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of plants are very common in extant tropical and subtropical forests,
and the climbing growth habit of plants may be an evolutionary innovation and
ecological adaptation to either closed, shady or open, edge environments.
However, the origin of handedness in climbing plants remains unclear. Here we report a Miocene (ca.
16 million years ago) macrofossil from the Shanwang Formation of Shandong
Province, Eastern China, unequivocally
exhibiting the first direct fossil evidence for a left-handed, stem-twining
growth habit in plants. This fossil plant bears a thicker,
slightly curved supporting stem (2 - 3.5 mm wide), which
is loosely, spirally twined by a thinner stem (1.5 - 2
mm wide), possibly representing part of distal
branches from a liana or vine.
Objective: To observe the effects and mechanisms of nanocrystallized realgar for the treatment of skin cancer. Methods: The clinical part was observing the therapeutic effect for the skin ulceration by externally using the nanocrystallized realgar. The experimental part was culturing the human squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells (A431) in vitro environment, estimating the effects of proliferation and apoptosis of A431 by MTT method and flow cytometry, and observing the effects on the expression of Survivin, Caspase-3 by RT-PCR method. Results: External treatment with nanocrystallized realgar had a therapeutic effect for the skin ulceration; it can promote the ulcers of skin cancer and skin metastasis healing. The experiments confirmed that nanocrystallized realgar can inhibit the A431 proliferation, induce the cells apoptosis, promote the expression of Caspase-3 and reduce the expression of Survivin. And the experiments also found that the effects were in a concentration-dependent manner, and they have a synergistic effect with cis-Dichlorodiamineplatinum (DDP). Conclusions: External treatment with nanocrystallized realgar for the patients of skin cancer or skin metastasis achieved satisfactory therapeutic effects by inhibiting A431 proliferation and inducing these cells apoptosis. The mechanism might be associated with promoting the expression of Caspase-3 and reducing the expression of Survivin.