Abstract:
In this paper we demonstrate that the “pure” spacetime and electromagnetic spacetime are bound together. The “pure” spacetime and electromagnetic spacetime all behave as the wave in character and furthermore, both of them change at the same speed. Based on the understanding of the “pure” spacetime and electromagnetic spacetime, we give out the reasonable explanation why the speed of light keeps constant and how the gravity is created among the matters. In addition, some practical applications of the concepts developed in this work are proposed.

Abstract:
Goal of this experiment is basically measuring the velocity of light. As usual we will measure two-way velocity of light (from A to B and back). In contrast to the similar experiments we will not assume that speeds of light from A to B and from B to A are equal. To achieve this we will take into account Earth’s movement through the space, rotation around its axis and apply “least squares method for cosine function”, which will be explained in Section 9. Assuming that direction East-West is already known, one clock, a source of light and a mirror, is all equipment we need for this experiment.

Abstract:
We show how one can measure the speed of gravity only using gravitational phenomena. Our approach offers several ways to measure the speed of gravity (light) and checks existing assumptions about light (gravity) in new types of experiments. The speed of light is included in several well-known gravitational formulas. However, if we can measure this speed from gravitational phenomena alone, then is it the speed of light or the speed of gravity we are measuring? We think it is more than a mere coincidence that they are the same. In addition, even if it is not possible to draw strong conclusions now, our formulations support the view that there is a link between electromagnetism and gravity. This paper also shows that all major gravity phenomena can be predicted from only performing two to three light observations. There is no need for knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant G or the mass size to complete a series of major gravity predictions.

Abstract:
An account is given of a new execution of my "coupled shutters" experiment. This time the following defi nite fi gures for the Earth's absolute velocity have been obtained: magnitude 360 +/- 40 km/sec with equatorial coordinates of the apex Delta = -27 +/- 7 Deg, Alpha = 12.5 h +/- 1 h (for February 1984).

Abstract:
We combine data from two high precision NASA/JPL experiments: (i) the one-way speed of light experiment using optical fibers: Krisher T.P., Maleki L., Lutes G.F., Primas L.E., Logan R.T., Anderson J.D. and Will C.M. Phys. Rev. D, 1990, v.42, 731-734, and (ii) the spacecraft earth-flyby Doppler shift data: Anderson J.D., Campbell J.K., Ekelund J.E., Ellis J. and Jordan J.F. Phys. Rev. Lett., 2008, v.100, 091102, to give the solar-system galactic 3-space average speed of 486 km/s in the direction RA = 4.29 h, Dec = -75.0 Deg. Turbulence effects (gravitational waves) are also evident. Data also reveals the 30 km/s orbital speed of the Earth and the Sun inflow component at 1AU of 42 km/s and also 615 km/s near the Sun, and for the first time, experimental measurement of the 3-space 11.2 km/s inflow of the Earth. The NASA/JPL data is in remarkable agreement with that determined in other light speed anisotropy experiments, such as Michelson-Morley (1887), Miller (1933), Torr and Kolen (1981), DeWitte (1991), Cahill (2006), Munera (2007), Cahill and Stokes (2008) and Cahill (2009).

Abstract:
Data from a new experiment measuring the anisotropy of the one-way speed of EM waves in a coaxial cable, gives the speed of light as 300,000 +/- 400 (+/- 20) km/s in a measured direction RA=5.5 +/- 2 hrs, Dec=70 +/- 10 Deg S, is shown to be in excellent agreement with the results from seven previous anisotropy experiments, particularly those of Miller (1925/26), and even those of Michelson and Morley (1887). The Miller gas-mode interferometer results, and those from the RF coaxial cable experiments of Torr and Kolen (1983), De Witte (1991) and the new experiment all reveal the presence of gravitational waves, as indicated by the last +/- variations above, but of a kind different from those supposedly predicted by General Relativity. Miller repeated the Michelson-Morley 1887 gas-mode interferometer experiment and againdetected the anisotropy of the speed of light, primarily in the years 1925/1926 atop Mt.Wilson, California. The understanding of the operation of the Michelson interferometer in gas-mode was only achieved in 2002 and involved a calibration for the interferometer that necessarily involved Special Relativity effects and the refractive index of the gas in the light paths. The results demonstrate the reality of the Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction as an observer independent relativistic effect. A common misunderstanding is that the anisotropy of the speed of light is necessarily in conflict with Special Relativity and Lorentz symmetry - this is explained. All eight experiments and theory show that we have both anisotropy of the speed of light and relativistic effects, and that a dynamical 3-space exists - that absolute motion through that space has been repeatedly observed since 1887. These developments completely change fundamental physics and our understanding of reality. Modern vacuum-mode Michelson interferometers, particularly the long baseline terrestrial versions, are, by design flaw, incapable of detecting the anisotropy effect and the gravitational waves.

Abstract:
For many years physicists have been engaged on research around the globe in fields such as the unification of gravita- tion and electromagnetism, and an explanation for dark matter and dark energy, etc., but so far to little avail. One is left with the impression that something might be fundamentally wrong with the premises underlying the doctrine of physics applicable today, which is preventing a solution of these problems from being found. As a possible cause, the author proposes that the gravitation of the photons is not so negligible that it can be completely ignored (although this assumption does not accord with the current state of physics). Departing therefore from the accepted doctrine, he assumes that gravitation might possess a hitherto unknown important influence on electromagnetism. This paper then examines the consequences of this assumption on physics. A precise analysis will lead to the insight that the gravitation of a photon is as dynamic as the photon itself, and therefore must be taken into account with all associated physical considerations. The hitherto accepted case of a static gravitation of photons, on the other hand, can be totally neglected, as it does not exist for photons. Of key importance is the statement that the gravitation of photons is produced by gravitational quanta, and thus appears in quantised form. It is therefore necessary to rethink the physics of photons. This leads to a number of other interesting insights, as will be borne out in the further course of this paper. In the event that the assumption of the influence of gravitation on electromagnetism turns out to be correct, then this would represent a major step in unravelling the still largely unknown nature of gravitation and its significance in the natural events of the microcosmos; furtheron it would be an important contribution regarding a “New Physics” and a “New Cosmology”.

A possible alternative to the accelerating
universe is proposed, which shows that the diminished brightness of the high
red shift Type Ia supernovae can be explained by assuming light travels with
reduced speed through the dark energy of intergalactic space. It is also shown that support for the？model from baryon
acoustic oscillations (BAO) studies can also be accommodated by the model. Two
tables are given that compare the model with apparent magnitude differences and
length differences between the？universe and the
Einstein-de Sitter universe, and they show that the model yields these
differences quite accurately. A third table comparing the apparent magnitude difference
between？and a universe with is also given. It
exhibits poor agreement with the model, and hence the model favors the need for
dark energy, albeit without negative pressure. As a new approach to the “why
now?” problem, and its apparent challenge to the Copernican principle, it is
proposed that dark energy is a condensed form of dark matter caused by
expansion cooling, rather than a different substance. A motivation for an
alternative to？is presented based on
a principle that rules out the cosmological term.

Abstract:
We propose a new interpretation of Hubble law. Waves are observed in the observer space-time. It defines the observer proper time T. Space-time is composed of three spatial dimensions and three temporal parameters: proper-time s of the observed object, proper time T of the observer and integration time t (currently considered as relative time). Time origin is the birth of the universe. So, universe is stable; it can be seen as the comobile space of expansion theory. When changing space-time from the source to the observer, waves are seen cooling; this explains the redshift effect. The distance is defined as the product of the delay time with the local speed of light of the observer. The mistake between t and T can explain why universe is viewed as not only in expansion but also in acceleration whereas we think it is stable.

Abstract:
This work revises and extends the author’s previous work (2015), Journal of Modern Physics, 6, 78- 87, by proposing that the index of refraction n of intergalactic space (IGS) is of electromagnetic origin. This leads to a theoretical expression for n that agrees very well with the least squares value obtained previously. A table comparing the fractional distance increase predicted by the two differently obtained indices is given. This revised view requires that the high energy charged particles found in cosmic rays originate from high energy neutral particles, presumably high energy gamma rays, that were able to travel through the IGS without energy loss due to Cherenkov radiation. An alternative explanation for the counter indication from the IceCube findings of Abassi, R., et al. (2012) Nature, 484. 351-353 is proposed, which might also explain the findings of Aartsen et al. (2013) Physical Review Letters, 111, 021103. Since the model predicts galaxies act as divergent lenses, a geometrical analysis and corresponding figure describing this effect is given, as well as a table for a range of angles to the image galaxy relative to the direction to a target galaxy that is divergently lensed. The reduction of the speed of light in the IGS leads to a revision of the Planck (2015) value of the Hubble constant of ~68 km·s^{-1}·Mpc^{-1} to ~47 km·s^{-1}·Mpc^{-1}, and hence an age for the Einstein-de Sitter universe greater than that of the oldest white dwarfs in the Galaxy, thereby resolving a long-standing problem with this model of the universe.