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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3875 matches for " Lisa Kurland "
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B and low density lipoprotein receptor genes affect response to antihypertensive treatment
Ulrika Liljedahl, Lars Lind, Lisa Kurland, Lars Berglund, Thomas Kahan, Ann-Christine Syv?nen
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-4-16
Abstract: Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes related to lipid metabolism were analysed by a microarray based minisequencing system in DNA samples from ninety-seven hypertensive subjects randomised to treatment with either 150 mg of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker irbesartan or 50 mg of the β1-adrenergic receptor blocker atenolol for twelve weeks.The reduction in blood pressure was similar in both treatment groups. The SNP C711T in the apolipoprotein B gene was associated with the blood pressure response to irbesartan with an average reduction of 19 mmHg in the individuals carrying the C-allele, but not to atenolol. The C16730T polymorphism in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene predicted the change in systolic blood pressure in the atenolol group with an average reduction of 14 mmHg in the individuals carrying the C-allele.Polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins in the lipid metabolism are associated with the response to antihypertensive treatment in a drug specific pattern. These results highlight the potential use of pharmacogenetics as a guide for individualised antihypertensive treatment, and also the role of lipids in blood pressure control.Hypertension is a complex trait caused by multiple environmental and genetic factors interacting through the cardiac, vascular and endothelial systems. Several drug classes with different mechanisms of action, including inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), calcium channel blockers, adrenergic receptor blockers and diuretics, are available for treatment of hypertension. However, the response to antihypertensive treatment is highly variable between individuals, which makes it difficult to predict the efficacy of a specific drug in the individual patient [1-3]. Currently, there are no clinically useful biochemical or metabolic markers for predicting the individual responses to antihypertensive treatment [4-6].Twin studies have estimated that as much as half of the variability in
Patient throughput times and inflow patterns in Swedish emergency departments. A basis for ANSWER, A National SWedish Emergency Registry
Ulf Ekelund, Lisa Kurland, Fredrik Eklund, Paulus Torkki, Anna Letterst?l, Per Lindmarker, Maaret Castrén
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1757-7241-19-37
Abstract: We compared patient inflow patterns, total lengths of patient stay (LOS) and times to first physician at six Swedish university hospital EDs in 2009. Study data were retrieved from the hospitals' computerized information systems during single on-site visits to each participating hospital.All EDs provided throughput times and patient presentation data without significant problems. In all EDs, Monday was the busiest day and the fewest patients presented on Saturday. All EDs had a large increase in patient inflow before noon with a slow decline over the rest of the 24 h, and this peak and decline was especially pronounced in elderly patients. The average LOS was 4 h of which 2 h was spent waiting for the first physician. These throughput times showed a considerable diurnal variation in all EDs, with the longest times occurring 6-7 am and in the late afternoon.These results demonstrate the feasibility of collecting benchmarking data on quality of care targets within Swedish EM, and form the basis for ANSWER, A National SWedish Emergency Registry.Large resources are used in local and regional initiatives to improve the quality of emergency care. If such initiatives are to be successful, they need to be based on reliable data on the quality of care at the single emergency care center and, for benchmarking, at similar other centers. However, since benchmarking data are often lacking [1], quality improvements are commonly suboptimal and may not represent the best use of the available resources.Limited benchmarking data relating to emergency care may be obtained from existing multicenter patient databases or registries. However, almost all such registries focus on single disease groups [2-6] or specific medical interventions [3,7,8]. Very few registries focus on the emergency care process and none were primarily formed to reflect the quality of care. For instance, the North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool (NC DETECT [9-11]) is an emergency p
Hospital incident command system (HICS) performance in Iran; decision making during disasters
Ahmadreza Djalali, Maaret Castren, Vahid Hosseinijenab, Mahmoud Khatib, Gunnar Ohlen, Lisa Kurland
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1757-7241-20-14
Abstract: This observational study was conducted between May 1st 2008 and August 31st 2009. Twenty three Iranian hospitals were included. A tabletop exercise was developed for each hospital which in turn was based on the highest probable risk. The job action sheets of the HICS were used as measurements of performance. Each indicator was considered as 1, 2 or 3 in accordance with the HICS. Fair performance was determined as < 40%; intermediate as 41-70%; high as 71-100% of the maximum score of 192. Descriptive statistics, T-test, and Univariate Analysis of Variance were used.None of the participating hospitals had a hospital disaster management plan. The performance according to HICS was intermediate for 83% (n = 19) of the participating hospitals. No hospital had a high level of performance. The performance level for the individual sections was intermediate or fair, except for the logistic and finance sections which demonstrated a higher level of performance. The public hospitals had overall higher performances than university hospitals (P = 0.04).The decision making performance in the Iranian hospitals, as measured during table top exercises and using the indicators proposed by HICS was intermediate to poor. In addition, this study demonstrates that the HICS job action sheets can be used as a template for measuring the hospital response. Simulations can be used to assess preparedness, but the correlation with outcome remains to be studied.Disasters, both natural and man-made, and the number of people affected by them have increased over the past decades [1,2]. The impact is illustrated by 46 million people being affected by earthquakes and tsunamis, between 1991 and 2005, worldwide [2]. Hospitals are cornerstones for health care in a community, and must continue to function in the face of a disaster [3,4]. An effective hospital command system is therefore crucial.The Incident Command System (ICS) is a standardized on-scene, all-hazards incident management approach designed s
Facilitators and obstacles in pre-hospital medical response to earthquakes: a qualitative study
Ahmadreza Djalali, Hamidreza Khankeh, Gunnar ?hlén, Maaret Castrén, Lisa Kurland
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1757-7241-19-30
Abstract: The study was performed in 2008; an interview based qualitative study using content analysis. We conducted nineteen interviews with experts and managers responsible for responding to the Bam earthquake, including pre-hospital emergency medical services, the Red Crescent, and Universities of Medical Sciences. The selection of participants was determined by using a purposeful sampling method. Sample size was given by data saturation.The pre-hospital medical service was divided into three categories; triage, emergency medical care and transportation, each category in turn was identified into facilitators and obstacles. The obstacles identified were absence of a structured disaster plan, absence of standardized medical teams, and shortage of resources. The army and skilled medical volunteers were identified as facilitators.The most compelling, and at the same time amenable obstacle, was the lack of a disaster management plan. It was evident that implementing a comprehensive plan would not only save lives but decrease suffering and enable an effective praxis of the available resources at pre-hospital and hospital levels.Earthquakes are renowned as being amongst the most dangerous and destructive types of natural disasters known. More than one million earthquakes occur worldwide each year. Major earthquakes occur on average once every three years [1]. On a global scale a total of 400,000 people have been killed and 46 million affected by earthquakes and tsunamis, between 1991 and 2005 [2]. Consequently, an effective earthquake response is paramount in saving lives and limiting long term effects.More than 90% of all the deaths caused by natural disasters occur in developing and underdeveloped countries [3]. Iran, a developing country in Asia, is prone to earthquake [4] and ranked as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world in respect to earthquakes and more than 180,000 people have died in earthquakes over the last 90 years [4-6].An earthquake with a magnitude of
Attachment and Academic Classroom Behavior: Self-Efficacy and Procrastination as Moderators on the Influence of Attachment on Academic Success  [PDF]
Robert M. Kurland, Harold I. Siegel
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.78107
Abstract: Attachment, self-efficacy, and procrastination were measured in 161 college students enrolled in an Introductory Psychology class. Class grades and overall academic records were also obtained. Students who had higher levels of attachment anxiety had lower final grades in the class, higher levels of procrastination, and lower self-efficacy. Students with higher levels of attachment avoidance had lower grades within the class and a lower overall Grade Point Average (GPA). Regression analysis showed that self-efficacy moderated the relationship between attachment and class grade as well as overall GPA. Procrastination also moderated the relationship between both attachment anxiety and GPA and attachment avoidance and GPA.
Adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase genotype and response to antihypertensive therapy
Par Hallberg, Lars Lind, Karl Micha?lsson, Lisa Kurland, Thomas Kahan, Karin Malmqvist, Karl Peter ?hman, Fredrik Nystr?m, Ulrika Liljedahl, Ann-Christine Syv?nen, Hakan Melhus
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-3-11
Abstract: We evaluated the influence of this polymorphism on the change in left ventricular mass index in 90 patients with essential hypertension and echocardiographically diagnosed left ventricular hypertrophy, randomised in a double-blind study to receive treatment with either the angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist irbesartan or the beta1-adrenoceptor blocker atenolol for 48 weeks. Genyotyping was performed using minisequencing.After adjustment for potential covariates (blood pressure and left ventricular mass index at baseline, blood pressure change, age, sex, dose and added antihypertensive treatment), there was a marked difference between the Arg/Arg and Lys/Arg genotypes in patients treated with irbesartan; those with the Arg/Arg genotype responded on average with an almost two-fold greater regression of left ventricular mass index than patients with the Lys/Arg genotype (-30.1 g/m2 [3.6] vs -16.7 [4.5], p = 0.03).The ALAP genotype seems to determine the degree of regression of left ventricular hypertrophy during antihypertensive treatment with the angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. This is the first report of a role for ALAP/aminopeptidases in left ventricular mass regulation, and suggests a new potential target for antihypertensive drugs.Hypertension is associated with a number of adverse morphologic and functional changes in the cardiovascular system such as left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, a condition associated with an increased risk of both cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and also all-cause mortality [1-4]. The effects of angiotensin II on blood pressure and on structural cardiac and vascular remodelling indicate that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important part in the development of LV hypertrophy. Most angiotensin II is generated in two sequential steps: renin catalyzes the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is subsequently hydro
Respect My Authority! HITS Without Hyperlinks, Utilizing Cluster-Based Language Models
Oren Kurland,Lillian Lee
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: We present an approach to improving the precision of an initial document ranking wherein we utilize cluster information within a graph-based framework. The main idea is to perform re-ranking based on centrality within bipartite graphs of documents (on one side) and clusters (on the other side), on the premise that these are mutually reinforcing entities. Links between entities are created via consideration of language models induced from them. We find that our cluster-document graphs give rise to much better retrieval performance than previously proposed document-only graphs do. For example, authority-based re-ranking of documents via a HITS-style cluster-based approach outperforms a previously-proposed PageRank-inspired algorithm applied to solely-document graphs. Moreover, we also show that computing authority scores for clusters constitutes an effective method for identifying clusters containing a large percentage of relevant documents.
Corpus structure, language models, and ad hoc information retrieval
Oren Kurland,Lillian Lee
Computer Science , 2004,
Abstract: Most previous work on the recently developed language-modeling approach to information retrieval focuses on document-specific characteristics, and therefore does not take into account the structure of the surrounding corpus. We propose a novel algorithmic framework in which information provided by document-based language models is enhanced by the incorporation of information drawn from clusters of similar documents. Using this framework, we develop a suite of new algorithms. Even the simplest typically outperforms the standard language-modeling approach in precision and recall, and our new interpolation algorithm posts statistically significant improvements for both metrics over all three corpora tested.
The Opposite of Smoothing: A Language Model Approach to Ranking Query-Specific Document Clusters
Oren Kurland,Eyal Krikon
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1613/jair.3327
Abstract: Exploiting information induced from (query-specific) clustering of top-retrieved documents has long been proposed as a means for improving precision at the very top ranks of the returned results. We present a novel language model approach to ranking query-specific clusters by the presumed percentage of relevant documents that they contain. While most previous cluster ranking approaches focus on the cluster as a whole, our model utilizes also information induced from documents associated with the cluster. Our model substantially outperforms previous approaches for identifying clusters containing a high relevant-document percentage. Furthermore, using the model to produce document ranking yields precision-at-top-ranks performance that is consistently better than that of the initial ranking upon which clustering is performed. The performance also favorably compares with that of a state-of-the-art pseudo-feedback-based retrieval method.
PageRank without hyperlinks: Structural re-ranking using links induced by language models
Oren Kurland,Lillian Lee
Computer Science , 2006,
Abstract: Inspired by the PageRank and HITS (hubs and authorities) algorithms for Web search, we propose a structural re-ranking approach to ad hoc information retrieval: we reorder the documents in an initially retrieved set by exploiting asymmetric relationships between them. Specifically, we consider generation links, which indicate that the language model induced from one document assigns high probability to the text of another; in doing so, we take care to prevent bias against long documents. We study a number of re-ranking criteria based on measures of centrality in the graphs formed by generation links, and show that integrating centrality into standard language-model-based retrieval is quite effective at improving precision at top ranks.
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