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Purebred microorganisms were employed to upgrade the fermentation process of Zhejiang rosy vinegar. The fermentation cycle was greatly shorten from 5 months to 72 d. The transformation rate of raw materials was increased from 1:4.5 in the traditional fermentation to 1:5 or more in the upgraded fermentation. The content of organic acids in the traditional vinegar (TRV), the upgraded vinegar (UPV) and the submerged fermentation vinegar (SFV) were also investigated by HPLC. No significant difference was found regarding the proportion of phenylethanol to the total volatile components in UPV (7.47% ± 0.00324%) and TRV (7.23% ± 0.00329%), but it was significantly higher than that in SFV (2.26% ± 0.00143%). This study provides deep insight into upgrading the fermentation process of Zhejiang rosy vinegar by purebred microorganisms.
The investigation of surface tension is a very important task for gas hydrate studying. Surfactants can effectively reduce the surface tension, improve the gas storage capability of hydrate and increase the formation rate, shorten the induction time. The objective of this study were to obtain a better understanding of the role of surface tension on hydrate formation and build gas hydrate models involve surfactant. In this study it was highlighted that the surface tension of Intechem-01 + SDS composite surfactants in natural gas hydrate promotion system and the change rules at different temperatures, concentration and proportion. According to the results of experiment, the surface tension of composite surfactants decreased with the increase of Intechem-01. The best cooperating effect was observed in proportion (Intechem-01 content) of 0.6 - 0.7, where the surface tension was the lowest. In this proportion range, the composite surfactants showed the same effect to pure fluorine carbon surfactant. The study shown the surface tension of composite surfactants decreased with the rise of temperature, and they were in a linear relationship within a certain range. Surface tension of composite surfactants decreased with the increase of surfactant concentration, however, it was no longer decreased above critical micelle concentration (CMC). The fitting equation of surface tension with various factors has been obtained.