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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1667 matches for " Lena Holm "
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Expectations for Recovery Important in the Prognosis of Whiplash Injuries
Lena W Holm ,Linda J Carroll,J. David Cassidy,Eva Skillgate,Anders Ahlbom
PLOS Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050105
Abstract: Background Individuals' expectations on returning to work after an injury have been shown to predict the duration of time that a person with work-related low back pain will remain on benefits; individuals with lower recovery expectations received benefits for a longer time than those with higher expectations. The role of expectations in recovery from traumatic neck pain, in particular whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), has not been assessed to date to our knowledge. The aim of this study was to investigate if expectations for recovery are a prognostic factor after experiencing a WAD. Methods and Findings We used a prospective cohort study composed of insurance claimants in Sweden. The participants were car occupants who filed a neck injury claim (i.e., for WAD) to one of two insurance companies between 15 January 2004 and 12 January 2005 (n = 1,032). Postal questionnaires were completed shortly (average 23 d) after the collision and then again 6 mo later. Expectations for recovery were measured with a numerical rating scale (NRS) at baseline, where 0 corresponds to “unlikely to make a full recovery” and 10 to “very likely to make a full recovery.” The scale was reverse coded and trichotomised into NRS 0, 1–4, and 5–10. The main outcome measure was self-perceived disability at 6 mo postinjury, measured with the Pain Disability Index, and categorised into no/low, moderate, and high disability. Multivariable polytomous logistic regression was used for the analysis. There was a dose response relationship between recovery expectations and disability. After controlling for severity of physical and mental symptoms, individuals who stated that they were less likely to make a full recovery (NRS 5–10), were more likely to have a high disability compared to individuals who stated that they were very likely to make a full recovery (odds ratio [OR] 4.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1 to 8.5]. For the intermediate category (NRS 1–4), the OR was 2.1 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.2). Associations between expectations and disability were also found among individuals with moderate disability. Conclusions Individuals' expectations for recovery are important in prognosis, even after controlling for symptom severity. Interventions designed to increase patients' expectations may be beneficial and should be examined further in controlled studies.
Lactobacillus reuteri Maintains a Functional Mucosal Barrier during DSS Treatment Despite Mucus Layer Dysfunction
Johan Dicksved, Olof Schreiber, Ben Willing, Joel Petersson, Sara Rang, Mia Phillipson, Lena Holm, Stefan Roos
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046399
Abstract: Treatment with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri has been shown to prevent dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. This is partly due to reduced P-selectin-dependent leukocyte- and platelet-endothelial cell interactions, however, the mechanism behind this protective effect is still unknown. In the present study a combination of culture dependent and molecular based T-RFLP profiling was used to investigate the influence of L. reuteri on the colonic mucosal barrier of DSS treated rats. It was first demonstrated that the two colonic mucus layers of control animals had different bacterial community composition and that fewer bacteria resided in the firmly adherent layer. During DSS induced colitis, the number of bacteria in the inner firmly adherent mucus layer increased and bacterial composition of the two layers no longer differed. In addition, induction of colitis dramatically altered the microbial composition in both firmly and loosely adherent mucus layers. Despite protecting against colitis, treatment with L. reuteri did not improve the integrity of the mucus layer or prevent distortion of the mucus microbiota caused by DSS. However, L. reuteri decreased the bacterial translocation from the intestine to mesenteric lymph nodes during DSS treatment, which might be an important part of the mechanisms by which L. reuteri ameliorates DSS induced colitis.
Effects of dietary phytoestrogens on plasma testosterone and triiodothyronine (T3) levels in male goat kids
David Gunnarsson, Gunnar Selstam, Yvonne Ridderstr?le, Lena Holm, Elisabeth Ekstedt, Andrzej Madej
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-51-51
Abstract: Goat kids at the age of 3 months received either a standard diet or a diet supplemented with phytoestrogens (3 - 4 mg/kg/day) for ~3 months. Plasma testosterone and total and free triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were determined weekly. Testicular levels of testosterone and cAMP were measured at the end of the experiment. Repeated measurement analysis of variance using the MIXED procedure on the generated averages, according to the Statistical Analysis System program package (Release 6.12, 1996, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) was carried out.No significant difference in plasma testosterone concentration between the groups was detected during the first 7 weeks. However, at the age of 5 months (i.e. October 1, week 8) phytoestrogen-treated animals showed significantly higher testosterone concentrations than control animals (37.5 nmol/l vs 19.1 nmol/l). This elevation was preceded by a rise in plasma total T3 that occurred on September 17 (week 6). A slightly higher concentration of free T3 was detected in the phytoestrogen group at the same time point, but it was not until October 8 and 15 (week 9 and 10) that a significant difference was found between the groups. At the termination of the experiment, testicular cAMP levels were significantly lower in goats fed a phytoestrogen-supplemented diet. Phytoestrogen-fed animals also had lower plasma and testicular testosterone concentrations, but these differences were not statistically significant.Our findings suggest that phytoestrogens can stimulate testosterone synthesis during puberty in male goats by increasing the secretion of T3; a hormone known to stimulate Leydig cell steroidogenesis. It is possible that feedback signalling underlies the tendency towards decreased steroid production at the end of the experiment.Phytoestrogens are non-steroidal, diphenolic plant substances that have the capacity to bind to estrogen receptors (ERs) [1-3]. They have been suggested to protect against cancer, cardiovascular dise
The long-term effects of naprapathic manual therapy on back and neck pain - Results from a pragmatic randomized controlled trial
Eva Skillgate, Tony Bohman, Lena W Holm, Eva Ving?rd, Lars Alfredsson
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-11-26
Abstract: Subjects with non-specific pain/disability in the back and/or neck lasting for at least two weeks (n = 409), recruited at public companies in Sweden, were included in this pragmatic randomized controlled trial. The two interventions compared were naprapathic manual therapy such as spinal manipulation/mobilization, massage and stretching, (Index Group), and advice to stay active and on how to cope with pain, provided by a physician (Control Group). Pain intensity, disability and health status were measured by questionnaires.89% completed the 26-week follow-up and 85% the 52-week follow-up. A higher proportion in the Index Group had a clinically important decrease in pain (risk difference (RD) = 21%, 95% CI: 10-30) and disability (RD = 11%, 95% CI: 4-22) at 26-week, as well as at 52-week follow-ups (pain: RD = 17%, 95% CI: 7-27 and disability: RD = 17%, 95% CI: 5-28). The differences between the groups in pain and disability considered over one year were statistically significant favoring naprapathy (p ≤ 0.005). There were also significant differences in improvement in bodily pain and social function (subscales of SF-36 health status) favoring the Index Group.Combined manual therapy, like naprapathy, is effective in the short and in the long term, and might be considered for patients with non-specific back and/or neck pain.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN56954776.Back and neck pain are very common, have multiple etiologies, and often recurs [1-4], and are among the most common reasons for seeking primary health care [5]. The existing literature suggests that there is little difference in effect between the available treatments [6].One common non-invasive treatment is manual therapy, which is provided by several groups of health care providers such as naprapaths, physiotherapists, chiropractors and osteopaths. Manual therapy involves a variety of procedures directed at the neuromusculoskeletal structures.The most well studied manual techniques for back and neck pain is
Acute effects of Helicobacter pylori extracts on gastric mucosal blood flow in the mouse
Johanna Henriksn?s, Christer Atuma, Mia Phillipson, Stellan Sandler, Lars Engstrand, Lena Holm
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2009,
Abstract: AIM: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the reduction in gastric blood flow induced by a luminal water extract of Helicobacter pylori (HPE).METHODS: The stomachs of isoflurane-anesthetized mice were exteriorized, and the mucosal surface exposed. Blood flow was measured with the laser-Doppler technique, and systemic arterial blood pressure monitored. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to water extract produced from H pylori strain 88-23. To investigate the role of a nerve- or iNOS-mediated pathway, we used intraluminal lidocaine and iNOS-/- mice. Blood flow response to the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) was also assessed.RESULTS: In wild-type mice, HPE decreased mucosal blood flow by approximately 30%. This reduction was abolished in iNOS-deficient mice, and by pre-treatment with lidocaine. Luminally applied ADMA resulted in reduction in blood flow similar to that observed in wild-type mice exposed to HPE.CONCLUSION: A H pylori water extract reduces gastric mucosal blood flow acutely through iNOS- and nerve-mediated pathways.
iNOS-Dependent Increase in Colonic Mucus Thickness in DSS-Colitic Rats
Olof Schreiber, Joel Petersson, Tomas Waldén, David Ahl, Stellan Sandler, Mia Phillipson, Lena Holm
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071843
Abstract: Aim To investigate colonic mucus thickness in vivo in health and during experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Methods Colitis was induced with 5% DSS in drinking water for 8 days prior to experiment, when the descending colonic mucosa of anesthetized rats was studied using intravital microscopy. Mucus thickness was measured with micropipettes attached to a micromanipulator. To assess the contributions of NOS and prostaglandins in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, the non-selective NOS-inhibitor L-NNA (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h), the selective iNOS-inhibitor L-NIL (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h) and the non-selective COX-inhibitor diclofenac (5 mg/kg) were administered intravenously prior to experiment. To further investigate the role of iNOS in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, iNOS ?/? mice were used. Results Colitic rats had a thicker firmly adherent mucus layer following 8 days of DSS treatment than untreated rats (88±2 μm vs 76±1 μm). During induction of colitis, the thickness of the colonic mucus layer initially decreased but was from day 3 significantly thicker than in untreated rats. Diclofenac reduced the mucus thickness similarly in colitic and untreated rats (?16±5 μm vs ?14±2 μm). While L-NNA had no effect on colonic mucus thickness in DSS or untreated controls (+3±2 μm vs +3±1 μm), L-NIL reduced the mucus thickness significantly more in colitic rats than in controls (?33±4 μm vs ?10±3 μm). The importance of iNOS in regulating the colonic mucus thickness was confirmed in iNOS?/? mice, which had thinner colonic mucus than wild-type mice (35±3 μm vs 50±2 μm, respectively). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of iNOS in the colonic surface epithelium following DSS treatment. Conclusion Both prostaglandins and nitric oxide regulate basal colonic mucus thickness. During onset of colitis, the thickness of the mucus layer is initially reduced followed by an iNOS mediated increase.
Endogenous Acute Phase Serum Amyloid A Lacks Pro-Inflammatory Activity, Contrasting the Two Recombinant Variants That Activate Human Neutrophils through Different Receptors
Karin Christenson,Lena Bj?rkman,Sofie Ahlin,Maja Olsson,Kajsa Sj?holm,Anna Karlsson,Johan Bylund
Frontiers in Immunology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00092
Abstract: Most notable among the acute phase proteins is serum amyloid A (SAA), levels of which can increase 1000-fold during infections, aseptic inflammation, and/or trauma. Chronically elevated SAA levels are associated with a wide variety of pathological conditions, including obesity and rheumatic diseases. Using a recombinant hybrid of the two human SAA isoforms (SAA1 and 2) that does not exist in vivo, numerous in vitro studies have given rise to the notion that acute phase SAA is a pro-inflammatory molecule with cytokine-like properties. It is however unclear whether endogenous acute phase SAA per se mediates pro-inflammatory effects. We tested this in samples from patients with inflammatory arthritis and in a transgenic mouse model that expresses human SAA1. Endogenous human SAA did not drive production of pro-inflammatory IL-8/KC in either of these settings. Human neutrophils derived from arthritis patients displayed no signs of activation, despite being exposed to severely elevated SAA levels in circulation, and SAA-rich sera also failed to activate cells in vitro. In contrast, two recombinant SAA variants (the hybrid SAA and SAA1) both activated human neutrophils, inducing L-selectin shedding, production of reactive oxygen species, and production of IL-8. The hybrid SAA was approximately 100-fold more potent than recombinant SAA1. Recombinant hybrid SAA and SAA1 activated neutrophils through different receptors, with recombinant SAA1 being a ligand for formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). We conclude that even though recombinant SAAs can be valuable tools for studying neutrophil activation, they do not reflect the nature of the endogenous protein.
The Impact of CBSE’s Activities on E-Commerce Applications  [PDF]
Lena Khaled
iBusiness (IB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2013.51A005

Component based technology is widely used for both academicians and business. There are numbers of benefits for using this type of technology. First, it helps to increase the efficiency and maintainability of software. Second, it improves quality and helps to enhance productivity. Third, the reuse approach that supports component based technology decreases the time to market. Component based e-commerce can be used to solve e-commerce difficulties at application level as well as at system level. This paper introduces how component based activities have effect mainly on building the framework of the e-commerce. It also discusses how the architectural design of the application can be synthesized.

CRY2 Is Associated with Rapid Cycling in Bipolar Disorder Patients
Louise K. Sj?holm,Lena Backlund,Emarndeena Haji Cheteh,Inger R?mer Ek,Louise Frisén,Martin Schalling,Urban ?sby,Catharina Lavebratt,Pernilla Nikamo
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012632
Abstract: Bipolar disorder patients often display abnormalities in circadian rhythm, and they are sensitive to irregular diurnal rhythms. CRY2 participates in the core clock that generates circadian rhythms. CRY2 mRNA expression in blood mononuclear cells was recently shown to display a marked diurnal variation and to respond to total sleep deprivation in healthy human volunteers. It was also shown that bipolar patients in a depressive state had lower CRY2 mRNA levels, nonresponsive to total sleep deprivation, compared to healthy controls, and that CRY2 gene variation was associated with winter depression in both Swedish and Finnish cohorts.
Establishment of a Transgenic Mouse Model Specifically Expressing Human Serum Amyloid A in Adipose Tissue
Maja Olsson,Sofie Ahlin,Bob Olsson,Per-Arne Svensson,Marcus St?hlman,Jan Borén,Lena M. S. Carlsson,Kajsa Sj?holm
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019609
Abstract: Obesity and obesity co-morbidities are associated with a low grade inflammation and elevated serum levels of acute phase proteins, including serum amyloid A (SAA). In the non-acute phase in humans, adipocytes are major producers of SAA but the function of adipocyte-derived SAA is unknown. To clarify the role of adipocyte-derived SAA, a transgenic mouse model expressing human SAA1 (hSAA) in adipocytes was established. hSAA expression was analysed using real-time PCR analysis. Male animals were challenged with a high fat (HF) diet. Plasma samples were subjected to fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) separation. hSAA, cholesterol and triglyceride content were measured in plasma and in FPLC fractions. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed an adipose tissue-specific hSAA gene expression. Moreover, the hSAA gene expression was not influenced by HF diet. However, hSAA plasma levels in HF fed animals (37.7±4.0 μg/mL, n = 7) were increased compared to those in normal chow fed animals (4.8±0.5 μg/mL, n = 10; p<0.001), and plasma levels in the two groups were in the same ranges as in obese and lean human subjects, respectively. In FPLC separated plasma samples, the concentration of hSAA peaked in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) containing fractions. In addition, cholesterol distribution over the different lipoprotein subfractions as assessed by FPLC analysis was similar within the two experimental groups. The established transgenic mouse model demonstrates that adipose tissue produced hSAA enters the circulation, resulting in elevated plasma levels of hSAA. This new model will enable further studies of metabolic effects of adipose tissue-derived SAA.
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