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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 26464 matches for " Lene Martin "
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Algorithms for optimizing drug therapy
Peter Wanger, Lene Martin
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6947-4-10
Abstract: One hundred and ten officially endorsed text documents, published between 1996 and 2004, containing guidelines for drug therapy in 246 disorders, were analyzed with regard to information about patient-, disease- and drug-related factors and relationships between these factors. This information was used to construct algorithms for identifying optimum treatment in each of the studied disorders. These algorithms were categorized in order to define as few models as possible that still could accommodate the identified factors and the relationships between them. The resulting program prototypes were implemented in HTML (user interface) and JavaScript (program logic).Three types of algorithms were sufficient for the intended purpose. The simplest type is a list of factors, each of which implies that the particular patient should or should not receive treatment. This is adequate in situations where only one treatment exists. The second type, a more elaborate model, is required when treatment can by provided using drugs from different pharmacological classes and the selection of drug class is dependent on patient characteristics. An easily implemented set of if-then statements was able to manage the identified information in such instances. The third type was needed in the few situations where the selection and dosage of drugs were depending on the degree to which one or more patient-specific factors were present. In these cases the implementation of an established decision model based on fuzzy sets was required. Computer programs based on one of these three models could be constructed regarding all but one of the studied disorders. The single exception was depression, where reliable relationships between patient characteristics, drug classes and outcome of therapy remain to be defined.Algorithms for optimizing drug therapy can, with presumably rare exceptions, be developed for any disorder, using standard Internet programming methods.During the last decades the possibility
Experiences of Occupational Stress among Emergency Nurses at Private Hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand  [PDF]
Nuttapol Yuwanich, Sharareh Akhavan, Walaiporn Nantsupawat, Lene Martin
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2017.76049
Abstract: Introduction: Occupational stress has negative effects on employee’s health and organizational productivity. Nurses in emergency department are more exposed to stress than nurses in other departments. Aim: To explore nurses’ experiences of occupational stress in emergency departments in private hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand. Design: A descriptive qualitative design, with a deductive approach based on the Job Demand-Control-Support model was used. Methods: Fifteen emergency department nurses at two different hospitals were interviewed and the data were analyzed using a manifest content analysis. Results: Three main categories: “work context is an issue”, “consequences of reactions to stress”, and “coping with work stress”, including seven sub-categories emerged from the data analysis. Conclusion: The patients’ and their relatives’ behaviors were experienced as the primary stressor at the private hospital, in addition to excessive work tasks. Other important stressors were misunderstanding and conflicts between emergency department nurses and the other health care professionals, presumably related to hierarchy and power relations between health care professions. Creating a better working environment and a balance between the number of patients and nurses would reduce workload and stress, encourage ED nurses to stay in the profession and ultimately maintain patient safety.
Optic disc parameters in manifest and suspected glaucoma
Peter Wanger,Lucian Vancea,Lene Martin
Eye Reports , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/eye.2011.e12
Abstract: Structure and function measurements are important in glaucoma management. Digital fundus photography has become a standard procedure and the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT), commonly used by glaucoma specialists, provides a glaucoma probability score (GPS). The visual field index (VFI) is a novel statistic, aiming to facilitate follow-up of glaucoma patients. The aim of this study was to compare the results from the digital analysis of fundus photographs with HRT measurements including GPS and VFI in patients with ocular hypertension, suspect glaucoma or glaucoma, and if possible define an optic disc index, useful in glaucoma diagnosis. Fifty-eight consecutive patients from a glaucoma service were included. Optic disc parameters (disc and cup areas) were measured on digital fundus photographs, using a semi-automatic method, and compared with the GPS from the HRT and the VFI from standard automated perimetry. A significant relationship was observed between the GPS group classification (normal, borderline, or abnormal) and VFI classification (normal or abnormal), both when the GPS borderline group was regarded as normal (P = 0.0038 Fisher test) and as abnormal (P=0.0179, kappa = 0.33). No significant relationship was observed between VFI and optic disc parameters. The threedimensional information in the GPS appears to be more related to visual function, as measured by VFI, than the planimetric measures of the optic disc.
Statistical significance of rising and oscillatory trends in global ocean and land temperature in the past 160 years
Lene ?stvand,Kristoffer Rypdal,Martin Rypdal
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: Various interpretations of the notion of a trend in the context of global warming are discussed, contrasting the difference between viewing a trend as the deterministic response to an external forcing and viewing it as a slow variation which can be separated from the background spectral continuum of long-range persistent climate noise. The emphasis in this paper is on the latter notion, and a general scheme is presented for testing a multi-parameter trend model against a null hypothesis which models the observed climate record as an autocorrelated noise. The scheme is employed to the instrumental global sea-surface temperature record and the global land-temperature record. A trend model comprising a linear plus an oscillatory trend with period of approximately 60 yr, and the statistical significance of the trends, are tested against three different null models: first-order autoregressive process, fractional Gaussian noise, and fractional Brownian motion. The linear trend is significant in all cases, but the oscillatory trend is insignificant for ocean data and barely significant for land data. By means of a Bayesian iteration, however, using the significance of the linear trend to formulate a sharper null hypothesis, the oscillatory trend in the land record appears to be statistically significant. The results suggest that the global land record may be better suited for detection of the global warming signal than the ocean record.
Insulin resistance and exercise tolerance in heart failure patients: linkage to coronary flow reserve and peripheral vascular function
Martin Snoer, Tea Monk-Hansen, Rasmus Olsen, Lene Pedersen, Lene Simonsen, Hanne Rasmusen, Flemming Dela, Eva Prescott
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-11-97
Abstract: 39 patients with LVEF?<?35% (median LV ejection fraction (LVEF) 31 (interquartile range (IQ) 26–34), 23/39 of ischemic origin) underwent echocardiography with measurement of CFR. Peak coronary flow velocity (CFV) was measured in the LAD and coronary flow reserve was calculated as the ratio between CFV at rest and during a 2?minutes adenosine infusion. All patients performed a maximal symptom limited exercise test with measurement of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), digital measurement of endothelial function and arterial stiffness (augmentation index), dual X-ray absorptiometry scan (DEXA) for body composition and insulin sensitivity by a 2?hr hyperinsulinemic (40?mU/min/m2) isoglycemic clamp.Fat free mass adjusted insulin sensitivity was significantly correlated to VO2peak (r?=?0.43, p?=?0.007). Median CFR was 1.77 (IQ 1.26-2.42) and was correlated to insulin sensitivity (r 0.43, p?=?0.008). CFR (r?=?0.48, p?=?0.002), and arterial stiffness (r?=??0.35, p?=?0.04) were correlated to VO2peak whereas endothelial function and LVEF were not (all p?>?0.15). In multivariable linear regression adjusting for age, CFR remained independently associated with VO2peak (standardized coefficient (SC) 1.98, p?=?0.05) whereas insulin sensitivity (SC 1.75, p?=?0.09) and arterial stiffness (SC ?1.17, p?=?0.29) were no longer associated with VO2peak.The study confirms that insulin resistance is associated with exercise intolerance in heart failure patients and suggests that this is partly through reduced CFR. This is the first study to our knowledge that shows an association between CFR and exercise capacity in heart failure patients and links the relationship between insulin resistance and exercise capacity to CFR.The link between insulin resistance and heart failure is complex. Several studies have shown that insulin resistance is common in heart failure of both ischemic and non-ischemic origin. The exact mechanisms are not known but potentially include both causal and secondary associat
The Renal Arterial Resistive Index and Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Renal Allograft
Stine O. Winther, Helle C. Thiesson, Lene N. Poulsen, Mahtab Chehri, Hanne Agerskov, Martin Tepel
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051772
Abstract: Objective The study investigated the optimal threshold value of renal arterial resistive index as assessed by Doppler ultrasonography determining chronic kidney disease stage 4 or higher in patients with renal allograft. Methods In a cross-sectional study the renal arterial resistive index were obtained in interlobar arteries by Doppler ultrasonography in 78 patients with renal allograft. The stage of chronic kidney disease was determined by the estimated glomerular filtration rate equation. Results The median renal arterial resistive index was 0.61 (interquartile range, 0.56 to 0.66). We observed a significant association between renal arterial resistive index above the upper quartile and chronic kidney disease stage 4 or higher (relative risk, 4.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.71 to 12.55; p = 0.003 by Fisher’s exact test). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that renal arterial resistive indices (p = 0.02) and time since transplantation (p = 0.04), but not age, gender, or blood pressure were significantly associated with chronic kidney disease stage 4 or higher. Conclusion A renal arterial resistive index higher than 0.66 may determine the threshold value of chronic kidney disease stage 4 or higher in patients with renal allograft.
Predicted Aerobic Capacity of Asthmatic Children: A Research Study from Clinical Origin
Lene Lochte
Pulmonary Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/854652
Abstract: Objective. To compare longitudinally PAC of asthmatic children against that of healthy controls during ten months. Methods. Twenty-eight asthmatic children aged 7–15 years and 27 matched controls each performed six submaximal exercise tests on treadmill, which included a test of EIA (exercise-induced asthma). Predicted aerobic capacity (mLO2/min/kg) was calculated. Spirometry and development were measured. Physical activity, medication, and “ever asthma/current asthma” were reported by questionnaire. Results. Predicted aerobic capacity of asthmatics was lower than that of controls ( ) across observation times and for both groups an important increase in predicted aerobic capacity according to time was observed ( ). FEV1 of the asthmatic children was within normal range. The majority (86%) of the asthmatics reported pulmonary symptoms to accompany their physical activity. Physical activity (hours per week) showed important effects for the variation in predicted aerobic capacity at baseline ( , ) and at the T4 observation ( , ) and the analyses showed important asthma/control group effects at baseline, month four, and month ten. Physical activity of the asthmatics correlated positively with predicted aerobic capacity. Conclusion. The asthmatic children had consistently low PAC when observed across time. Physical activity was positively associated with PAC in the asthmatics. 1. Introduction Children with asthma often experienced breathlessness during physical activity and therefore tended to avoid vigorous physical activity with disadvantageous consequences to their physical conditioning [1, 2]. There are few paediatric pulmonary conditions in which physical activity has had such potentially harmful effect on patients, not only by limiting exercise capability, but also by acting as a direct stimulus to the underlying pathophysiology [3]. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) has been recognized as one major manifestation of untreated asthma [4] with physical activity acknowledged as a powerful trigger of asthmatic disease [3, 5]. Physical activity in paediatric asthma has been influenced by physical as well as psychosocial variables. The comprehensive psychosocial variables included attitudes towards exercise. Asthmatic children have demonstrated negative attitudes towards physical activity [6] to be influenced by the limitations that they experienced in safely and unrestrictedly to join physical activities [5]. The cardiopulmonary fitness of asthmatic children was often suboptimal. Some studies revealed lower predicted aerobic capacity (PAC) among asthmatic
Klummen som politisk barometer
Lene Rimestad
Journalistica : Tidskrift f?r Forskning i Journalistik , 2009,
Abstract: Columns generally take up a lot of space in the media. But what can an employed journalist write in his column? How is this particular freedom managed and shaped? In this article the columns written by journalists working for Berlingske Tidende are analyzed. The analysis covers two months before and after substantial changes in the paper in 2003. Two parameters are used in the analysis: Political: Is the column pro-government, anti-government, apolitical or mixed. And what sphere does the column cover: Does the column take place in the private sphere or the public sphere? Finally the changes in the period are discussed. But initially the column as a genre is defined.
At ndre nutiden gennem fortiden – mundtlig historiefort lling i Danmark
Lene Andersen
Kulturstudier , 2010,
Abstract: Mange i dag t nker umiddelbart, at mundtlig fort lling af traditionelle sagn og eventyr mest h rer fortiden til. Men inden for de sidste rtier er der opst et en ny interesse for mundtlig historiefort lling i Danmark. De nye fort llere beretter traditionelle sagn og eventyr, men ogs historier de selv har oplevet eller fundet p , eller historier fra sk nlitter re v rker. Man f r indtryk af, at historiefort lling stadig har en forbindelse til fortiden. De st rste fort llefestivaler finder sted i historiske omgivelser p museer, og nutidens historiefort llere henviser ofte til fort lletraditionens lange historie, n r de taler og skriver om historiefort lling.Hidtil har den nye interesse for historiefort lling ikke v ret genstand for forskning, men artiklen freml gger et studie af historiefort lleres syn p fort lling og fortid. Fokus er, hvilke betydninger begreberne nostalgi og autenticitet har for fort llerne. Artiklen bygger prim rt p interviews med historiefort llere. Fort llerne blev blandt andet bedt om at beskrive, hvordan de umiddelbart forestillede sig, at historiefort lling fandt sted i fortiden. Det er et positivt billede af fortiden, der toner frem, og fort llerne bruger billederne af fortiden som afs t til at kritisere tr k af den moderne levem de. De kritiserer medierne og de elektriske apparater for at g re mennesker passive og del gge deres n rv r med andre levende mennesker. Ved at genoptage - hvad fort llerne opfatter som - en ldgammel og udd d tradition, nsker de at skabe nogle oplevelser, som det moderne menneske savner i vore dages samfund. For fort llerne danner fortiden et idealiseret modbillede til nutiden og rummer dermed mulighed for, at fort llerne kan tale om deres idealer og h b for historiefort lling. Changing the Present through the Past - Oral Story-Telling in Denmark Today, many people spontaneously think that oral transmission of traditional legends and fairy tales are a thing of the past. But in the last few decades a new interest has arisen in Denmark in oral story-telling. The new story-tellers relatetraditional legends and fairy tales, but also adventures that they themselves have experienced or invented, or stories from works of fiction. One has the impressionthat story-telling still has a link to the past. The major story-telling festivalstake place in historical surroundings in museums, and present-day story-tellers frequently point to the long history of the story-telling tradition when they speakor write about story-telling.So far, the new interest in story-telling has not been a subject for research, but the
Intelligent design af fokusgrupper - om metodisk design af fokusgrupper og menneskets forskellige intelligenser
Lene Heiselberg
MedieKultur : Journal of Media and Communication Research , 2008,
Abstract: N r man arbejder professionelt med at gennemf re kvalitative mini- og fokusgruppeanalyser, kan det ikke undg s, at man som moderator indimellem t nker: Hvorfor deltager hun ikke? Hvad kan jeg g re for at inkludere hende i diskussionen? Ofte skyldes nogle deltageres manglende engagement, at mini- eller fokusgruppens metodiske design favoriserer de deltagere, som har en fremtr dende verbalsproglig intelligens, og samtidig ekskluderes de, der har andre fremtr dende intelligenser, fra at yde det maksimale. En s dan situation er meget uheldig og kan i v rste fald give en unders gelse bias. Derfor har vi i DR Medieforskning arbejdet med en pragmatisk tilgang til problemet, hvor vi har afpr vet et metodisk design, som inkluderer kvalitative interviewteknikker og procesv rkt jer, som appellerer til samtlige intelligenser. Som et resultat af en m lrettet indsats for at inkludere flere intelligenser i det metodiske design, oplever vi, at deltagerne har mere lyst til at engagere sig og g r det med st rre selvsikkerhed. Desuden oplever vi i mindre grad f nomenet “cognitive tuning” , og derfor kan vi arbejde med flere og bedre data i analyse- og fortolkningsfasen. Intelligent design of focus groups - article about methodological design of focus groups and the different intelligences When you work professionally with the conducting and moderating of qualitative mini- and focus groups, you can't avoid sometimes thinking: Why isn’t she participating? What can I do to include her in the discussion? A participant's apparent lack of enthusiasm is often caused by the methodological design of the focus group giving preference to participants who have an explicit verbal intelligence, and as a consequence excludes participants with other explicit intelligences from contributing. A situation like the one described above is very undesirable and in a worst-case scenario it can cause a study to be biased. In order to try to solve this problem DR Media Research applied a methodological design which includes qualitative interviewing techniques and processing tools, which appeal to all of the intelligences instead of just one. As a result of this work, we find that the participants are more eager to participate and that they do it with greater self-confidence. In addition we encounter less cognitive tuning, and are therefore able to work with richer data in the phases of analysis and interpretation.
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