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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 464464 matches for " Linda A Everse "
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CD134 as target for specific drug delivery to auto-aggressive CD4+ T cells in adjuvant arthritis
Elmieke PJ Boot, Gerben A Koning, Gert Storm, Josée PA Wagenaar-Hilbers, Willem van Eden, Linda A Everse, Marca HM Wauben
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/ar1722
Abstract: In several autoimmune diseases, for example rheumatoid arthritis, the involvement of CD4+ T cells in disease induction has been suggested [1]. As a treatment strategy, the manipulation of CD4+ T cells by CD4-directed antibodies has therefore been studied extensively [2]. However, because anti-CD4 therapy targets the whole CD4+ population, CD4+ T cells not related to the disease or involved in disease regulation will also be affected. Ideally, only the auto-aggressive CD4+ T cells that are involved in the disease process should be targeted. Because for many human autoimmune diseases the exact antigens recognized by these cells are not known, a therapy would be favorable that specifically targets the auto-aggressive CD4+ T cells and does not depend on the definition of the crucial auto-antigen.Because auto-reactive CD4+ T cells become activated upon recognition of their cognate antigen in the periphery, they will be transiently marked by the expression of T cell activation markers. In this respect, CD134 (OX40 antigen) is an interesting candidate target molecule, because CD134 is expressed in vivo exclusively on activated CD4+ T cells (reviewed in [3]). In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a disease model for multiple sclerosis, it has been shown that CD134 is preferentially expressed on pathogenic CD4+ T cells that home to the target organ (namely the central nervous system) [4], and transiently marks the auto-aggressive T cells specific for myelin basic protein [5]. Moreover, in this T cell transfer model, depletion of CD134+ T cells with an anti-CD134 immunotoxin results in the amelioration of paralytic symptoms [6]. Interestingly, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis a high percentage of CD4+ T cells in synovial fluid express CD134 in comparison with peripheral blood T cells [6,7], suggesting that auto-aggressive CD4+ T cells may be transiently marked by surface expression of CD134 in arthritis too.Here, we investigated whether CD134 can be used as a tar
The tektin family of microtubule-stabilizing proteins
Linda A Amos
Genome Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2008-9-7-229
Abstract: Genes for tektins are found throughout the animal kingdom (for example, they have been sequenced in mammals, fish, sea urchins, insects, and nematodes) and also in algal species (for example, the unicellular Chlamydomonas) but not in flowering plants; that is, they occur in any eukaryotic organism that develops cilia or flagella [1-30]. Their relationships (Figure 1) suggest a complex evolutionary history involving gene duplications and subsequent losses of unnecessary genes. Some organisms have a single tektin; for example, zebrafish have only tektin 2, a testis protein. Others have several: for example, sea urchins use three in their sperm tails; humans have at least six, some of which are specific to testis whereas others occur also in cilia and centrioles in cells in other tissues. The human tektin genes are all found on different chromosomes. Different tektins from one species vary more than equivalent sequences from different species, suggesting that each type may have specific roles [11,12,14-20]. A limited number of interacting protein partners leaves tektin sequences relatively free to mutate. Thus, an essential testis-specific isoform has been included as one of the nuclear genes used to estimate the evolutionary distances between closely related species [21,30].Tektins are related to intermediate filament (IF) proteins [1,5,31,32] and nuclear lamins [33-35], whose sequences also show evidence of gene duplication. Within the rod domains of both tektins and IFs, the longitudinal repeating pattern of hydrophobic and charged amino acids suggests that their ancestral protein may have evolved in tandem with tubulin, whose globular monomers polymerize into protofilaments with a 4 nm repeat. This spacing, corresponding to 28 residues along a coiled-coil, would have arisen quite simply in an ancestral tektin as groups of four heptads. However, other coiled-coil proteins do have different patterns of charge, and different superhelix repeats; indeed, the charge patt
Shamanism: Indications and Use by Older Hmong Americans with Chronic Illness
Linda A. Gerdner
Hmong Studies Journal , 2012,
Abstract: This article reports qualitative interviews from an ethnographic study that explored in part, the health seeking behaviors of and for older Hmong Americans with chronic illness. The study occurred over a 36-month period in the St. Paul / Minneapolis area of Minnesota. The majority of interviews were conducted in the Hmong language and lasted approximately three hours. Participants included 35 older Hmong Americans living independently with chronic illness. Themajority of these older adults were female (n=25, 80%) with a mean age of 78.43 years. Interviews also included 33 family members (n=25 female,75.75%) with a mean age of 75.75 years, who provided a minimum of eight hours of in-home care for an older Hmong American with chronic illness. Due to the significant role of shamans in the spiritual well-being of older adults, three shamans (two male, and one female) were also interviewed. All (mean age 83, range65-99) had been “chosen” to become a shaman while living in Laos and had resided in the United States an average of 4 years 5 months (range: 1 month to 13 years). All shamans reported havingan active practice, with comments such as “I have so many [patients] I do not count.” More specifically, one shaman stated that he performed 20 to 40 healing ceremonies per year. One shaman explained his role by stating “I heal the weak and the lost spirit.” The majority of older Hmong Americans (74.29%) and family caregivers (57.58) had retained the spiritual beliefs of animism and ancestor worship. Findings report that 18 (51.43%) older Hmong Americanscompared to 21 (63.3%) family caregivers sought the services of both a physician and a shaman for treatment of the older person’s chronic illness. Fourteen (40%) older Hmong Americans compared to ten (30.30%) family caregivers sought the services of a physician alone. Only 3 (8.57%) older Hmong Americans compared to 2 (6.06%) caregivers consulted the services of a shaman alone. Many older adults and family caregivers voluntarily discussed the important roleof shamanism during the Hmong New Year in promoting the spiritual well-being of family members throughout the coming year. In conclusion, although Hmong Americans have access to biomedicine, the majority of participants continued to utilize shamanic ceremonies incombination with biomedicine. The reliance on shamanism became stronger when biomedicine was viewed as having limited effectiveness or when the cause of the affliction was perceived as being spiritual in nature.
Translating Research Findings Into a Hmong American Children’s Book to Promote Understanding of Persons with Alzheimer’s Disease
Linda A. Gerdner
Hmong Studies Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Findings from an ethnographic study identified dementia (i.e., Alzheimer’s disease) as an important but often overlooked issue within the Hmong American community. Elders with dementia often lived in the home of a married son who had children of his own. Children were reported to have difficulty understanding the memory and behavioral changes associated with the progressive disease. This lack of understanding adversely affected the relationship between the child and elder. A bilingual illustrated children’s book entitled Grandfather’s Story Cloth has been developed to address this issue. General themes from the life experiences of family caregivers were used to provide a culturally meaningful storyline. The book introduces the idea of using a story cloth to stimulate Grandfather’s remote memory thereby enhancing communication and understanding between Grandson and Grandfather. The educational value of the book is augmented with discussion questions and answers that support a family based approach to learning. To promote access, the Extendicare Foundation provided funds for the purchase and distribution of 1000 copies of this book to select organizations that serve the Hmong-American community. Initial feedback regarding the educational value and cultural appropriateness of Grandfather’s Story Cloth by members of the Hmong American community, educators, elementary students, librarians, and health care professionals is presented.
Entrepreneurial Ambitions in the Public Sector
Linda A. Renzulli
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 2002,
Abstract: In this article, I study charter schools as social innovations within the population of established public educational institutions. I begin by briefly outlining the history of public schools in the United States. Organizational theories are applied to explain the perpetuation of the structure of public schools since World War II. Next, I delineate the characteristics of educational reform movements in the United States by focusing on the charter school movement. Then, I use an evolutionary approach to study the environmental characteristics that drive the perceived need for innovation and the promotion of experimentation. Using data compiled from the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, the Census Bureau, and North Carolina State Data Center, I examine the characteristics of the local environment that promotes the submission of charter school applications in North Carolina over a three-year period, 1996-1998. It is shown that school districts in need of school choice do have a higher mean charter school submission rate. Also, some community characteristics and available resources are important for the initial stage of charter school formation.
The Indigenous Curriculum and the Production of Indigenous Materials: Curriculum Reform in The Bahamas
Davis, Linda A.
College Forum , 1995,
Abstract: This study, from which the data in this paper are drawn, examined the "intended" curriculum of the Bahamian primary schools and the processes of its translation into classroom practices. The methods of investigation included documentary analysis, participant observation, informal interviews, and a teacher questionnaire. The study identified several factors that can influence the success of the curriculum implementation process. This paper focuses on resources since the question of resource availability, specifically resources of an indigenous nature, was the most significant issue uncovered by the study. A case is made for strengthening the local resource base, not only in terms of personnel but also in terms of local materials.
Herbaceous-Layer Community Dynamics along a Harvest-Intensity Gradient after 50 Years of Consistent Management  [PDF]
Marcella A. Campione, Linda M. Nagel, Christopher R. Webster
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2012.23013
Abstract: In 1958, a demonstrational cutting trial totaling 22.2 ha was established in a northern hardwood forest in Alberta, MI. Eight different treatments were installed, including four diameter-limit treatments (56 cm, 41 cm, 30 cm, and 13 cm), three single-tree selection treatments with residual basal areas of 21 m2·ha–1, 16 m2·ha–1, and 11 m2·ha–1, and an uncut control. Within each treatment, a 0.4-ha permanent plot was established and subdivided into 0.04-ha square subplots. Harvests have been implemented every ten years with the most recent harvest occurring during the winter of 2008 - 2009. We quantified ground layer vegetation response before and after the most recent harvest. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordination showed a very distinct separation between the most intensive management treatment (13-cm diameter-limit treatment) and the uncut control. Compositionally, the diameter-limit treatments moved with greater directionality and magnitude towards the 13-cm diameter-limit treatment following harvest, while compositional change in the residual basal area treatments was less pronounced and lacked strong directionality. Herbaceous species percent cover generally decreased with increasing residual overstory basal area across treatments. Weedy and early successional species were most abundant under lower residual basal area and diameter-limit treatments. Results based on 50 years of continuous management suggest that diameter-limit harvests likely have a greater impact on the herbaceous community than single-tree selection or no management.
Utility of Flow Cytometry to Classify Abnormal Plasma Cell Populations in Marrow Samples Collected from Patients with Putative Plasma Cell Neoplasms  [PDF]
Charanjeet Singh, Sophia Yohe, Linda B. Baughn, Michael A. Linden
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2012.23008
Abstract: Plasma cell neoplasms comprise a spectrum of diseases that include monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined signi-ficance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma (MM). Flow cytometric immunophenotyping has become an invaluable tool as an ancillary and diagnostic test for hematologic malignancies and is being used with increasing frequency in the diag-nosis and monitoring of plasma cell neoplasms. As multiparameter flow cytometry has evolved, faster fluidics and detection systems facilitate the screening of a large number of events and the detection of multiple antigens simultaneously. This review addresses the approaches used to evaluate clonal plasma cell neoplasms and describes different surface and cytoplasmic markers and techniques that are important for the study of these diseases.
The Mental Health Effects of Torture Trauma and Its Severity: A Replication and Extension  [PDF]
Ibrahim A. Kira, Jeffery S. Ashby, Lydia Odenat, Linda Lewandowsky
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.45067

To clarify the effects of torture trauma and its components on PTSD and other mental health conditions, we investigated the relationship between measures for PTSD, Cumulative trauma disorders CTD, cumulative life trauma, torture and torture severity in a sample of 326 torture survivors. Hierarchical multiple regressions found no significant association between torture and PTSD. However, when we examined the effects of different types of torture we found witnessing and sexual tortures were significant predictors of PTSD and CTD. Path analysis results found that torture trauma and its severity may not be predicative of PTSD; but it is highly predictive of the more complex syndromes of CTD. The implications of the results for treating torture survivors were discussed. One of the important findings is the potential effects of torture on decreased re-experiencing and emotional numbness. Torture trauma may be too emotionally and physically painful experience that tends to be suppressed decreasing re-experiencing and increasing dissociation.

Is There a Geomagnetic Component Involved with the Determination of G?  [PDF]
Michael A. Persinger, Linda S. St-Pierre
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.54042

We compared the small quantitative changes (range) in G over repeated measures (days) with recently improved methods of determinations and those recorded over 20 years ago. The range in the Newtonian constant of gravitation G is usually in the order of 400 ppm as reflected in experimentally-determined values. The moderate strength negative correlation between daily fluctuations in G, in the range of 3 × 10-3 of the average value, and an index of global geomagnetic activity reported by Vladimirsky and Bruns in 1998 was also found for the daily fluctuations in the angular deflection θ (in arcseconds) and geomagnetic activity within 24 hr for the Quinn et al. 2013 data. A temporal coupling between increases of geomagnetic activity in the order of 10-9 T with decreases in G in the order of 10-14 m3·kg-1·s-2 could suggest a recondite shared source of variance. The energy equivalence for this change in G and geomagnetic activity within 1 L of water is ~3 × 10-14 J.

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