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To clarify the effects of torture trauma and its components on PTSD and other mental health conditions, we investigated the relationship between measures for PTSD, Cumulative trauma disorders CTD, cumulative life trauma, torture and torture severity in a sample of 326 torture survivors. Hierarchical multiple regressions found no significant association between torture and PTSD. However, when we examined the effects of different types of torture we found witnessing and sexual tortures were significant predictors of PTSD and CTD. Path analysis results found that torture trauma and its severity may not be predicative of PTSD; but it is highly predictive of the more complex syndromes of CTD. The implications of the results for treating torture survivors were discussed. One of the important findings is the potential effects of torture on decreased re-experiencing and emotional numbness. Torture trauma may be too emotionally and physically painful experience that tends to be suppressed decreasing re-experiencing and increasing dissociation.
We compared the small quantitative changes (range) in G over repeated
measures (days) with recently improved methods of determinations and those
recorded over 20 years ago. The range in the Newtonian constant of gravitation
G is usually in the order of 400 ppm as reflected in experimentally-determined
values. The moderate strength negative correlation between daily fluctuations
in G, in the range of 3 × 10-3 of the average value, and an index of
global geomagnetic activity reported by Vladimirsky and Bruns in 1998 was also
found for the daily fluctuations in the angular deflection θ (in arcseconds) and geomagnetic activity within 24 hr for the
Quinn et al. 2013 data. A temporal
coupling between increases of geomagnetic activity in the order of 10-9 T with decreases in G in the order of 10-14 m3·kg-1·s-2 could suggest a recondite shared source of variance. The energy equivalence for
this change in G and geomagnetic activity within 1 L of water is ~3 × 10-14 J.