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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4058 matches for " Lisa Copeland "
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Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite Are Compared in a Mouse Model
Marsha D. W. Ward,Yong Joo Chung,Lisa B. Copeland,Donald L. Doerfler
Journal of Toxicology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/360805
Abstract: Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding allergenicity and asthma development is limited. We compared the ability of fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to induce allergic responses in BALB/c mice. The extracts were administered by intratracheal aspiration at doubling doses (2.5–80? g protein) 4X over a four-week period. Three days after the last exposure, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. The extracts' relative allergenicity was evaluated based on response robustness (lowest significant dose response compared to control (0? g)). MACA induced a more robust serum total IgE response than HDM. However, in the antigen-specific IgE assay, a similar dose of both MACA and HDM was required to achieve the same response level. Our data suggest a threshold dose of MACA for allergy induction and that M. anisopliae may be similar to HDM in allergy induction potential. 1. Introduction The toxicity associated with many chemical pesticides has provided the impetus to develop biological agents, either native or genetically engineered, for pest control. Although the microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) that have been identified or developed for release in the environment to address problems such as pest control [1–3] can be effective in controlling their target pest, adverse health impacts to mammalian species including humans may be a consequence of exposure to these organisms. Generally, the research regarding mammalian health impacts has focused on the potential toxicity and pathogenicity of these agents. However, research regarding the allergenicity of the agents is more limited. Allergy (atopy), a Type I or immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction, is an immune response to otherwise innocuous “nonself” agents (generally proteins) in genetically predisposed individuals. Although most proteins are capable of eliciting immune responses, not all proteins are allergens [4]. Generally, there are no apparent disease symptoms during allergy induction (sensitization). However, some B cells switch production of immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype from IgM to IgE (or IgG1 in guinea pigs) antibodies. In previously sensitized individuals, allergen reexposure/challenge cross-links antigen-specific mast cell/basophil-bound IgE antibodies resulting in the immediate release of preformed mediators (including histamine and prostaglandins). Allergy symptoms become apparent as these mediators produce bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, and
The Cross-Sectional Risk Premium of Decomposed Market Volatility in UK Stock Market  [PDF]
Yan Yang, Laurence Copeland
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.27006

We decompose UK market volatility into short- and long-run components using EGARCH component model and examine the cross-sectional prices of the two components. Our empirical results suggest that these two components are significantly priced in the cross-section and the negative risk premia are consistent with the existing literature. The Fama-French three-factor model is improved by the inclusion of the two volatility components. However, our ICAPM model using market excess return and the decomposed volatility components as state variables compares inferiorly to the traditional three-factor model.

Meeting the Challenges for Agriculture
Les Copeland
Agriculture , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture1010001
Abstract: Ensuring food security is an ongoing global challenge. Many forecasts point to a need to increase food production by at least 70% if we are to feed the world’s projected population of nine billion in 2050. Recent volatility in commodity prices and the general upward trend in the cost of food are indicators that global food systems are now driven by demand rather than supply. There are various reasons for this: greater demand for animal protein with economic growth in developing countries; the continuing increase in world population; competition between food and bioenergy crops for land and water; low inventories of world grain stocks; reduced investment in agricultural R&D; and unfavorable weather resulting in a succession of poor harvests around the world. Increasing production of grains, which are the foundation of the human food supply, will have to be achieved through higher crop yields without boosting inputs of land, water and energy. Meeting community expectations for environmental stewardship and sustainability, and adapting food production to increasingly variable climate, add greatly to the challenge.
Evaluation of the effects of botulinum toxin A injections when used to improve ease of care and comfort in children with cerebral palsy whom are non-ambulant: a double blind randomized controlled trial
Megan Thorley, Samantha Donaghey, Priya Edwards, Lisa Copeland, Megan Kentish, Kim McLennan, Jayne Lindsley, Laura Gascoigne-Pees, Leanne Sakzewski, Roslyn N Boyd
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-120
Abstract: This study is a double blind randomized controlled trial. Forty participants will be recruited. In cycle I, participants will be randomized to either a treatment group who will receive BoNT-A injections into selected upper and/or lower limb muscles, or a control group who will undergo sham injections. Both groups will receive occupational therapy and /or physiotherapy following injections. Groups will be assessed at baseline then compared at 4 and 16 weeks following injections or sham control. Parents, treating clinicians and assessors will be masked to group allocation. In cycle II, all participants will undergo intramuscular BoNT-A injections to selected upper and/or lower limb muscles, followed by therapy.The primary outcome measure will be change in parent ratings in identified areas of concern for their child’s care and comfort, using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Secondary measures will include the Care and Comfort Hypertonicity Scale (ease of care), the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire (CP QoL–Child) (quality of life), the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities Questionnaire (CPCHILD?) (health status) and the Paediatric Pain Profile (PPP) (pain). Adverse events will be carefully monitored by a clinician masked to group allocation.This paper outlines the theoretical basis, study hypotheses and outcome measures for a trial of BoNT-A injections and therapy for children with non-ambulant CP.Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry:N12609000360213Cerebral palsy (CP) is “a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain”. [1] p.9 Classification systems have been developed to indicate the severity of functional limitations in CP. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), developed by Palisano and colleagues in 1997, has bec
“Community” as a Reference for American Minority Groups: A Theory of Unintended Negative Consequences  [PDF]
Lisa Fisher
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.56020
Abstract: The phrase “the _____ community” is commonly used in naming minority groups in the US, for example, the African American community or the Muslim community. The phrase carries some benefits in terms of voice, sentiment, solidarity and empowerment, and it is widely accepted as a respectful reference. However, I argue that its use and meaning also carry unintended negative social psychological implications for how some minority group members may view themselves within the larger society and how some non-minority group members may view persons who identify as members of minority groups. In this paper, I examine the meaning and entailments of the word “community” as a convention of naming. I argue that negative implications stem from ubiquitous discursive emphasis on in-group sameness and groupness, which are rooted in historical practices of distillation and homogenization of diverse groups and demonstrate and invite perpetuation of stereotypes and prejudices, reinforce insider/outsider divides, and detract from personhood and social integration.
Making sense of nonsense: the evolution of selenocysteine usage in proteins
Paul R Copeland
Genome Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2005-6-6-221
Abstract: As well as the 20 amino acids universally found in proteins, two other amino acids - pyrrolysine and selenocysteine - are incorporated into a small number of proteins in some groups of organisms. L-pyrrolysine is a C4-substituted pyrroline-5-carboxylate attached to the ε-nitrogen of lysine; L-seleno-cysteine is identical to cysteine but with selenium substituted for sulfur. Pyrrolysine has so far been found only in enzymes required for methanogenesis in some archaebacteria, suggesting a possible role in catalysis, but the precise role of this amino acid has not been identified. The selenium atom in selenocysteine confers a much higher reactivity than cysteine, as its lower pKa (5.2) allows it to remain ionized at physiological pH. Most selenoproteins use their higher nucleophilic activity to catalyze redox reactions, but many have no known function. The current studies of selenoprotein evolution represent one of the important tools used to completely identify and categorize selenoprotein function.The Sargasso Sea (named for the surface-borne sargassum seaweed) is a body of water covering 2 million square miles in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean near Bermuda. Its well defined physical and geochemical properties, including relatively low nutrient levels, made it an alluring target for a shotgun sequencing project covering a whole biome - a collection of interrelated ecosystems typical of a particular physical environment [1]. This effort, the first 'biome sequencing project', represents a novel application for shotgun genome sequencing and is an important new component of modern bioinformatics. Of the 1.2 million genes identified by this approach, however, a small subset is likely to be misannotated because of the presence of in-frame nonsense codons, either UGA or UAG, which in these cases are acting as codons for selenocysteine and pyrrolysine, respectively. In some archaea, the UAG codon is redefined as a pyrrolysine codon, apparently forcing these organisms
Safeguarding Primary Healthcare: A Case Study of Barbados
Patricia Rodney,Esker Copeland
Social Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: The concept of primary health care has regained prominence as many countries around the globe face rising health costs and failed health systems. This study examines Barbados, a developing country in the eastern Caribbean, which has consistently included the concept of primary health care in all of its development plans. Based on the government's stated commitment to Health for All, this review was conducted to examine whether this focus has prevailed. The purpose of this paper was to identify some of the advancements or reversals of primary health care policy in Barbados.
Observations and Experiments on the Case-Building Instinct of TwoSpecies of Trichoptera
Manton Copeland,Sears Crowell
Psyche , 1937, DOI: 10.1155/1937/70785
Participation and the role of Public Space
Anna Gabriel Copeland
Public Space : the Journal of Law and Social Justice , 2008,
Abstract: This article examines participatory rights as human rights and considers their importance to the lives of children and young people. It argues that a broad definition of participation needs to be used which takes us from 'round tables' to understanding that young people participate in many different ways. It points out that failure to recognise and respect the many varied ways that children and young people choose to participate results in a breach of their human rights. It shows how our socio-legal system operates to permit and support these breaches of the rights of children and young people, resulting in their alienation from civic society.
String Cosmology
Edmund J Copeland
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: We present a brief review of recent advances in string cosmology. Starting with the Dilaton-Moduli Cosmology (known also as the Pre Big Bang), we go on to include the effects of axion fields and address the thorny issue of the Graceful Exit in String Cosmology. This is followed by a review of density perturbations arising in string cosmology and we finish with a brief introduction to the impact moving five branes can have on the Dilaton-Moduli cosmological solutions.
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