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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 27189 matches for " Lee Baker "
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Use of Science in Autism Policy Development  [PDF]
Dana Lee Baker
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2013.31001

Though ultimately beneficial to society, interactions between science and politics require careful tending. Because science is an exercise in trial and error, public policy development can be affected by both scientific missteps and the length of time it takes to produce reasonable scientific certainty. Introduction of scientific findings, especially more preliminary ones, into the political process has a mixed record. Understanding how these tensions play out in contemporary politics is important for both disability studies and policy studies generally. This article explores how science and scientific evidence is employed by stakeholders engaged with autism policy development in the United States.

Public Policy and the Shaping of Disability: Incidence Growth in Educational Autism
Dana Lee Baker
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 2004,
Abstract: Autism has gained the attention of policy makers and public administrators in recent years. The surge in prevalence, in tandem with a growing social preference for community inclusion of individuals with disabilities, strains a variety of policy infrastructures. Autism and related disorders, which were first described in 1943, were originally thought to be extremely low incidence and usually coincident with mental retardation. In accordance with the disability policy paradigm of the era, public services for autism were provided predominantly in institutional settings. Since then, however, autism and related disorders have come to be understood as more common than was originally thought and more rarely associated with mental retardation. In this article, shift-share analysis is used to gain insight into how the growth in autism incidence is being differentially experienced and recorded within a single arena of policy across the United States. The challenges associated with a sudden growth in supply (that is the number of children with autism), while unique to autism in some respects, include aspects that are similar for other disabilities and in policy challenges in other arenas. Especially since the implementation of the Government Performance Results Act of 1996, there is increased pressure to create public policy infrastructures that are anchored by clearly cut categorical service delivery. If the categories themselves leave significant room for interpretation and their use actually has a shaping effect on the target population, then it is important to administration and policy evaluation to understand how the effect is playing out.
Potentiometric Measurement of State-of-Charge of Lead-Acid Batteries Using Polymeric Ferrocene and Quinones Derivatives  [PDF]
Touma B. Issa, Pritam Singh, Murray V. Baker, Todd Lee
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2014.44015

Measurement of state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries using potentiometric sensors would be convenient; however, most of the electrochemical couples are either soluble or are unstable in the battery electrolyte. This paper describes the results of an investigation of poly (divinylferrocene) (PDVF) and Poly(diethynylanthraquinone) (PAQ) couples in sulfuric acid with the view to developing a potentiometric sensor for lead-acid batteries. These compounds were both found to be quite stable and undergo reversible reduction/oxidation in sulfuric acid media. Their redox potential difference varied linearly with sulfuric acid concentration in the range of 1 M - 5 M (i.e. simulated lead-acid electrolyte during battery charge/discharge cycles). A sensor based on these compounds has been investigated.


Self-Organized Criticality Below The Glass Transition
Katharina Vollmayr-Lee,Elizabeth A. Baker
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1209/epl/i2006-10405-1
Abstract: We obtain evidence that the dynamics of glassy systems below the glass transition is characterized by self-organized criticality. Using molecular dynamics simulations of a model glass-former we identify clusters of cooperatively jumping particles. We find string-like clusters whose size is power-law distributed not only close to T_c but for ALL temperatures below T_c, indicating self-organized criticality which we interpret as a freezing in of critical behavior.
Sparse Representation by Frames with Signal Analysis  [PDF]
Christopher Baker
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2016.71006
Abstract: The use of frames is analyzed in Compressed Sensing (CS) through proofs and experiments. First, a new generalized Dictionary-Restricted Isometry Property (D-RIP) sparsity bound constant for CS is established. Second, experiments with a tight frame to analyze sparsity and reconstruction quality using several signal and image types are shown. The constant \"\"?is used in fulfilling the definition of D-RIP. It is proved that k-sparse signals can be reconstructed if \"\"?by using a concise and transparent argument1. The approach could be extended to obtain other D-RIP bounds (i.e. \"\"). Experiments contrast results of a Gabor tight frame with Total Variation minimization. In cases of practical interest, the use of a Gabor dictionary performs well when achieving a highly sparse representation and poorly when this sparsity is not achieved.
Explicit modeling of organic chemistry and secondary organic aerosol partitioning for Mexico City and its outflow plume
J. Lee-Taylor,S. Madronich,B. Aumont,A. Baker
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-13219-2011
Abstract: The evolution of organic aerosols (OA) in Mexico City and its outflow is investigated with the nearly explicit gas phase photochemistry model GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere), wherein precursor hydrocarbons are oxidized to numerous intermediate species for which vapor pressures are computed and used to determine gas/particle partitioning in a chemical box model. Precursor emissions included observed C3-10 alkanes, alkenes, and light aromatics, as well as larger n-alkanes (up to C25) not directly observed but estimated by scaling to particulate emissions according to their volatility. Conditions were selected for comparison with observations made in March 2006 (MILAGRO). The model successfully reproduces the magnitude and diurnal shape for both primary (POA) and secondary (SOA) organic aerosols, with POA peaking in the early morning at 15–20 μg m 3, and SOA peaking at 10–15 μg m 3 during mid-day. The majority (≥75%) of the model SOA stems from reaction products of the large n-alkanes, used here as surrogates for all emitted hydrocarbons of similar volatility, with the remaining SOA originating mostly from the light aromatics. Simulated OA elemental composition reproduces observed H/C and O/C ratios reasonably well, although modeled ratios develop more slowly than observations suggest. SOA chemical composition is initially dominated by δ-hydroxy ketones and nitrates from the large alkanes, with contributions from peroxy acyl nitrates and, at later times when NOx is lower, organic hydroperoxides. The simulated plume-integrated OA mass continues to increase for several days downwind despite dilution-induced particle evaporation, since oxidation chemistry leading to SOA formation remains strong. In this model, the plume SOA burden several days downwind exceeds that leaving the city by a factor of >3. These results suggest significant regional radiative impacts of SOA.
Ancient DNA from Coral-Hosted Symbiodinium Reveal a Static Mutualism over the Last 172 Years
David M. Baker, Lee Weigt, Marilyn Fogel, Nancy Knowlton
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055057
Abstract: Ancient DNA (aDNA) provides powerful evidence for detecting the genetic basis for adaptation to environmental change in many taxa. Among the greatest of changes in our biosphere within the last century is rapid anthropogenic ocean warming. This phenomenon threatens corals with extinction, evidenced by the increasing observation of widespread mortality following mass bleaching events. There is some evidence and conjecture that coral-dinoflagellate symbioses change partnerships in response to changing external conditions over ecological and evolutionary timescales. Until now, we have been unable to ascertain the genetic identity of Symbiodinium hosted by corals prior to the rapid global change of the last century. Here, we show that Symbiodinium cells recovered from dry, century old specimens of 6 host species of octocorals contain sufficient DNA for amplification of the ITS2 subregion of the nuclear ribosomal DNA, commonly used for genotyping within this genus. Through comparisons with modern specimens sampled from similar locales we show that symbiotic associations among several species have been static over the last century, thereby suggesting that adaptive shifts to novel symbiont types is not common among these gorgonians, and perhaps, symbiotic corals in general.
Improved Time-Domain Accuracy Standards for Model Gravitational Waveforms
Lee Lindblom,John G. Baker,Benjamin J. Owen
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.82.084020
Abstract: Model gravitational waveforms must be accurate enough to be useful for detection of signals and measurement of their parameters, so appropriate accuracy standards are needed. Yet these standards should not be unnecessarily restrictive, making them impractical for the numerical and analytical modelers to meet. The work of Lindblom, Owen, and Brown [Phys. Rev. D 78, 124020 (2008)] is extended by deriving new waveform accuracy standards which are significantly less restrictive while still ensuring the quality needed for gravitational-wave data analysis. These new standards are formulated as bounds on certain norms of the time-domain waveform errors, which makes it possible to enforce them in situations where frequency-domain errors may be difficult or impossible to estimate reliably. These standards are less restrictive by about a factor of 20 than the previously published time-domain standards for detection, and up to a factor of 60 for measurement. These new standards should therefore be much easier to use effectively.
Overuse and underuse of calcium and vitamin D in women with osteoporosis: A survey in a primary care setting  [PDF]
Milagros Silva, Adam Romeiser, David W. Baker, Aashish K. Didwania, Tiffany Brown, Joseph M. Feinglass, Ji Young Lee, Nancy C. Dolan
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.39076

Introduction: Optimal calcium and vitamin D intake is important components of the treatment of osteoporosis. The national average calcium and vitamin D intake for women over age 50 is below the recommended levels for optimal bone health. The aim of this study was to assess whether deficiencies in calcium and vitamin D intake exist in women with osteoporosis in a general medicine practice, as well as evaluate whether physicians accurately document calcium and vitamin D supplementation in the health record. Methods: Using the Electronic Health Record (EHR), we identified all female patients age 50 and older with the diagnosis of osteoporosis who were seen at the study site clinic, an urban academic general medicine practice, between January 1st, 2010 and December 1st, 2010. Women were randomly selected to receive an invitation to participate in a telephone survey on osteoporosis treatment. Results: One hundred and sixteen women completed the telephone survey. The mean calcium intake was 1524 mg per day. Forty-nine percent of women surveyed reported taking less than 1200 mg/day of supplemental calcium. When considering reported calcium intake from diet, 33% percent consumed less than 1200 mg/day and 52% percent consumed more than 1500 mg/day. Twenty eight percent of patients were taking less than 800 IU/day of vitamin D; only four percent were taking more than 4000 IU/day. Agreement between patients’ self-reported intake of calcium, vitamin D and multivitamin supplements and physicians’ documentation of these supplements was 52% for calcium, 53% for vitamin D and 61% for multivitamin. Conclusion: Among women with osteoporosis getting regular care in a general medicine practice, approximately a third are getting less than the recommended daily amount of calcium and a quarter less than the recommended amount of vitamin D. In addition, a significant proportion of women are getting excessive daily amounts of calcium, which may also be a quality concern. Rates of agreement between self-reported calcium and vitamin D supplements and chart documentation of these supplements were low.

Application of High-Frequency Gravitational Waves to the Cataclysmic Event of Our First Encounter with Intelligent Extraterrestrial Beings  [PDF]
Robert M. L. Baker, Bonnie Sue Baker
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.41015
Abstract: Three advances are proposed as a pathway to the cataclysmic event of our first encounter with intelligent extraterrestrial beings. First, discovery of very large numbers of extraterrestrial planets, “exoplanets” (possibly as many as1023 in our Universe); second, introduction of electronic components into the human body evolving into a cybernetic and biological “cyborg,” a model for an extraterrestrial being Cyborgs might allow advanced civilizations to endure hundreds of thousands of years. Third, the recent development of high-frequency gravitational wave (HFGW) detectors, the communication means of choice for an advanced cyborg civilization since they are not easily absorbed like electromagnetic radiation. Six HFGW detectors are presented for application to our first encounter with intelligent extraterrestrial beings. Numerical estimates are made for the failure of extraterrestrial civilizations such that no two exist at the same time (Fermi’s Paradox). It is concluded that there might remain at least ≈1.48 × 108 Worlds intercommunicating with HFGWs at any one time in any one region of our Universe. The predicted form of extraterrestrial beings is by means of animaginary, but based upon comprehensively documented and detailed projection of the evolution of “Earthling” homosapiens, to become “cyborgs.” It is proposed that such long-living cyborg forms of intelligent beings would be encountered by us. The first cataclysmic encounter with them is expected to be interception of their interstellar communications. The predicted frequency of intercepted messages under one set of assumptions is at least 1500 per day. After decoding the intercepted messages, keys may be found to improve vastly the present and future quality of life for us earthlings. Advanced beings might utilize direct brain-to-brain communication and it is concluded that research into brain-to-brain communication and HFGW detection are encouraged.
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