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Towards a Paradigm Shift in the Production of Vocational Education Teachers in Nigeria
Nath Abraham,Mark Leigha
World Journal of Education , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/wje.v2n2p58
Abstract: Modern education the world over now envisions achievement of science and technological advancement for economic growth and poverty reduction. The imperative is for teachers to deliver instruction in vocational skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge related to occupations in various sectors of the Nigerian economic and social life. If we believe that the quality of an educational system is a correlate of teacher quality then, logically, the teacher should be the first to acquire this vocational identity and orientation to be able to transmit the same to students. Today, schools have ‘talk-and-chalk’ teachers teaching vocation education students with traditional skills - dictate long notes, memorize books, drill and indoctrinate skills rather than skills that reduce classroom experiences to real world situations. This means teaching without teachers and represents a fundamental missing link. A paradigm shift is required. Therefore, it is recommended that teacher training (production) programmes (in terms of curricula, content, pedagogy and funding) be reformed to produce sharp and appropriate teacher response to this new concept of education.
Breastfeeding and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers
Joanne Kotsopoulos, Jan Lubinski, Leonardo Salmena, Henry T Lynch, Charmaine Kim-Sing, William D Foulkes, Parviz Ghadirian, Susan L Neuhausen, Rochelle Demsky, Nadine Tung, Peter Ainsworth, Leigha Senter, Andrea Eisen, Charis Eng, Christian Singer, Ophira Ginsburg, Joanne Blum, Tomasz Huzarski, Aletta Poll, Ping Sun, Steven A Narod, the Hereditary Breast Cancer Clinical Study Group
Breast Cancer Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/bcr3138
Abstract: We conducted a case-control study of 1,665 pairs of women with a deleterious mutation in either BRCA1 (n = 1,243 pairs) or BRCA2 (n = 422 pairs). Breast cancer cases and unaffected controls were matched on year of birth, mutation status, country of residence and parity. Information about reproductive factors, including breastfeeding for each live birth, was collected from a routinely administered questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the association between ever having breastfed, as well as total duration of breastfeeding, and the risk of breast cancer.Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, breastfeeding for at least one year was associated with a 32% reduction in risk (OR = 0.68; 95% CI 0.52 to 0.91; P = 0.008); breastfeeding for two or more years conferred a greater reduction in risk (OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.74). Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, there was no significant association between breastfeeding for at least one year and breast cancer risk (OR = 0.83; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.31; P = 0.43).These data extend our previous findings that breastfeeding protects against BRCA1-, but not BRCA2-associated breast cancer. BRCA mutation carriers should be advised of the benefit of breastfeeding in terms of reducing breast cancer risk.In the general population, reproductive factors, including late age at menarche, parity and breastfeeding, have been shown to protect against the development of breast cancer [1-3]. Various proposed mechanisms include reducing lifetime exposure to ovarian hormones, reducing the cumulative number of ovulatory cycles and differentiation of the breast lobules [4,5]. We and others have evaluated the impact of reproductive factors in the etiology of BRCA-associated breast cancer, although the results are conflicting and vary by BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation [6-8]. With respect to breastfeeding and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers, two previous studies reported no relationship [9,10] and three studies reported a protectiv
Characterization of a New Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cell Line for Mechanistic In Vitro and In Vivo Studies Relevant to Disease
Erin Hertlein, Kyle A. Beckwith, Gerard Lozanski, Timothy L. Chen, William H. Towns, Amy J. Johnson, Amy Lehman, Amy S. Ruppert, Brad Bolon, Leslie Andritsos, Arletta Lozanski, Laura Rassenti, Weiqiang Zhao, Tiina M. Jarvinen, Leigha Senter, Carlo M. Croce, David E. Symer, Albert de la Chapelle, Nyla A. Heerema, John C. Byrd
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076607
Abstract: Studies of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have yielded substantial progress, however a lack of immortalized cell lines representative of the primary disease has hampered a full understanding of disease pathogenesis and development of new treatments. Here we describe a novel CLL cell line (OSU-CLL) generated by EBV transformation, which displays a similar cytogenetic and immunophenotype observed in the patient’s CLL (CD5 positive with trisomy 12 and 19). A companion cell line was also generated from the same patient (OSU-NB). This cell line lacked typical CLL characteristics, and is likely derived from the patient’s normal B cells. In vitro migration assays demonstrated that OSU-CLL exhibits migratory properties similar to primary CLL cells whereas OSU-NB has significantly reduced ability to migrate spontaneously or towards chemokine. Microarray analysis demonstrated distinct gene expression patterns in the two cell lines, including genes on chromosomes 12 and 19, which is consistent with the cytogenetic profile in this cell line. Finally, OSU-CLL was readily transplantable into NOG mice, producing uniform engraftment by three weeks with leukemic cells detectable in the peripheral blood spleen and bone marrow. These studies describe a new CLL cell line that extends currently available models to study gene function in this disease.
Fast, approximate kinetics of RNA folding
Evan Senter,Peter Clote
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce the software suite, Hermes, which provides fast, novel algorithms for RNA secondary structure kinetics. Using the fast Fourier transform to e?ciently compute the Boltzmann probability that a secondary structure S of a given RNA sequence has base pair distance x [resp. y] from reference structure A [resp. B], Hermes computes the exact kinetics of folding from A to B in this coarse-grained model. In particular, Hermes computes the mean ?rst passage time from the transition probability matrix by using matrix inversion, and also computes the equilibrium time from the rate matrix by using spectral decomposition. Due to the model granularity and the speed of Hermes, it is capable of determining secondary structure refolding kinetics for large RNA sequences, beyond the range of other methods. Comparative benchmarking of Hermes with other methods indicates that Hermes provides refolding kinetics of accuracy suitable for use in computational design of RNA, an important area of synthetic biology. Source code and documentation for Hermes are available at http://bioinformatics. bc.edu/clotelab/Hermes/.
Operation of the Handicraft Element of Primary and Junior Secondary Curriculum: Implications for Technological Adavancement in Nigeria
Nath Abraham,Lois Nkechi Abraham,Mark Leigha
World Journal of Education , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/wje.v2n3p94
Abstract: Technological advancement has been related to national economic growth and poverty reduction by both national and international analysts. Development of indigenous skills (handicrafts or handiwork) is seen as central to successful administration of indigenous skill development critical for solution of contemporary problems in society. In Nigeria, the desire to develop local craft as a basis for technology appreciation and application is well articulated in the National Policy on Education, especially in the basic (primary and junior secondary) education curriculum. It is expedient therefore, to examine the operation of the handicraft element of the basic education curriculum and determine the implications on the nation’s strive to achieve technological advancement. Consequently, relevant terms were conceptualized; the implications for policy operation were treated, and parameters for better operation such as provision of basic infrastructures (libraries, laboratories, workshops, etc), training of local craft teaching staff, in addition to adequate financing were recommended.
Development and Validation of a Mathematical Model to Describe Anti-Cancer Prodrug Activation by Antibody-Enzyme Conjugates
Trachette L. Jackson,Peter D. Senter,James D. Murray
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine , 2000, DOI: 10.1080/10273660008833040
Abstract: A mathematical model has been developed for a two-step approach to cancer chemotherapy involving the use of targeted monoclonal antibody-enzyme conjugates for the selective activation of anti-cancer prodrugs. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are used to characterize critical parameters for intratumoral and systemic drug generation. The model suggests that the most important pharmacokinetic and clinical parameters for increased drug production in the tumor are the rate of prodrug clearance from the blood and the initial injected dose of prodrug. The physiological parameters with the most influence are the prodrug and drug permeability. The ratio of tumor to blood drug generation can best be improved by increasing the conjugate clearance from the blood and decreasing the rate at which prodrug is converted to active drug. Predictions from this model concerning intratumoral prodrug and drug levels are validated by comparison with experimental data. Finally, the effects of certain barriers to chemotherapeutic treatments including vascular heterogeneity and radially outward convection are studied. If vascular heterogeneity alone is considered, the model predicts that the highest drug levels will occur in the most poorly vascularized sections of the tumor. However, when the effects of convection directed radially outward is considered, the highest drug levels are seen in the semi-well vascularized regions. This implies that the rapidly growing periphery of the tumor and the semi-necrotic tumor interior will receive the least amount of drug. These mathematical model predictions can lead to improved treatment protocols for this two step approach to cancer chemotherapy.
Martharaptor greenriverensis, a New Theropod Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Utah
Phil Senter, James I. Kirkland, Donald D. DeBlieux
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043911
Abstract: Background The Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation (Early Cretaceous, Barremian?) of Utah has yielded a rich dinosaur fauna, including the basal therizinosauroid theropod Falcarius utahensis at its base. Recent excavation uncovered a new possible therizinosauroid taxon from a higher stratigraphic level in the Cedar Mountain Formation than F. utahensis. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a fragmentary skeleton of the new theropod and perform a phylogenetic analysis to determine its phylogenetic position. The skeleton includes fragments of vertebrae, a scapula, forelimb and hindlimb bones, and an ischium. It also includes several well-preserved manual unguals. Manual and pedal morphology show that the specimen is distinct from other theropods from the Cedar Mountain Formation and from previously described therizinosauroids. It is here named as the holotype of a new genus and species, Martharaptor greenriverensis. Phylogenetic analysis places M. greenriverensis within Therizinosauroidea as the sister taxon to Alxasaurus + Therizinosauridae, although support for this placement is weak. Conclusions/Significance The new specimen adds to the known dinosaurian fauna of the Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation. If the phylogenetic placement is correct, it also adds to the known diversity of Therizinosauroidea.
A New Troodontid Theropod Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Utah
Phil Senter,James I. Kirkland,John Bird,Jeff A. Bartlett
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014329
Abstract: The theropod dinosaur family Troodontidae is known from the Upper Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Upper Cretaceous of Asia and from the Upper Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous of North America. Before now no undisputed troodontids from North America have been reported from the Early Cretaceous.
Relationship of Fiber Properties to Vortex Yarn Quality via Partial Least Squares
Calvin Price,Herman Senter,Jonn Foulk,Gary Gamble
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics , 2009,
Abstract: The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of theUSDA-ARS, recently completed a comprehensivestudy of the relationship of cotton fiber properties tothe quality of spun yarn. The five year study, beganin 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown,harvested and ginned in each of three major growingregions in the US (Georgia, Mississippi, and Texas).CQRS made extensive measurements of the rawcotton properties (both physical and chemical) of 154lots of blended cotton. These lots were then spuninto yarn in the CQRS laboratory by vortex spinningwith several characteristics of the yarn and spinningefficiency measured for each lot. This studyexamines the use of a multivariate statistical method,partial least squares (PLS), to relate fiber propertiesto spun yarn quality for vortex spinning. Twodifferent sets of predictors were used to forecast yarnquality response variables: one set being only HVI variables, and the second set consisting of bothHVI and AFIS variables. The quality ofpredictions was not found to significantly changewith the addition of AFIS variables.
Using the Fast Fourier Transform to Accelerate the Computational Search for RNA Conformational Switches
Evan Senter, Saad Sheikh, Ivan Dotu, Yann Ponty, Peter Clote
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050506
Abstract: Using complex roots of unity and the Fast Fourier Transform, we design a new thermodynamics-based algorithm, FFTbor, that computes the Boltzmann probability that secondary structures differ by base pairs from an arbitrary initial structure of a given RNA sequence. The algorithm, which runs in quartic time and quadratic space , is used to determine the correlation between kinetic folding speed and the ruggedness of the energy landscape, and to predict the location of riboswitch expression platform candidates. A web server is available at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/FF?Tbor/.
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