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Search Results: 1 - 6 of 6 matches for " Lekishon Kenana "
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Patterns of Variation of Herbivore Assemblages at Nairobi National Park, Kenya, 1990-2008  [PDF]
Alfred O Owino, Moses Lekishon Kenana, Paul Webala, Samuel Andanje, Patrick O Omondi
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.26097
Abstract: Wildlife, especially mammals populations dynamics in many conservation areas are influenced by ecosystem processes and increasingly by climate change. Generally, cyclic population dynamics is relatively common among small mammals, especially in high latitudes but is not yet established among many African savanna ungulates. Habitat fragmentation and loss propagated by anthropogenic activities are responsible for the decline in populations of many wildlife species leading to the confinement many wildlife species particularly herbivores within parks and reserves as a conservation measure. We assessed the patterns of variation in abundance of eight herbivore species (African Buffalo, Eland, Burchell’s Zebra, Wildebeest, Giraffe, Grant’s Gazelle, Thomson’s Gazelle and Impala) at Kenya’s Nairobi National Park using population counts data over the period 1990-2008. Overall, the eight herbivores abundances declined within the Park with significant declines in Wildebeest (R2 = 0.54), Grant’s Gazelle (R2 = 0.72) and Impala (R2 = 0.80). Seasonality had effects on herbivore numbers and assemblages at the Park with the numbers of individual species increasing within the Park during dry seasons compared to wet seasons (t-test, t = 4.45, p = 0.03). Land use changes and urban development, especially in the dispersal areas and the accompanying effects of climate change of reduced rainfall and longer periods of drought had significant negative impacts on herbivore assemblages at the Park. We discuss the significance of the population fluctuations of the eight species at the Park, the potential impacts of the changes on Park ecosystem processes and the expected long-term population dynamics of the species if the conditions remain as witnessed over the past two decades.
Wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) Population Densities and Distribution in Dry and Wet Season in the Kilimanjaro Landscape  [PDF]
Noah Sitati, Kenana Lekishon, Samuel Bakari, Fiesta Warinwa, Stephen Ndambuki Mwiu, Nathan Gichohi, Elphas Bitok, Machoke Mwita, Hamza K. Ija, Joseph Mukeka
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.513070
Abstract: The conservation of migratory wildlife species in the savannah habitat can be a challenge because of frequent and prolonged drought and their requirements for a large area. We investigated the performance of the wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) population in the 25,624 km2 Kilimanjaro landscape of Kenya and Tanzania, which comprises Amboseli-West Kilimanjaro-Magadi-Natron after 2009 drought. We used total aerial counts to determine the spatial distribution and numbers of wildebeests during wet and dry season in 2010 and 2013. Global Positioning System and digital voice recorders were used to count wildebeests along established transects within blocks. There was an increase in the wildebeest population by 103% during the wet season and 14% during the dry season between 2010 and 2013. The seasonal variation in density occurred between the four counting blocks with Natron and Magadi areas recording the highest densities. Generally, the increase in population could be attributed to the recovery of the population after the 2009 drought. The current cross border collaboration between Kenya and Tanzania in aerial surveys is an important step in the conservation of this migratory species in the landscape. This study demonstrates that detailed knowledge of density and spatial distribution of migratory species is required to plan effective conservation action.
Population Status and Trend of Water Dependent Grazers (Buffalo and Waterbuck) in the Kenya-Tanzania Borderland  [PDF]
Moses Makonjio Okello, Lekishon Kenana, Hanori Maliti, John Warui Kiringe, Erastus Kanga, Fiesta Warinwa, Samwel Bakari, Nathan Gichohi, Stephen Ndambuki, Hamza Kija, Noah Sitati, David Kimutai, Machoke Mwita, Daniel Muteti, Philip Muruthi
Natural Resources (NR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.62009
Abstract: Even though over many years the IUCN has considered the African buffalo and waterbuck and abundant species in Africa with no conservation concern, the situation is rapidly changing. Using aerial counts in wet and dry season in 2010 and 2013, this study assessed the trend, population status and distribution of the African buffalo and common waterbuck in the Northern Tanzania and Southern Kenya borderland. Both species were rare in the borderland, with the Amboseli region had the highest number of buffalo (241.5 ± 29.9), followed by Magadi/Namanga (58.0 ± 22.0), West Kilimanjaro (38.8 ± 34.9), and lastly Lake Natron (14.5 ± 9.0) areas. In terms of density, Amboseli also led with 0.03 ± 0.00 (buffalo per km2), but rest had similar densities of 0.01 ± 0.00 buffalo per km2. In terms of percent changes in buffalo, Amboseli area had a positive increase (+10.59 ± 27.71), but with a negative growth of -17.12 in the dry season. All other changes in all locations had negative (decline) buffalo numbers over time. For waterbuck numbers, Amboseli area also led with 12.3 ± 3.9 waterbuck), followed by Magadi/Namanga (10.3 ± 3.7.0), Lake Natron (3.8 ± 3.4), and lastly West Kilimanjaro (0.5 ± 0.5) areas. In terms of waterbuck density, they were low and less than 0.00 ± 0.00 per km2. For percent changes in waterbuck numbers, Magadi/Namanga had higher positive change (+458.33 ± 291.67), but all other locations had negative (decline) changes with the worst being West Kilimanjaro and Lake Natron areas. Further, buffalo number was dependent (p = 0.008) on the season, with numbers being higher in the wet season than dry season. For waterbuck, numbers were independent (p = 0.72) of the season, with numbers being similar across seasons. The findings of this study showed that both species were negatively affected by drought. We recommend a constant joint monitoring program between Kenya and Tanzania, and jointly combat poaching, habitat fragmentation and encroachment to build viable populations in the borderland.
Population Status and Trend of the Maasai Giraffe in the Mid Kenya-Tanzania Borderland  [PDF]
Moses Makonjio Okello, Lekishon Kenana, Honori Maliti, John Warui Kiringe, Erastus Kanga, Fiesta Warinwa, Samwel Bakari, Stephen Ndambuki, Hamza Kija, Noah Sitati, David Kimutai, Nathan Gichohi, Daniel Muteti, Philip Muruthi, Machoke Mwita
Natural Resources (NR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.63015
Abstract: Among the nine sub-species of giraffes, the Maasai giraffe is the most widespread and common in Northern and Southern Kenya. Although it’s considered by the IUCN to be a species of no conservation concern, they have been reported to have declined in some of their range areas mostly due to bush meat activities, habitat fragmentation and loss. There are also concerns recent climatic changes especially prevalence of droughts is increasingly becoming another threat to their survival. In this regard, this study examined the status and trend of the Maasai giraffe in the Kenya-Tanzania border after the 2007 to 2009 drought. Amboseli had the highest giraffe number (averaging 2, 062.5 ± 534.7 giraffes), followed by a distant Lake Natron area (725.8 ± 129.4 giraffes), Magadi/Namanga (669.5 ± 198.0 giraffes), and lastly West Kilimanjaro area (236.5 ± 47.8 giraffes). Further, the proportion of giraffes were highest in Amboseli (55.09% ± 5.65%) followed by Lake Natron area (20.98% ± 3.42%), Magadi/Namanga area (16.35% ± 3.83%), and lastly West Kilimanjaro (7.58% ± 2.12%). But in terms of population growth after droughts, giraffe had positive growth in all locations in the borderland, with Magadi leading (+339.82 ± 329.99) followed Lake Natron area (+37.62 ± 83.27), Amboseli area (+38.11 ± 7.09), and lastly West Kilimanjaro (+3.21 ± 57.95.27). Their wet season population and density was much higher than that of the dry season. However, though the species was widely spread in the borderland, they seemed to avoid the region between Lake Magadi and Amboseli which is traversed by the Nairobi-Namanga highway both in wet and dry season. There is a need to develop a collaborative management framework for cross-border conservation to enhance their protection, conservation and genetic linkage.
Population Status and Trend of the Maasai Ostrich in the Mid Kenya—Tanzania Borderland  [PDF]
Moses Makonjio Okello, John Warui Kiringe, Lekishon Kenana, Fiesta Warinwa, Hanori Maliti, Noah Wasilwa Sitati, Erastus Kanga, Samwel Bakari, Stephen Ndambuki, Philip Muruthi, Nathan Gichohi, Edeus Massawe, David Kimutai, Machoke Mwita, Daniel Muteti
Natural Resources (NR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2016.710047
Abstract: The Maasai ostrich (Struthio camelus) is a the largest avian species in East Africa and though it’s not considered to be a species of conservation concern, some populations are on the decline and this is attributed to bush meat activities, predation on their eggs illegal consumption by humans, habitat destruction and forage competition with other large wildlife species. Climate change is also emerging to be another major threat due to interference with food availability which in turn interferes with the breeding rhythm. Thus, this study examined the population status, trend and distribution of the Maasai ostrich in the Southern Kenya and Northern Tanzania borderland after the 2007 to 2009 drought. The results showed that the species was found across the entire borderland but the Amboseli region had the highest number and density of Maasai ostrich (726.00 ± 100.9; 0.08 ± 0.01 ostriches per km2), followed by Lake Natron area (330.8 ± 69.8; 0.05 ± 0.01 ostriches per km2) and the least was in West Kilimanjaro (85.5 ± 18.0; 0.03 ± 0.01 ostriches per km2). Drought caused a decline in the population of the Maasai ostrich but the Amboseli area experienced the highest decline in density (?13.44 ± 12.61) compared to other borderland sectors. However, the populations increased in most sectors after the drought, and wet season numbers and densities were higher than the dry season. The highest positive increase in number and density was in Lake Natron area (+85.65 ± 91.06) followed by West Kilimanjaro (+68.39 ± 59.54), and the least was in the Magadi area (+22.26 ± 32.05). There is a need to enhance conservation of avian species like the Maasai ostrich other than just focusing on the charismatic species such as the African elephant and black rhino. We therefore recommend joint collaboration in monitoring all large wildlife populations across the Kenya-Tanzania borderland with a view of understanding their status, trend and best management actions that can enhance their conservation.
Post Drought Population Status and Trend of Specialized Browsers in the Mid Kenya-Tanzania Borderland  [PDF]
Moses Makonjio Okello, John Warui Kiringe, Philip Muruthi, Lekishon Kenana, Hanori Maliti, Noah Wasilwa Sitati, Erastus Kanga, Fiesta Warinwa, Samwel Bakari, Stephen Ndambuki, Nathan Gichohi, Edeus Massawe, David Kimutai, Machoke Mwita, Daniel Muteti
Natural Resources (NR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2016.710048
Abstract: We examined the population status, trend and distribution of Gerenuk, Fringe-eared Oryx and Lesser kudu in the Northern Tanzania and Southern Kenya borderland after the 2007 to 2009 drought. The species were characterized by low numbers and sparsely distributed in the borderland but were more prevalent and abundant in the Amboseli region. However, West Kilimanjaro had the highest positive change in density between 2010 and 2013 [Gerenuk = +1650.48 ± 1150.31, lesser kudu = +912.78 ± 487.63 and Fringe-eared Oryx = +366.65 ± 233.32]. Changes in density and composition varied seasonally among the different sectors of the borderland, with Gerenuk having the highest change in the Amboseli area during the wet season. Lesser kudu had the highest change in Amboseli and Kilimanjaro during the wet season while Fringe-eared Oryx had the highest change in the wet season in West Kilimanjaro area. Spatial distribution of the species varied seasonally and across different sectors of the borderland. In the dry season, Gerenuk exhibited a clumped distribution mainly in Amboseli National Park, and between Natron and West Kilimanjaro but in the wet season, it spread out more though higher concentrations were still found Amboseli and West Kilimanjaro. Lesser concentrated in mostly in West Kilimanjaro and Amboseli during the dry season but was widely dispersed during the wet season. Similarly, during the dry season, the Fringe-eared Oryx was confined in the Amboseli and West Kilimanjaro areas but during the wet season, it much more spread out with clusters in the Mbirikani area of the Amboseli region and a few places in Magadi, Natron and West Kilimanjaro. Management implications of the findings obtained in this study area here-in discussed.
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