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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 410063 matches for " Linda M. Scott "
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Focusing on optic tectum circuitry through the lens of genetics
Linda M Nevin, Estuardo Robles, Herwig Baier, Ethan K Scott
BMC Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-8-126
Abstract: The transformation of visual sensory inputs into motor and endocrine responses requires specialized neural processing, often distributed across multiple structures or pathways in the brain. A classical and still vigorous branch of neuroscience, best referred to as 'functional neuroanatomy', assigns functions to specific areas in the brain. The interconnectivity of multiple areas involved in a particular sensory or behavioral task are often represented using a set of boxes, connected by arrows. The most famous such wiring diagram identified roughly 40 visual processing areas in primates [1]. Similar 'macro-circuits' have been drawn up for the visual pathway of 'lower' vertebrates [2]. In toads, a detailed circuit underlying prey capture behavior has been derived from heroic work over three decades involving tract tracing and electrophysiological mapping [3] (Figure 1a). However, none of these studies has generated a comprehensive list of essential circuit components (cell types and their connections) for a specific behavior or the processing of a specific visual stimulus. This gap in our knowledge of 'micro-circuitry' is a major obstacle to understanding the mechanisms of perception and behavior.The zebrafish has emerged as a valuable model system with which we can hope to close this gap [4-7]. Ten different anatomical areas have been identified that serve as targets for the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons that connect the eye to the brain [8] (Figure 1b). These ten arborization fields, referred to as AF1 to AF10, probably correspond to the primary visual nuclei identified in adult teleost fish and are homologous to areas in mammals, such as the suprachiasmatic nuclei (AF1), the pretectal nucleus of the optic tract (AF9) and the superior colliculus/optic tectum (AF10). Not very much is known about the behavioral functions of these arborization fields in zebrafish or other fish species (with the exception of the optic tectum - see below), but it is clear that specif
Sanitary Pad Interventions for Girls' Education in Ghana: A Pilot Study
Paul Montgomery, Caitlin R. Ryus, Catherine S. Dolan, Sue Dopson, Linda M. Scott
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048274
Abstract: Background Increased education of girls in developing contexts is associated with a number of important positive health, social, and economic outcomes for a community. The event of menarche tends to coincide with girls' transitions from primary to secondary education and may constitute a barrier for continued school attendance and performance. Following the MRC Framework for Complex Interventions, a pilot controlled study was conducted in Ghana to assess the role of sanitary pads in girls' education. Methods A sample of 120 schoolgirls between the ages of 12 and 18 from four villages in Ghana participated in a non-randomized trial of sanitary pad provision with education. The trial had three levels of treatment: provision of pads with puberty education; puberty education alone; or control (no pads or education). The primary outcome was school attendance. Results After 3 months, providing pads with education significantly improved attendance among participants, (lambda 0.824, F = 3.760, p<.001). After 5 months, puberty education alone improved attendance to a similar level (M = 91.26, SD = 7.82) as sites where pads were provided with puberty education (Rural M = 89.74, SD = 9.34; Periurban M = 90.54, SD = 17.37), all of which were higher than control (M = 84.48, SD = 12.39). The total improvement through pads with education intervention after 5 months was a 9% increase in attendance. After 3 months, providing pads with education significantly improved attendance among participants. The changes in attendance at the end of the trial, after 5 months, were found to be significant by site over time. With puberty education alone resulting in a similar attendance level. Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated promising results of a low-cost, rapid-return intervention for girls' education in a developing context. Given the considerable development needs of poorer countries and the potential of young women there, these results suggest that a large-scale cluster randomized trial is warranted. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201202000361337
Thromboelastography: Current Applications, Future Directions  [PDF]
Linda M. Trapani
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2013.31007

Analyzing coagulability often hinges on patient surveillance using prothrombin time (PT) or international normalized ratio (INR) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) to monitor the extrinsic and intrinsic coagulation pathways, respectively A more complete assessment, however, can often be obtained using thromboelastography (TEG), a coagulation assay that evaluates the efficiency of clot formation, as well as the viscoelastic properties of the clot. Developed by Dr. Helmut Hartert in 1948 at the UniversityofHeidelberg, it provides information regarding hemostasis as a dynamic process [1,2]. Here, the TEG technique will be described, as well as its current applications and future directions for its use.

The Alberta population-based prospective evaluation of the quality of life outcomes and economic impact of bariatric surgery (APPLES) study: background, design and rationale
Raj S Padwal, Sumit R Majumdar, Scott Klarenbach, Dan W Birch, Shahzeer Karmali, Linda McCargar, Konrad Fassbender, Arya M Sharma
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-284
Abstract: Population-based prospective cohort study of 500 consecutive, consenting adults, including 150 surgically treated patients, 200 medically treated patients and 150 wait-listed patients. Subjects will be enrolled from the Edmonton Weight Wise Regional Obesity Program (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada), with prospective bi-annual follow-up for 2 years. Mixed methods data collection, linking primary data to provincial administrative databases will be employed. Major outcomes include generic, obesity-specific and preference-based quality of life assessment, patient satisfaction, patient utilities, anthropometric indices, cardiovascular risk factors, health care utilization and direct and indirect costs.The results will identify the spectrum of potential risks associated with protracted wait times for bariatric care and will quantify the economic, humanistic and clinical impact of surgery from the Canadian perspective. Such information is urgently needed by health-service providers and policy makers to better allocate use of finite resources. Furthermore, our findings should be widely-applicable to other publically-funded jurisdictions providing similar care to the extremely obese.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00850356Obesity currently affects 24% of Canadians[1] and is a chronic medical condition that leads to substantial morbidity,[2] premature mortality,[3] impaired quality of life (QOL),[4] and increased health care costs [5]. Obesity is most commonly defined according to body mass index (BMI), with BMI levels of 30-34.9, 35-39.9 and over 40 kg/m2 corresponding to Class I, II and III obesity, respectively. Extreme obesity, defined herein as patients with moderate or severe obesity, is the fastest growing obesity subgroup affecting nearly 8% of Canadians [6]. Extreme obesity has increased in prevalence in Canada by 400% in two decades;[5] increases the risk of type 2 diabetes by up to 18-fold compared to normal-weight individuals;[2] shortens life expectancy by 8-13 years;[7] increas
Health status, quality of life, and satisfaction of patients awaiting multidisciplinary bariatric care
Raj S Padwal, Sumit R Majumdar, Scott Klarenbach, Daniel W Birch, Shahzeer Karmali, Linda McCargar, Konrad Fassbender, Arya M Sharma
BMC Health Services Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-139
Abstract: 150 consecutive consenting subjects wait-listed for multi-disciplinary bariatric assessment in a population-based medical/surgical bariatric program were surveyed. Health status was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). A Waiting List Impact Questionnaire (WLIQ) examined employment, physical stress, social support, frustration, quality of life, and satisfaction with care. Multivariable linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and BMI identified independent predictors of lower VAS scores.136 (91%) subjects were women, mean age was 43?years (SD 9), mean BMI was 49.4 (SD 8.3) kg/m2 and average time wait-listed was 64?days (SD 76). The mean VAS score was 53/100 (SD 22). According to the WLIQ, 47% of subjects agreed/strongly agreed that waiting affected their quality of life, 65% described wait times as ‘concerning’ and 81% as ‘frustrating’. 86% reported worsening of physical symptoms over time. Nevertheless, only 31% were dissatisfied/very dissatisfied with their overall medical care. Independent predictors of lower VAS scores were higher BMI (beta coefficient 0.42; p?=?0.03), unemployment (13.7; p?=?0.01) and depression (10.3; p?=?0.003).Patients wait-listed for bariatric care self-reported very impaired health status and other adverse consequences, attributing these to protracted waits. These data may help benchmark the level of health impairment in this population, understand the physical and mental toll of waiting, and assist with wait list management.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00850356
A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Efficacy of Peer Mentors to Support South African Women Living with HIV and Their Infants
Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus, Linda M. Richter, Alastair van Heerden, Heidi van Rooyen, Mark Tomlinson, Jessica M. Harwood, W. Scott Comulada, Alan Stein
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084867
Abstract: Objective We evaluate the effect of clinic-based support by HIV-positive Peer Mentors, in addition to standard clinic care, on maternal and infant well-being among Women Living with HIV (WLH) from pregnancy through the infant's first year of life. Methods In a cluster randomized controlled trial in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, eight clinics were randomized for pregnant WLH to receive either: a Standard Care condition (SC; 4 clinics; n = 656 WLH); or an Enhanced Intervention (EI; 4 clinics; n = 544 WLH). WLH in the EI were invited to attend four antenatal and four postnatal meetings led by HIV-positive Peer Mentors, in addition to SC. WLH were recruited during pregnancy, and at least two post-birth assessment interviews were completed by 57% of WLH at 1.5, 6 or 12 months. EI's effect was ascertained on 19 measures of maternal and infant well-being using random effects regressions to control for clinic clustering. A binomial test for correlated outcomes evaluated EI's overall efficacy. Findings WLH attended an average of 4.1 sessions (SD = 2.0); 13% did not attend any sessions. Significant overall benefits were found in EI compared to SC using the binomial test. Secondarily, over time, WLH in the EI reported significantly fewer depressive symptoms and fewer underweight infants than WLH in the SC condition. EI WLH were significantly more likely to use one feeding method for six months and exclusively breastfeed their infants for at least 6 months. Conclusions WLH benefit by support from HIV-positive Peer Mentors, even though EI participation was partial, with incomplete follow-up rates from 6–12 months. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00972699
Protective Gene Expression Changes Elicited by an Inherited Defect in Photoreceptor Structure
Yagya V. Sharma, Radu I. Cojocaru, Linda M. Ritter, Nidhi Khattree, Matthew Brooks, Alison Scott, Anand Swaroop, Andrew F. X. Goldberg
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031371
Abstract: Inherited defects in retinal photoreceptor structure impair visual transduction, disrupt relationship with the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and compromise cell viability. A variety of progressive retinal degenerative diseases can result, and knowledge of disease etiology remains incomplete. To investigate pathogenic mechanisms in such instances, we have characterized rod photoreceptor and retinal gene expression changes in response to a defined insult to photoreceptor structure, using the retinal degeneration slow (rds) mouse model. Global gene expression profiling was performed on flow-sorted rds and wild-type rod photoreceptors immediately prior and subsequent to times at which OSs are normally elaborated. Dysregulated genes were identified via microarray hybridization, and selected candidates were validated using quantitative PCR analyses. Both the array and qPCR data revealed that gene expression changes were generally modest and dispersed amongst a variety of known functional networks. Although genes showing major (>5-fold) differential expression were identified in a few instances, nearly all displayed transient temporal profiles, returning to WT levels by postnatal day (P) 21. These observations suggest that major defects in photoreceptor cell structure may induce early homeostatic responses, which function in a protective manner to promote cell viability. We identified a single key gene, Egr1, that was dysregulated in a sustained fashion in rds rod photoreceptors and retina. Egr1 upregulation was associated with microglial activation and migration into the outer retina at times subsequent to the major peak of photoreceptor cell death. Interestingly, this response was accompanied by neurotrophic factor upregulation. We hypothesize that activation of Egr1 and neurotrophic factors may represent a protective immune mechanism which contributes to the characteristically slow retinal degeneration of the rds mouse model.
Using pyrosequencing to shed light on deep mine microbial ecology
Robert A Edwards, Beltran Rodriguez-Brito, Linda Wegley, Matthew Haynes, Mya Breitbart, Dean M Peterson, Martin O Saar, Scott Alexander, E Calvin Alexander, Forest Rohwer
BMC Genomics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-7-57
Abstract: Comparisons of the microbes and the subsystems identified in the two samples highlighted important differences in metabolic potential in each environment. The microbes were performing distinct biochemistry on the available substrates, and subsystems such as carbon utilization, iron acquisition mechanisms, nitrogen assimilation, and respiratory pathways separated the two communities. Although the correlation between much of the microbial metabolism occurring and the geochemical conditions from which the samples were isolated could be explained, the reason for the presence of many pathways in these environments remains to be determined. Despite being physically close, these two communities were markedly different from each other. In addition, the communities were also completely different from other microbial communities sequenced to date.We anticipate that pyrosequencing will be widely used to sequence environmental samples because of the speed, cost, and technical advantages. Furthermore, subsystem comparisons rapidly identify the important metabolisms employed by the microbes in different environments.Banded iron formations started appearing ~3,700 million years ago when localized sea floor cyanobacterial photosynthesis raised oxygen concentrations high enough that dissolved iron precipitated. That iron powered the industrial revolution. The Soudan Iron Mine in Minnesota, USA was active from 1884 to 1962, and during this period 17.9 million tons of iron ore, primarily hematite, were removed. Nowadays the mine is used as a state park and as a facility for high-energy physics experiments.Metagenomics is a term used to describe "the functional and sequence-based analysis of the collective microbial genomes contained in an environmental sample"[1,2]. Random shotgun sequencing of DNA from natural communities has been used to characterize seawater, sediment, and fecal viral communities [2-5], as well as the microbial communities in soil, whale falls, seawater and the Iro
Knowledge, attitude and practices towards risk factors for hypertension in Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam
M Linda
Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: To assess the people’s knowledge, attitudes and practices towards risk factors for hypertension in Kinondoni Municipality. Study design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Settings: Kimara and Mbezi Luisi wards in Kinondoni Municipality. Subjects: Adults aged 18 years and above, residents of Kinondoni Municipality at Kimara or Mbezi Luisi. Results: The number of people included in the study was 318. More than half of the study population (66.80%) had knowledge on hypertension but only 19.75% had knowledge on risk factors for hypertension. The common risk factors known were consumption of fatty food and stress. People who reported to be doing physical exercises were 52.35%, smoking 9.54% and drinking alcohol 29.56%. Conclusion: Many people have heard about hypertension but only a few know its risk factors. It is necessary to provide education to people so that they can avoid the risk factors hence reduce the prevalence of hypertension.
Prevalence, Clinical and Virologic Outcomes of Hepatitis B Virus Co-Infection in HIV-1 Positive Kenyan Women on Antiretroviral Therapy
Summer L. Day, Katherine Odem-Davis, Kishorchandra N. Mandaliya, Keith R. Jerome, Linda Cook, Linnet N. Masese, John Scott, H. Nina Kim, Susan M. Graham, R. Scott McClelland
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059346
Abstract: Background Sub-Saharan Africa carries a high burden of co-infection with HIV-1 and hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this region, individuals with HIV-1/HBV co-infection on antiretroviral therapy (ART) frequently receive lamivudine as the only agent active against HBV, raising concerns for development of HBV resistance to lamivudine. We aimed to determine the prevalence, clinical, and virologic outcomes of chronic HBV infection, including HBV resistance to lamivudine, in a cohort of HIV-1 seropositive Kenyan women on long-term ART. Methods In this prospective cohort study, HIV-1 seropositive women initiated three-drug ART regimens that included lamivudine as the single drug active against HBV. Archived samples were tested for HBsAg, with further testing to determine HBeAg seroprevalence, HBV DNA suppression, and lamivudine resistance. We estimated the prevalence of chronic HBV and examined associations between HBV co-infection and clinical and virologic outcomes with chi-square tests, logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Results In a cohort of 159 women followed for a median of 3.4 years (interquartile range 1.4–4.5), 11 (6.9%; 95% CI 3.1–10.7) had chronic HBV infection. Of these, 9 (82%) achieved undetectable plasma HBV DNA levels. One woman developed lamivudine resistance, for an incidence of 3 per 100 person-years. The HBV co-infected women were at greater risk for abnormal ALT elevations compared to HIV-1 mono-infected women (HR 2.37; 95% CI 1.1–5.3). There were no differences between HBV-infected and uninfected women in mortality, CD4 count, or HIV-1 RNA suppression. Conclusion The prevalence of chronic HBV in this cohort was similar to recent studies from other African populations. Given our long-term follow-up, lamivudine resistance was lower than expected for HIV-1/HBV co-infected patients. Improved screening for HBV and extended follow-up of HIV-1/HBV co-infected individuals are needed to better understand the impact of different ART regimens on clinical outcomes in this population.
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