a respectful reference. However, I argue that its use and meaning also carry unintended negative social psychological implications for how some minority group members may view themselves within the larger society and how some non-minority group members may view persons who identify as members of minority groups. In this paper, I examine the meaning and entailments of the word “community” as a convention of naming. I argue that negative implications stem from ubiquitous discursive emphasis on in-group sameness and groupness, which are rooted in historical practices of distillation and homogenization of diverse groups and demonstrate and invite perpetuation of stereotypes and prejudices, reinforce insider/outsider divides, and detract from personhood and social integration.
Beneficial Applications and Deleterious Effects of Near-Infrared from Biological and Medical Perspectives  [PDF]
Yohei Tanaka, Lisa Gale
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2013.34A006
Abstract:

Over half of solar energy consists of near-infrared and a wide range of preventative mechanisms have been evolutionarily maintained in organisms to protect against effects of near-infrared. However, the biological effects of near-infrared have not been investigated in detail. Despite the essential requirement of a water-filter to imitate solar near-infrared filtered by atmospheric water, previous studies used near-infrared resources without a water-filter or a cooling system. With these methods, near-infrared energy is primarily absorbed in the superficial tissues, thus these approaches are unable to sufficiently evaluate the biological effects of solar near-infrared that reaches human tissue. We have elucidated that near-infrared (1100 - 1800 nm together with a water-filter that excludes wavelengths 1400 - 1500 nm) non-thermally affects the skin into the deeper tissues. The biological effects of near-infrared have both beneficial applications and deleterious effects. Near-infrared induces collagen and elastin stimulation, which achieves skin rejuvenation and skin tightening, and induces long-lasting vasodilation that may prevent vasospasm and be beneficial for ischemic disorders. Near-infrared also relaxes and weakens dystonic and hypertrophic muscles to reduce wrinkles and myalgia. Nearinfrared is an essential tool in cancer detection and imaging, and induces drastic non-thermal DNA damage of mitotic cells, which may be beneficial

Emerging Frontiers in Therapeutics of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma: Epigenetics and B Cell Receptor Signaling  [PDF]
Soham Puvvada, Lisa Rimsza
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.43A059
Abstract:

This review discusses the impact of gene expression profiling and sequencing discoveries on new therapeutic strategies in Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas, particularly Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma. Alterations in oncogenes, over-active signaling pathways down-stream of the B cell receptor, and epigenetic gene mutations will be described. We will also review new targeting strategies aimed at each of these aspects of cell biology encompassing BCL2, BTK, PKCβ, PI3K/mTOR and HDAC inhibition. Specific new drugs in clinical trials and early trial results are included as well.

Phonemic Awareness and Reading Comprehension among Japanese Adult Learners of English  [PDF]
Lisa Yoshikawa, Junko Yamashita
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.44039
Abstract: Phonemic awareness (PA) accounts for individual differences in early reading achievement in English as a first language (L1), but its effect generally fades with age. However, in English as a second language (L2), PA may still explain variation in reading ability among the adult population, depending on the readers’ L1 background. We examined the role of PA in the reading comprehension of L1-Japanese readers to closely examine the relationship between PA and reading comprehension. A path analysis revealed that PA makes an indirect contribution to reading comprehension through decoding, which along with vocabulary knowledge directly supports reading comprehension. The present study provides evidence for a role, albeit indirect, played by PA in L2-English reading by L1-Japanese adult readers, and thus lends support to the understanding of the importance of fundamental phonological processing in L2 reading.
Protection from Near-Infrared to Prevent Skin Damage  [PDF]
Yohei Tanaka, Lisa Gale
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2015.54010
Abstract: Over half of the solar energy consists of near-infrared, and in addition to natural near-infrared, humans are increasingly exposed to artificial near-infrared from electrical appliances. Thus, we are exposed to tremendous amounts of near-infrared. Despite the wide prevalence of a variety of ultraviolet blocking materials, the necessity to protect against near-infrared has not been well recognized. To clarify the necessity to protect against near-infrared, we assessed cell viability of human fibroblast cells after water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared (1100 - 1800 nm together with a water-filter that excludes wavelengths 1400 - 1500 nm) treatment using 2 sets of transparent polycarbonate plates, one to block ultraviolet and the other to block both ultraviolet and near-infrared. The cell viability was significantly decreased after 10 rounds of near-infrared irradiation at 20 J/cm2 in near-infrared treated cells without a protective polycarbonate plate and near-infrared treated cells using the polycarbonate plate to block only ultraviolet. Assuming that the cell viability of the non-irradiated control to be 100, the cell viability of the near-infrared treated cells without any protection was 0.2. The cell viability of the near-infrared treated cells with the polycarbonate plate to block only ultraviolet was 0.3, whereas both ultraviolet and near-infrared protected cells retained a viability of 85.1. The results of this study indicate that protection from not only ultraviolet but also near-infrared should be considered to prevent skin damage.
“I Know, But I Have No Proof”. Authentic Past and Aesthetic Truth in Post-War Italy  [PDF]
Anna Lisa Tota
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.512003
Abstract:
Following the perspective of cultural trauma theorists, this article focuses on the public memory of Italy’s recent past, specifically the period of the so-called strategy of tension, a still very obscure time in the country’s recent history and which includes the terrorist attacks that took place from 1969 to 1993 in several Italian cities. When “State Terror” occurred in Italy, access to legal and political arenas was systematically denied and the cultural trauma process could be performed only in aesthetic arenas. This article focuses on the role played by the cinema and other cultural artefacts in producing an “aesthetic truth” of Italy’s recent past. By analysing the main features of the artistic and cultural representation of this past, the status of this “truth” is questioned and compared to that produced for example in the legal arena. When narrating the past, it is difficult for movies (and the same can be argued for other cultural artefacts) to achieve the quality standards of historical narration. When they narrate the past, they can remain a “second best” option. In the Italian case a very interesting trend can be noted: public knowledge of highly controversial events is often narrated using fiction. “Fiction” (more than a documentary film) seems to create the conditions that make possible the public communication of what all the citizens know but no one has proof to document. On 14 November 1974, Pier Paolo Pasolini, an Italian intellectual, published a long article under the headline “What is this coup d’état? I know” in Corriere della Sera, a leading newspaper in Italy. Probably Pasolini was murdered because of that article: he died on 2 November 1975. In that article he wrote about the strategy of tension in Italy and he said: “I know, but I have no proof”. In Italy, many citizens, many intellectuals, many artists know, but they still have no proof. For this reason they can narrate the recent past of the country only by using fiction and theatrical performance. Will the aesthetisation of the recent past remain the only way to carry out the trauma process in Italian society?
A Semi-Automation of a Cost Benefit Analysis Method  [PDF]
Lisa M. Darville, Cui Zhang
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.56045
Abstract: This paper presents CBAM Assistant, a tool that semi-automates the Cost Benefit Analysis Method (CBAM) developed by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) at Carnegie Mellon University. CBAM is a process used to estimate the Return on Investment (ROI) of various software architectural design strategies. CBAM generally follows the Architectural Trade-off Analysis Method (ATAM) also developed by SEI. ATAM aids in defining scenarios and architectural strategies. The result is a qualitative trade-off analysis of the various strategies. CBAM further refines the scenarios and architectural strategies from ATAM. CBAM aids in quantitative analysis for cost, utility and importance ratings to determine the ROI of each architectural strategy. CBAM Assistant is a web-based system that walks a user through the CBAM process which can be started by using scenarios and architectural strategies created from ATAM. The tool is intended to be used by a facilitator who will provide input from stakeholders. The primary output of the tool is the ROIs of each architectural strategy for comparison and selection.
Use of Lexical Stress during Oral Reading among Japanese EFL Learners  [PDF]
Lisa Yoshikawa, Chi Yui Leung
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.45050
Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to examine second language (L2) oral reading with a focus on lexical stress. We conducted oral reading tasks to investigate whether 14 Japanese learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) read words aloud with different lexical stress (one- or two- stress words) with appropriate stress assignment, similar to a comparison group of 14 native English speakers, in order to see whether EFL learners, who have fewer verbal input and output opportunities, assign the proper stress(es) in oral reading contexts. The participants read 18 pairs of four-syllable one- and two-stress words both in isolation and in sentence context conditions, and the whole word duration, syllable duration, and syllable intensity were analyzed. The results showed that both groups of readers (1) read two-stress words longer than one-stress words and (2) read stressed syllables longer than unstressed syllables with appropriate stress assignment. Our findings suggest that intermediate EFL learners can recognize and manipulate L2 prosodic information, even though their L1 does not possess the property. Future directions for L2 oral reading research development are discussed.
Restructuring the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) Mechanism for a Post Kyoto Agreement  [PDF]
Kamleshan Pillay, Lisa Frost Ramsay
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2015.41007
Abstract: With the possibility of a new climate agreement being formed in 2015 at COP 21 in Paris, there is a vital need to restructure REDD+ for formal inclusion into such an agreement. There are two vital questions that need to be assessed if REDD+ is to be effective as a policy tool within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). First, can REDD+ be financially self-sustaining if it remains as a fund based mechanism or will a market based system be more effective? Second, will REDD+ remain primarily a carbon offsetting mechanism or can it also deliver co-benefits (poverty alleviation, biodiversity conservation, and promoting indigenous rights protection)?
Big Pharma (The Play)
Lisa Bero
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050104
Abstract:
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