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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18892 matches for " Lisa Marie Wilson "
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Detection of carotid artery plaques in the dental setting  [PDF]
Alexandre Rezende Vieira, Lisa Marie Babb
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2012.22024
Abstract: It has been suggested that atherosclerotic plaques can be visualized in a panoramic radiograph but this tool is not reliable for systematic screening of patients due to its low sensitivity. This study investigated the potential role for dental practitioners in using an ultra- sound machine to detect carotid artery plaques. 100 subjects completed a survey concerning theirathero-sclerosis risk factors. Bilateral images and digital video clips of the carotid arteries of each person were obtained with a portable high-resolution ultrasound device equipped with an L38/10-5 MHz linear-array transducer. Images were subsequently interpreted. We found images suggestive of atherosclerotic plaque build-up in two Caucasian females: one 59 year-old with risk factors including: past smoker, high choles- terol, and family history of atherosclerosis and one 54 year-old with risk factors including: past smoker, overweight, and reported no physical activity. Both individuals were referred to their primary care providers for further assessments. 2% of the patient adult population may have carotid blockages detectable by ultrasound. The frequency can be as high as 5.5% in individuals older than 50. In the dental setting, ultrasound imaging can be used to capture bilateral pictures of the carotid arteries. With these images, at-risk patients may be screened for atherosclerotic plaques that could ultimately form a stroke-causing embolus. The dentist is particularly well suited for this role because he/she sees patients every six months while a physician can go years without seeing his/her patients.
The Pancreas Is Altered by In Utero Androgen Exposure: Implications for Clinical Conditions Such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Mick Rae, Cathal Grace, Kirsten Hogg, Lisa Marie Wilson, Sophie L. McHaffie, Seshadri Ramaswamy, Janis MacCallum, Fiona Connolly, Alan S. McNeilly, Colin Duncan
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056263
Abstract: Using an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), (pregnant ewes injected with testosterone propionate (TP) (100 mg twice weekly) from day (d)62 to d102 of d147 gestation (maternal injection – MI-TP)), we previously reported female offspring with normal glucose tolerance but hyperinsulinemia. We therefore examined insulin signalling and pancreatic morphology in these offspring using quantitative (Q) RT-PCR and western blotting. In addition the fetal pancreatic responses to MI-TP, and androgenic and estrogenic contributions to such responses (direct fetal injection (FI) of TP (20 mg) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) (20 mg) at d62 and d82 gestation) were assessed at d90 gestation. Fetal plasma was assayed for insulin, testosterone and estradiol, pancreatic tissue was cultured, and expression of key β-cell developmental genes was assessed by QRT-PCR. In female d62MI-TP offspring insulin signalling was unaltered but there was a pancreatic phenotype with increased numbers of β-cells (P<0.05). The fetal pancreas expressed androgen receptors in islets and genes involved in β-cell development and function (PDX1, IGF1R, INSR and INS) were up-regulated in female fetuses after d62MI-TP treatment (P<0.05–0.01). In addition the d62MI-TP pancreas showed increased insulin secretion under euglycaemic conditions (P<0.05) in vitro. The same effects were not seen in the male fetal pancreas or when MI-TP was started at d30, before the male programming window. As d62MI-TP increased both fetal plasma testosterone (P<0.05) and estradiol concentrations (P<0.05) we assessed the relative contribution of androgens and estrogens. FI-TP (commencing d62) (not FI-DES treatment) caused elevated basal insulin secretion in vitro and the genes altered by d62MI-TP treatment were similarly altered by FI-TP but not FI-DES. In conclusion, androgen over-exposure alters fetal pancreatic development and β-cell numbers in offspring. These data suggest that that there may be a primary pancreatic phenotype in models of PCOS, and that there may be a distinct male and female pancreas.
Heutagogy and Lifelong Learning: A Review of Heutagogical Practice and Self-Determined Learning
Lisa Marie Blaschke
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning , 2012,
Abstract: Heutagogy, a form of self-determined learning with practices and principles rooted in andragogy, has recently resurfaced as a learning approach after a decade of limited attention. In a heutagogical approach to teaching and learning, learners are highly autonomous and self-determined and emphasis is placed on development of learner capacity and capability with the goal of producing learners who are well-prepared for the complexities of today’s workplace. The approach has been proposed as a theory for applying to emerging technologies in distance education and for guiding distance education practice and the ways in which distance educators develop and deliver instruction using newer technologies such as social media. The renewed interest in heutagogy is partially due to the ubiquitousness of Web 2.0, and the affordances provided by the technology. With its learner-centered design, Web 2.0 offers an environment that supports a heutagogical approach, most importantly by supporting development of learner-generated content and learner self-directedness in information discovery and in defining the learning path. Based on an extensive review of the current literature and research, this article defines and discusses the concepts of andragogy and heutagogy and describes the role of Web 2.0 in supporting a heutagogical learning approach. Examples of institutional programs that have incorporated heutagogical approaches are also presented; based on these examples and research results, course design elements that are characteristic of heutagogy are identified. The article provides a basis for discussion and research into heutagogy as a theory for guiding the use of new technologies in distance education.
How to Stay Healthy While Studying Abroad: Development of an Electronic Magazine for College Students  [PDF]
Hannah M. Lightcap, Marie Fanelli Kuczmarski, Lisa P. Chieffo
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.715206
Abstract: Increasing numbers of US college students are participating in travel study programs. As part of their pre-departure preparation, institutions provide orientation materials covering a range of topics. These materials typically cover such health-related topics as immunizations, sun safety, psychological distress, personal assault, and water quality. However, comprehensive coverage of strategies to ensure optimal physical wellness while traveling has been overlooked. This article describes the development and evaluation of an electronic (e) magazine entitled, “How to Stay Healthy While Studying Abroad”. This e-magazine not only explains the importance of physical activity, food and beverage practices, sleep, and stress and time management, but also offers tips for achieving wellness during travel. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the e-magazine. The secondary objective was to enhance the content of the guide based on an assessment of students’ attitudes, perceptions and behaviors related to wellness pre- and post-participation in travel study programs. Prior to travel over 70% of students felt they would be able to engage in healthful eating and physical activity. Fifty-two percent of students found it challenging to eat healthfully and be physically active on their travel study programs. The vast majority of students (87%) reported that they found the guide helpful in promoting healthful behaviors. Hydration, health during travel, and getting enough sleep were the top three e-magazine areas utilized. Self-motivation, social support and tips within How to Stay Healthy While Studying Abroad were the top three factors which contributed to achieving physical wellness. The guide was considered useful based on the findings and evidenced by students’ recommendations that the guide be shared with all university students.
Differences in Symptoms among Adults with Canal versus Otolith Vestibular Dysfunction: A Preliminary Report
Lisa Farrell,Rose Marie Rine
ISRN Rehabilitation , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/629049
Abstract: Despite the importance of symptomatology in the diagnosis of vestibular dysfunction, the qualitative nature of the symptoms related to semicircular canal (canal) versus otolith dysfunction is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to compare symptoms, and their severity, in individuals with canal versus otolith peripheral vestibular dysfunction. A subjective tool, the Descriptive Symptom Index (DSI), was developed to enable categorization of symptoms as rotary, linear, imbalance or falls, and nondistinct. Fourteen adults were recruited and grouped based on vestibular function testing: canal only dysfunction, otolith only dysfunction, or canal and otolith dysfunction. Also, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) was used to grade the severity of perceived limitations due to symptoms. The DSI was reliable and differentiated those with canal (rotary symptoms) versus otolith (linear symptoms) dysfunction. Most individuals with otolith only dysfunction did not report rotary symptoms. DHI scores were significantly higher in those with otolith dysfunction, regardless of canal functional status. All who experienced falls had otolith dysfunction and none had canal only dysfunction. Results support the importance of using linear and rotary descriptors of perceived disorientation as part of diagnosing vestibular dysfunction. 1. Introduction A comprehensive patient history, which includes the qualitative nature of symptoms, is paramount when making the diagnosis of peripheral vestibulopathy (P-VeD) in adults who report dizziness and/or imbalance [1–3]. Rotary vertigo has traditionally been accepted as the primary descriptor related to P-VeD [2, 4–6]. The diagnosis is often confirmed with objective measurement of the functional integrity of the semicircular canals (canals) using calorics, rotational chair, head impulse, and/or Dix-Hallpike testing [4]. However, the clinical diagnostic process has been limited because measurement of otolith function has not been readily available. Also, the qualitative nature of the symptoms of otolith dysfunction has not been formally investigated and determined [7, 8]. Tomanovic and Bergenius [3], who studied the prevalence of different types of dizziness symptoms in subjects with P-VeD, expanded the understanding of subjective descriptors by concluding that in addition to the classic symptoms of vertigo, the presence of “nonclassical” symptoms, such as drop attacks, unsteadiness like walking on a boat, walking on pillows, stepping into a hole, and feeling like being pulled to one side, occur in these individuals. In
Relationships between Cadmium in Tissues of Cacao Trees and Soils in Plantations of Trinidad and Tobago  [PDF]
Gideon Ramtahal, Ivan Chang Yen, Isaac Bekele, Frances Bekele, Lawrence Wilson, Kamaldeo Maharaj, Lisa Harrynanan
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.71005
Abstract: The primary source of cadmium in cocoa beans has been linked to its direct uptake by the cacao plant from cadmium contaminated soils. This research was conducted to evaluate and interpret significant relationships between cadmium levels in tissues of the cacao plant and soils from cocoa-growing areas in Trinidad and Tobago. Total (HNO3-extractable) concentrations of cadmium in both tissues and soils were determined. The levels of cadmium measured varied in the order: leaves > pods > shells > nibs > soil. Cadmium levels in all the cacao tissues analyzed were significantly (p < 0.05), positively and strongly correlated with each other. Additionally, significant (p < 0.05) positive relationships were also identified between Cd in cacao tissues and corresponding total HNO3-extractable Cd levels in soils. These findings suggest that they can possibly be used as predictive tools for assessing Cd levels in cacao.
Streptococcal Antibody Probe Crosses the Blood Brain Barrier and Interacts within the Basal Ganglia  [PDF]
Robyn Gebhard, Courtney Huff, Mathew Osborne, Lisa Riegle, Marie Kelly-Worden
Open Journal of Pathology (OJPathology) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2015.52007
Abstract: Within the brain, the basal ganglia (basal nuclei) regulates wanted movement and inhibits unwanted movement. This area of the brain is intertwined with capillary beds that bring nutrients to the brain and form the blood brain barrier. During disease state, antibodies are increased in circulation and movement of these antibodies into the basal ganglia can occur. Streptococcal infection can lead to the generation of antibodies that have autoimmune activity within the brain. These antibodies have been implicated in neurological disorders. In our laboratory, an in vitro study of a monoclonal mouse antibody generated against the class 1 epitope of the M6 protein has demonstrated binding within the basal ganglia of Lewis rat brains. Here we present an in vivo study using Lewis rats injected with either the streptococcal antibody or an anti-myosin positive control. The interaction and movement of the antibody from blood vessels into the tissues of the basal ganglia was determined through the use of immunofluorescence and fluorescent microscopy and is contrasted with IgG injected and uninjected controls. Our data demonstrates that the streptococcal antibody penetrates the blood brain barrier within 24 hours (as determined by the presence of immunofluorescence outside of blood vessels) and remains significantly elevated above control values even 72 hours after injection (p < 0.05). In contrast, the anti-myosin positive control was not visualized in the interstitial fluid until 48 hours post injection and was no longer significantly above control levels by 72 hours. IgG injected controls did not display movement of antibody into the brain. Therefore, the streptococcal antibody is capable of crossing the blood brain barrier and interacting with tissues of the basal ganglia.
Reducing the Prevalence of Catheter-Related Infections by Quality Improvement: Six-Year Follow-Up Study  [PDF]
Dan Malm, Bo Rolander, Eva-Marie Ebefors, Lisa Conlon, Annette Nyg?rdh
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2016.62008
Abstract: Background: Peripheral venous catheter (PVC) insertion is a crucial nursing action during life support. Several factors that increase the risk of thrombophlebitis associated with PVCs have been reported. Objective: We wish to evaluate the impact of a quality improvement regarding PVC treatment for patients with coronary heart diseases. Method: A longitudinal, quantitative observational study was carried out in 2008 and 2013 in a hospital in southern Sweden with 360 consecutive patients suffering from acute chest pain. New routines for PVC treatment were included in the hospital with daily inspection according to a checklist. A structured observation protocol was used to survey the prevalence of thrombophlebitis between 2008 and 2013. Also, we examined the relationship between the location and luminal diameters of PVCs. Results: The student’s t-test showed significant differences between 2008 and 2013 with respect to luminal diameter of PVCs (p = 0.002), prevalence of thrombophlebitis (p = 0.003) and number of days with PVC left in situ (p < 0.001). Conclusion: These findings emphasize the value of using systematic daily inspections and checklists to achieve quality and safety in patients with acute chest pain having PVC-based treatment.
Canadian provincial, territorial, and federal government aging policies: A systematic review  [PDF]
Donna Marie Wilson, Jane Osei-Waree, Jessica Anne Hewitt, Andrew Broad
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2012.12005
Abstract: In most countries, population aging is becoming more evident now that the first members of the large babyboom cohort have reached 65 years of age. As an accelerating increase in the number of older persons and the proportion of the public aged 65 and older will now occur, planning for population aging has become ever more crucially important. A systematic review of Canadian provincial, territorial, and federal government documents was undertaken to search for the existence of population aging policies, and to determine the aims and other content of the most current policy documents. Documents were identified in all but two jurisdictions of Canada (two northern territories). Document developers, and the aims and content of the 14 reviewed documents varied considerably. Some similarities were identified, however, including some common stated purposes for these documents - to address current issues and challenges facing older people and to plan ahead for a preferred future with population aging.
Informing Food Consumption Choices: Innovations in Measuring and Labelling  [PDF]
Marie-Chantale Pelletier, Caroline A. Sullivan, P. J. Wilson, Gary Webb, Garry Egger
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.712108
Abstract: The need to inform consumers about the health impact of their food choices is ever more pressing in a world where obesity is a growing problem. Concerns over food safety, its origins and its environmental impacts are also growing, as frequently reported in the popular press in many parts of the world. Nutritional and health information on food labels is quite well developed, but the complex nature of the information presented may hinder widespread use of the existing labels. In comparison, there has been little widespread success of carbon labels on food, and their usefulness in reducing carbon emissions from consumption is uncertain. In an attempt to address the need for clearer information on health and environmental impacts of food purchases, we present a novel dual-purpose food labelling system which provides information on both health and environmental impacts of food items. This paper presents results from a pilot study introducing a novel approach to food labelling: a simplified, combined carbon and health label to inform consumers simultaneously about the environmental and health impacts of their choices. Environmental impacts of various food categories were calculated on the basis of their relative energy use along the supply chain by using a newly designed Food Energy Index. Health impacts were based on the NuVal system developed in the USA in 2010. As part of the Norfolk Island Carbon and Health Evaluation study (NICHE), labels were designed, tested and displayed on 25 food categories for a 3-month period in the main supermarket on Norfolk Island (Australia). The in-store labelling trial was followed by a consumer survey on their attitudes to the labels. The results from this pilot trial indicate that consumers were supportive of food labelling including both environmental and health impacts, but the information provided in the dual labels was not sufficient to induce changes in consumption between food categories. We conclude that simple label design is clearly essential, and our findings warrant further investigation, including a broader study using a larger population and a wider range of food categories.
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