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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3356 matches for " Lenli Claude Otoidobiga "
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Inventory and Distribution of Mango Mealybugs Species in Western Burkina Faso: Relative Abundance and Population Fluctuation  [PDF]
Karim Nébié, Souleymane Nacro, Issoufou Ouédraogo, Dona Dakouo, Lenli Claude Otoidobiga
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2016.43020
Abstract: Rastrococus invadens was the only reported mealybug species on the mango tree in Western Burkina Faso. This study aimed at carrying out the inventory and showing the importance and distribution of other mealybug species associated with the mango tree. It was also important to determine the periods of abundance of these species vis-a-vis R. invadens. For this purpose, the density of mealybugs was assessed in three study sites (Toussiana, Bérégadougou and Orodara) in Western Burkina Faso. The observations were made from June 2014 to June 2015 at a frequency of 15 ± 1 days. They focused on 20 leaves (5 leaves/cardinal point) levied on each mango tree. The species identified as Ferrisia virgata Cockerell and Icerya aegyptiaca Douglas were collected from mangos infested by R. invadens representing 98% - 99% of the density of the observed mealybug species. The periods of abundance of F. virgata and I. aegyptiaca were respectively the dry season and the rainy season. The effect of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall on the populations of F. virgata and I. aegyptiaca was also discussed. These results highlight the distribution range of F. virgata and I. aegyptiaca worldwide including Burkina Faso. R. invadens was the main mealybug species on mango in Burkina Faso in general and in the Western region of the country in particular.
Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria from Wastewaters in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Adama Sawadogo, Otoidobiga C. Harmonie, Joseph B. Sawadogo, Aminata Kaboré, Alfred S. Traoré, Dayéri Dianou
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.512115
Abstract: Lubricants are very often found in nature under waste-oil forms and represent for the environment a real danger of pollution due to the difficulty of their biodegradation. The situation is especially worrying in most developing countries in particular those of Sub-Saharan Africa due to the absence of regulation or control. The present work aims to isolate bacterial strains able to degrade hydrocarbons which can later be used in biotechnology for environments depollution. Oil-contaminated wastewater samples were collected in Ouagadougou city (Burkina Faso) and then used as source of bacterial isolation. Appropriate amounts of samples were inoculated to a mineral salt medium (MS) with Total Quartz 9000 oil as sole carbon and energy source and then incubated for enrichment, prior to microbe isolation. Two bacterial strains namely S2 and S7 were isolated from the enrichment cultures. The strains were tested for their ability to degrade other hydrocarbons (i.e. gasoline, diesel oil, brake oil) and for temperature, pH and salt concentration ranges for growth before their biochemical characteristics were defined. Based on their morphological, physiological and biochemical traits, strains S2 and S7 belong to Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas genera, respectively.
Dynamics and Activity of Iron-Reducing Bacterial Populations in a West African Rice Paddy Soil under Subsurface Drainage: Case Study of Kamboinse in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Cécile Harmonie Otoidobiga, Amadou Keita, Hamma Yacouba, Alfred S. Traore, Dayéri Dianou
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.68083
Abstract: Iron toxicity is one of the main edaphic constraints that hamper rice production in West African savanna and forest lowlands. Although chemical reduction processes of various types of pedogenic iron oxides could not be underestimated, the bulk of these processes can be ascribed to the specific activity of Iron-Reducing Bacteria (IRB). The reducing conditions of waterlogged lowland soils boost iron toxicity through the reduction of almost all iron into ferrous form (Fe2+), which can cause disorder in rice plant and crop yield losses. Aiming to contribute at the improvement of rice yield in Africa, an experiment was developed to evaluate the impact of subsurface drainage on IRB dynamics and activity during rice cultivation. Twelve concrete microplots with a clay-loam soil and a rice variety susceptible to iron toxicity (FKR 19) were used for the experiment. Soil in microplots was drained for 7 days (P1), 14 days (P2), and 21 days (P3), respectively. Control (T) microplots without drainage were prepared similarly. The evolution of IRB populations and the content of ferrous iron in the paddy soil and in soil near rice root were monitored throughout the cultural cycle using MPN and colorimetric methods, respectively. Data obtained were analyzed in relation to drainage frequency, rice growth stage, and rice yield using the Student t test and XLSTAT 7.5.2 statistical software. From the results obtained, the subsurface drainage reduced significantly IRB populations (p = 0.024). However, the drainage did not affect significantly ferrous iron concentration in the soil near rice roots (p = 0.708). The concentration of ferrous iron (p < 0.0001) in soil near rice roots and the number of IRB (p < 0.0001) were significantly higher during the rice tillering and maturity stages. Although no significant difference was observed for rice yield among treatments (p = 0.209), the P2 subsurface drainage showed the highest yield and the lowest concentration of ferrous iron in soil near rice roots.
Dynamics and Activity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Populations in Paddy Soil under Subsurface Drainage: Case Study of Kamboinse in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Cécile Harmonie Otoidobiga, Amadou Keita, Hamma Yacouba, Alfred S. Traore, Dayéri Dianou
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.611135
Abstract: Sulfide toxicity is a common disease generally associated with iron toxicity which occurs in rice fields when the Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB) produce sulfides ions in anaerobic conditions. The high quantity of sulfides ions in the soil solution upsets the mineral element balance in the rice, affects its growth and causes crop yield losses. In Burkina Faso, many rice field soils are abandoned due to sulfides toxicity. The present study was developed to evaluate the impact of subsurface drainage on SRB dynamics and activity during rice cultivation and the incidence on rice production. Twelve concrete microplots with a clay-loam soil and a rice variety susceptible to sulfides toxicity (FKR 19) were used for the experiment. Soil in microplots was drained for 7 days (P1), 14 days (P2), and 21 days (P3), respectively. Control (T) microplots without drainage were prepared similarly. The evolution of SRB populations and the content of sulfides ions in the paddy soil and in soil near rice roots were monitored throughout the cultural cycle using MPN and colorimetric methods, respectively. Data obtained were analyzed in relation to drainage frequency, rice growth stage, and rice yield using the Student’s t-test and XLSTAT 7.5.2 statistical software. From the results obtained, the subsurface drainage did not affect significantly SRB populations (P = 0.187). However, the drainage affected significantly sulfides concentration in the soil near rice roots (P = 0.032). The concentration of sulfides (P < 0.0001) in soil near rice roots and the number of SRB (P < 0.0001) were significantly higher during the rice tillering and maturity stages. Although no significant difference was observed for rice yield among treatments (P = 0.209), the P2 subsurface drainage showed the highest yield and a low concentration of sulfides in soil near rice roots.
Optimization of Hydrocarbons Biodegradation by Bacterial Strains Isolated from Wastewaters in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: Case Study of SAE 40/50 Used Oils and Diesel  [PDF]
Adama Sawadogo, Harmonie C. Otoidobiga, Léon W. Nitiema, Alfred S. Traoré, Dayéri Dianou
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2016.51001
Abstract: Environmental pollution with petroleum and petrochemical products such as diesel and used oils has been recognized as one of the most serious current problem in the world, especially in developing countries. These petrochemical products devastate the soil, surface and underground waters and alter the microbial population at the polluted sites. Thus, the present work aims to optimize the biodegradation of diesel and two used oils (SAE 40 and SAE 50) by bacterial strains namely Acinetobacter S2 and Pseudomonas S7 using either nutrient factors (yeast extract, peptone or trace elements) or surfactants (tween 80 or Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: SDS). The strains are incubated alone or together with the used oils or diesel supplemented or not with nutrient factors or surfactants for 14, 28, 42 and 56 days, respectively. For all the incubation period, the hydrocarbons degradation rates are determined by gravimetric assay. The results obtained show that nutrient factors increase significantly SAE 50 used oil biodegradation (p = 0.009). Similarly, tween 80 increases SAE 50 and SAE 40 used oils biodegradation but not diesel one. The results also show a significant difference between biodegradation rates at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days for all the hydro-carbons tested (p < 0.0001). For all the hydrocarbons, the association of strains Acinetobacter S2 and Pseudomonas S7 increases the degradation over the one of the strains alone.
Microbiological Quality of Surface Water Treated with Moringa oleifera Seeds or Cakes during the Storage: Case Study of Water Reservoirs of Loumbila, Ziga and Ouaga 3 Dams in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Aminata Kabore, Boubacar Savadogo, Harmonie C. Otoidobiga, Adama Sawadogo, Francis Rosillon, Alfred S. Traore, Dayéri Dianou
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.74025
Abstract: Water purification with Moringa oleifera seeds has received a lot of attention because it reduces water turbidity and pathogenic microorganisms. However, it is important to define the optimum conditions of storage to preserve the treated water quality. The study aims to investigate microbial quality of water treated with Moringa oleifera seeds or cake coagulants in relation to the storage temperature and shelf life in order to define the optimum conditions of storage. A total of 45 water samples from 3 water reservoirs of Loumbila, Ziga and Ouaga 3 dams were collected in sterile glass bottles and treated in triplicate with Moringa oleifera seeds or defatted cakes coagulants. Treated water samples obtained at optimum conditions were stored at room temperature (25°C - 30°C) and at 4°C. Fecal bacteria pollution indicators (Escherichia coli, fecal coliforms and fecal streptococcus) and parasites were monitored every 24 hours during three (3) days based on laboratory standard methods. Data were analyzed using the Student’s t-test and XLSTAT 7.5.2 statistical software. From the results obtained, bacterial indicators increased significantly with storage temperature (p < 0.0001) and shelf life (p < 0.0001). However, for all water samples, bacterial growth was more important in samples treated with Moringa oleifera cakes than seeds (p < 0.0001). For water samples treated with Moringa oleifera seeds and stored at room temperature, bacterial increase after 72 hours was 57 - 80, 42 - 50 and 22 - 47 CFU/100 ml for fecal coliforms, E. coli and fecal streptococcus, respectively. With Moringa oleifera cake’s treatment, the increase was 63 - 104, 57 - 82 and 28 - 52 for
Generating Net Forces from Backgrounds of Randomly Created Waves  [PDF]
Claude Gauthier
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.516158
Abstract: We examine the possibility of generating net forces on concave isolated objects from backgrounds consisting of randomly created waves carrying momentum. This issue is examined first for waves at the surface of a liquid, and second for quantum vacuum electromagnetic waves, both in relation with a one-side-open rectangular structure whose interior embodies a large number of parallel reflecting plates. Using known results about the Casimir-like effect and the original Casimir effect for parallel plates, we explain why and how such rectangular hollow structures should feel net oriented forces. We briefly describe real systems that would allow testing these theoretical results.
Wave-Particle Duality in Einstein-de Broglie Programs  [PDF]
Claude Elbaz
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.518213
Abstract: The standard model of particle physics forms a consistent system for universe description. After following quantum mechanics, it derives particles from relativistic quantum fields. Since it does not include gravitation, it describes only one aspect of the universe. In extension of general relativity, Einstein had proposed a symmetrical and complementary approach of physics. In his program, he privileged a relativist field based on representations for physical phenomena, before a precise mathematical description. It allows completing and unifying the universe description, like both eyes for relief vision, and both ears for stereophonic audition. We propose to show it with many simple examples.
Gravitation and Electromagnetism Conciliated Following Einstein’s Program  [PDF]
Claude Elbaz
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.65072
Abstract: The Einstein’s program permits to conciliate gravitation and electromagnetism. Besides the standard model, it forms a consistent system for universe description, founded upon a scalar field propagating at the speed of light c. Matter corresponds to standing waves. Adiabatic variations of frequencies lead to electromagnetic interaction constituted by progressive waves. Classical domain corresponds to geometrical optics approximation, when frequencies are infinitely high, and then hidden. As interactions for matter, Gravitation and Electromagnetism derive from variations of its energy E = mc2. Electromagnetic interaction energy derives from mass variation dE = c2dm, and gravitation from speed of light variation dE = mdc2. Contrarily to gravitation, only electromagnetic interaction serves as a bridge between classical and quantum frames, since it leans directly upon the wave property of matter: its energy dE = hdν = c2dm derives from variations of matter energy E = hν = mc2.
Book Review on Wilsonian Armenia: Stories behind the Failed Project by Rouben Ambartzumian  [PDF]
Claude Mutafian
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.52015
Abstract: The present book deals with a topic which has often been mentioned by various specialists of the Armenian question, but, as far as I know, never been studied per se. Rouben Ambartzumian [below quoted as RA] has decided to dig the question in order to understand and explain why the pro-Armenian projects of US president Woodrow Wilson turned to a total failure. Himself a brilliant world-famous mathematician, RA explores the field scientifically, as thoroughly as possible, in order to find, or eventually to guess, the reasons of the behaviour of the different actors of this tragedy.
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