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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3870 matches for " Lisa Smithson "
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When less is more in the recognition heuristic
Michael Smithson
Judgment and Decision Making , 2010,
Abstract: The ``less is more effect'' (LIME) occurs when a recognition-dependent agent has a greater probability of choosing the better item than a more knowledgeable agent who recognizes more items. Goldstein and Gigerenzer (2002) define alpha as the probability that a correct choice is made on the basis of recognition alone and beta the probability that a correct choice is made when both items are recognized (via additional cues). They claim that the LIME occurs only when alpha > beta (and assuming alpha > 1/2). However, their argument also assumes that alpha and beta remain constant as the number of recognized items, n, varies. In fact, it can be shown that neither of these parameters generally remains constant as n varies, and neither of them are simple functions of n. Therefore, a new theoretical basis for the LIME is needed. This paper provides mathematical results for understanding when the LIME can occur and elucidates implications of these results. The major findings presented here are as follows: * Demonstrations that the LIME can occur when alpha leq beta and fail to occur when alpha > beta, and derivation of the conditions for these co-occurrences; * A new characterization of the conditions under which the LIME occurs; * Generalizations of this characterization to handle imperfect recognition; and * Characterization of when the LIME occurs as more items become recognized. The primary implication of these results is that the advantage of the recognition cue depends not only on cue validities, but also on the order in which items are learned. This realization, in turn, suggests that research in this area should incorporate a more dynamic focus on learning and memory processes, and the effects of reputational information.
Freedom: A Measure of Second-order Uncertainty for Intervalic Probability Schemes
Michael Smithson
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: This paper discusses a new measure that is adaptable to certain intervalic probability frameworks, possibility theory, and belief theory. As such, it has the potential for wide use in knowledge engineering, expert systems, and related problems in the human sciences. This measure (denoted here by F) has been introduced in Smithson (1988) and is more formally discussed in Smithson (1989a)o Here, I propose to outline the conceptual basis for F and compare its properties with other measures of second-order uncertainty. I will argue that F is an indicator of nonspecificity or alternatively, of freedom, as distinguished from either ambiguity or vagueness.
Interleukin-1 receptor 1 knockout has no effect on amyloid deposition in Tg2576 mice and does not alter efficacy following Aβ immunotherapy
Pritam Das, Lisa A Smithson, Robert W Price, Vallie M Holloway, Yona Levites, Paramita Chakrabarty, Todd E Golde
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-3-17
Abstract: We passively immunized Tg2576 mice crossed into the IL-1 R1-/- background (APP/IL-1 R1-/- mice) with an anti-Aβ1-16 mAb (mAb9, IgG2a) that we previously showed could attenuate Aβ deposition in Tg2576 mice. We also examined whether the IL-1 R1 knockout background modifies Aβ deposition in untreated mice. Biochemical and immunohistochemical Aβ loads and microglial activation was assessed.Passive immunization with anti-Aβ mAb was effective in reducing plaque load in APP/IL-1 R1-/- mice when the immunization was started prior to significant plaque deposition. Similar to previous studies, immunization was not effective in older APP/IL-1 R1-/- mice or IL-1 R1 sufficient wild type Tg2576 mice. Our analysis of Aβ deposition in the untreated APP/IL-1 R1-/- mice did not show differences on biochemical Aβ loads during normal aging of these mice compared to IL-1 R1 sufficient wild type Tg2576 mice.We find no evidence that the lack of the IL-1 R1 receptor influences either Aβ deposition or the efficacy of passive immunotherapy. Such results are consistent with other studies in Tg2576 mice that suggest microglial activation may not be required for efficacy in passive immunization approaches.Direct immunization with aggregated amyloid β protein (Aβ) and passive immunization with anti-Aβ antibodies (Abs) reduce plaque burden in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models and improve cognitive deficits present in those models [1-5]. Although no adverse effects of immunization were noted in earlier studies, more recent data in mice indicate that there is the potential of exacerbation of cerebral-amyloid angiopathy (CAA) associated microhemmorhages in certain mouse strains following passive immunization with certain anti-Aβ antibodies [6-8]. An active immunization trial in humans was initiated using fibrillar Aβ42+QS-21 adjuvant (AN-1792) but was halted due to a meningio-encephalitic presentation in ~6% of individuals [9-11]. Reports of individuals enrolled in the trial suggest that those s
Novel rat Alzheimer's disease models based on AAV-mediated gene transfer to selectively increase hippocampal Aβ levels
Patricia A Lawlor, Ross J Bland, Pritam Das, Robert W Price, Vallie Holloway, Lisa Smithson, Bridget L Dicker, Matthew J During, Deborah Young, Todd E Golde
Molecular Neurodegeneration , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1326-2-11
Abstract: Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding BRI-Aβ cDNAs were generated resulting in high-level hippocampal expression and secretion of the specific encoded Aβ peptide. As a comparison the effect of AAV-mediated overexpression of APPsw was also examined. Animals were tested for development of learning and memory deficits (open field, Morris water maze, passive avoidance, novel object recognition) three months after infusion of AAV. A range of impairments was found, with the most pronounced deficits observed in animals co-injected with both AAV-BRI-Aβ40 and AAV-BRI-Aβ42. Brain tissue was analyzed by ELISA and immunohistochemistry to quantify levels of detergent soluble and insoluble Aβ peptides. BRI-Aβ42 and the combination of BRI-Aβ40+42 overexpression resulted in elevated levels of detergent-insoluble Aβ. No significant increase in detergent-insoluble Aβ was seen in the rats expressing APPsw or BRI-Aβ40. No pathological features were noted in any rats, except the AAV-BRI-Aβ42 rats which showed focal, amorphous, Thioflavin-negative Aβ42 deposits.The results show that AAV-mediated gene transfer is a valuable tool to model aspects of AD pathology in vivo, and demonstrate that whilst expression of Aβ42 alone is sufficient to initiate Aβ deposition, both Aβ40 and Aβ42 may contribute to cognitive deficits.Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a decline in cognitive function, accumulation of extracellular amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss. Numerous AD-linked mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins (PS) [1-3] alter APP metabolism resulting in accumulation of Aβ42, a 42-amino acid product essential for the formation of parenchymal and vascular amyloid deposits [4], and proposed to initiate the cascade leading to AD [3]. However, the role of Aβ40, the more prevalent Aβ peptide secreted by cells and a major component of deposits in the cerebral vasculature o
Iraki House en Londres (1960-1961).
Alison y Peter Smithson.
DC PAPERS : Revista de Crítica y Teoría de la Arquitectura , 2008,
Developing an online learning community for mental health professionals and service users: a discursive analysis
Janet Smithson, Ray B Jones, Emily Ashurst
BMC Medical Education , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-12
Abstract: We ran three week-long collaborative learning courses, in which 19 mental health professionals (MHPs) and 12 mental health service users (MHSUs) participated. Data were analysed using a discursive approach to consider the ways in which participants interacted, and how this contributed to the goal of online learning about using Internet technologies for mental health practice.MHSUs and MHPs were able to discuss issues together, listening to the views of the other stakeholders. Discussions on synchronous format encouraged participation by service users while the MHPs showed a preference for an asynchronous format with longer, reasoned postings. Although participants regularly drew on their MHP or MHSU status in discussions, and participants typically drew on either a medical expert discourse or a "lived experience" discourse, there was a blurred boundary as participants shifted between these positions.The anonymous format was successful in that it produced a "co-constructed asymmetry" which permitted the MHPs and MHSUs to discuss issues online, listening to the views of other stakeholders. Although anonymity was essential for this course to 'work' at all, the recourse to expert or lay discourses demonstrates that it did not eliminate the hierarchies between teacher and learner, or MHP and MHSU. The mix of synchronous and asynchronous formats helped MHSUs to contribute. Moderators might best facilitate service user experience by responding within an experiential discourse rather than an academic one.There is increasing interest in online collaborative learning tools in health education, to reduce costs, and to offer alternative communication opportunities for professionals, students and service users. Recent research findings have highlighted positive effects of e-health methods such as computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for reducing depression and anxiety [1], online forums for social support [2]. Implementation of new methods, and take-up by professionals, is
Online Interaction and “Real Information Flow”: Contrasts Between Talking About Interdisciplinarity and Achieving Interdisciplinary Collaboration
Janet Smithson,Catherine Hennessy,Robin Means
Journal of Research Practice , 2012,
Abstract: In this article we study how members of an interdisciplinary research team use an online forum for communicating about their research project. We use the concepts of “community of practice” and “connectivity” to consider the online interaction within a wider question of how people from different academic traditions “do” interdisciplinarity. The online forum for this Grey and Pleasant Land project did not take off as hoped, even after a series of interventions and amendments, and we consider what the barriers were and how they might be overcome. Barriers to involvement included participants’ expectations of interaction and collaboration--expectation that real interaction happens elsewhere, tensions between academic discourse and forum talk norms, unfamiliarity with the technology, and different conceptions of appropriate academic discussion. We suggest that common academic practice does not prepare us well for creating interdisciplinary research communities through online collaboration tools, whereas such tools are our best bet currently for including geographically dispersed members in collaborative projects. Therefore, careful planning and competence building would be necessary if such tools are to be used in collaborative research. Suggested interventions, based on our experience, include providing a more focused forum, making technical support easily available, and setting up particular tasks or items to debate, within a preset, synchronous timeframe, focusing on issues relevant to the project at that time.
“Community” as a Reference for American Minority Groups: A Theory of Unintended Negative Consequences  [PDF]
Lisa Fisher
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.56020
Abstract: The phrase “the _____ community” is commonly used in naming minority groups in the US, for example, the African American community or the Muslim community. The phrase carries some benefits in terms of voice, sentiment, solidarity and empowerment, and it is widely accepted as a respectful reference. However, I argue that its use and meaning also carry unintended negative social psychological implications for how some minority group members may view themselves within the larger society and how some non-minority group members may view persons who identify as members of minority groups. In this paper, I examine the meaning and entailments of the word “community” as a convention of naming. I argue that negative implications stem from ubiquitous discursive emphasis on in-group sameness and groupness, which are rooted in historical practices of distillation and homogenization of diverse groups and demonstrate and invite perpetuation of stereotypes and prejudices, reinforce insider/outsider divides, and detract from personhood and social integration.
Improved Outcomes in Gallbladder Cancer with Early Diagnosis and Negative Nodal Status  [PDF]
Lauren Smithson, Christopher Keto, Lorenzo Ferguson, Sumet Silapaswan, Michael J. Jacobs, Ramachandra Kolachalam, Jeffrey C. Flynn, Vijay K. Mittal
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.32019
Abstract: Background: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rare disease of the hepatobiliary tract characterized by silent presentation, poor prognosis, and limited therapy. Current imaging modalities, clinical symptoms and laboratory values are of limited value in diagnosis and tumour markers are used as a clinical adjunct. Five year survival is 5% - 12% and a majority of patients survive less than 1 year. Early identification, negative nodal status, and extended cholecystectomy improve survival; adjuvant therapy does not appear to play a role. Objective: To evaluate the effects of stage and nodal status of GBC on survival by analyzing clinical and radiological factors leading to preoperative diagnosis and appropriate subsequent management. Results: Forty-three patients (31 female, 12 male) had primary GBC. Average age was 69 years. The most common presenting symptom was pain (65%). Fifteen (35%) patients presented with acute cholecystitis; 9 were suspicious for a mass. Ultrasound and computed tomography were the imaging modalities most often used. Preoperative diagnoses were made in only 7 (16%) patients, whereas 16 (37%) patients were diagnosed intra-operatively and 20 (47%) post-operatively. Adjuvant chemotherapy was offered in 16 (37%) patients. Average survival was 28 months (range 0.5 - 238 months), with a 5-year survival of 13% across all stages. Early GBC (stages 1 - 2) had a 5-year survival of 43%, and late GBC (stages 3 - 4) had no survival at 5 years, with an average survival of 9 months. Positive nodes decreased survival. Conclusion: Our results mirror what has been reported in the literature. Most patients presented with acute cholecystitis, with confounding clinical data, but few were preoperatively diagnosed with GBC. Imaging was rarely diagnostic. Late stage GBC, as well as node-positive status, had dismal outcomes with low 1-year and 5-year survival rates. Improved preoperative suspicion of early GBC would allow for more intentional curative resections, before nodes become positive.
Is eosinopenia a reliable marker of sepsis?
Alex Smithson, Rafael Perelló, Josep-Maria Nicolas
Critical Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/cc7877
Abstract: To test this hypothesis, we reviewed 191 patients (age >18 years, with a minimum ICU stay of 24 hours) admitted to the medical ICU of our hospital. We exuded HIV-infected patients and those with hematological malignancies. Total leukocyte and eosinophil count (EC) were measured at ICU admission. The results are shown in Table 1. Although the EC was lower and the proportion of patients with eosinopenia (<40 cells/ml) was higher in the noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) group compared with the infectious SIRS group, these differences were not statistically significant. Therefore, the EC was not useful to distinguish between infection and noninfection. Although one limitation of our study was the absence of a non-SIRS group, the EC of our noninfectious SIRS group was similar to the EC found in the non-SIRS group in the study by Abidi and colleagues [1]. Another study failed to observe an association between eosinopenia and bacteremia [3].In conclusion, eosinopenia was not a reliable marker of infection. Other analytical parameters, such as C-reactive protein, have demonstrated to be helpful not only for the diagnosis of infection but also as a marker of severity of organ dysfunction in sepsis [4].Khalid Abidi, Ibtissam Khoudri, Jihane Belayachi, Naoufel Madani, Amine Ali Zeggwagh and Redouane AbouqalSmithson and colleagues, in their letter on our report recently published in Critical Care [1], suggest that eosinopenia is not a reliable marker of infection in critically ill patients. We have demonstrated for the first time that eosinopenia is a good diagnostic marker of infection on ICU admission with good sensitivity and specificity [1].The study performed by Smithson and colleagues has several limitations that should be considered. First, the retrospective nature of their study could cause methodological limitations, at the least because some data were not available for all patients. Second, to evaluate the usefulness of EC to distinguish bet
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