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Equity Market or Bond Market—Which Matters the Most for Investment? Revisiting Tobin’s q Theory of Investment  [PDF]
Willi Semmler, Lebogang Mateane
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2012.34029
Abstract: Recent experience seems to have shown that credit markets are more important than equity markets for investment and macrodynamics. This paper examines the effect of Tobin’s equity q and bond q on investment. More specifically we study the role of Tobin’s equity (usual) q, average q and bond q for aggregate investment over the period 1953: Q4-2011: Q1. Employing bond q and equity q, or alternatively bond q and average q, shows that these variables are very relevant in explaining investment. Yet, the time scale matters too. Examining the relationship of these variables over a long time scale, at low frequencies, we can show that the combination of bond q and average q are the most significant determinants of aggregate investment. Moreover, for the longer time scale the two variables, bond q and average q, result in the highest goodness of fit demonstrating good in-sample forecasting properties. As to the individual determinants of aggregate investment over the period 1953: Q4-2011: Q1, bond q is by far the most influential variable at all frequencies since it always has the highest correlation with investment and this correlation is always statistically significant. Similarly, the greater significance of average q, as compared to equity q, is probably an outcome of the financing instruments for investment.
How do children at special schools and their parents perceive their HRQoL compared to children at open schools?
Jennifer Jelsma, Lebogang Ramma
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-8-72
Abstract: The EQ-5D-Y and a proxy version were administered to the children and their parents were requested to fill in the EQ-5D-Y proxy version without consultation with their children on the same day.A response rate of over 20% resulted in 567 sets of child/adult responses from OS children and 61 responses from SS children. Children with special needs reported more problems in the "Mobility" and "Looking after myself" domains but their scores with regard to "Doing usual activities", "Pain or discomfort" and "Worried, sad or unhappy" were similar to their typically developing counterparts. The mean Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score of SS children was (88.4, SD18.3, range 40-100) which was not different to the mean score of the OS respondents (87.9, SD16.5, range 5-100).The association between adult and child scores was fair to moderate in the domains. The correlations in VAS scores between Open Schools children and female care-givers' scores significant but low (r = .33, p < .001) and insignificant between Special School children and adult (r = .16, p = .24).It would appear that children with disabilities do not perceive their HRQoL to be worse than their able bodied counterparts, although they do recognise their limitations in the domains of "Mobility" and "Doing usual activities".This finding lends weight to the argument that valuation of health states by children affected by these health states should not be included for the purpose of economic analysis as the child's resilience might result in better values for health states and possibly a correspondingly smaller resource allocation. Conversely, if HRQoL is to be used as a clinical outcome, then it is preferable to include the children's values as proxy report does not appear to be highly correlated with the child's own perceptions.The health of children is generally valued highly by society and is recognised as a priority for health service delivery by many organisations including the World Health Organisation. Prevent
Cochleo-vestibular clinical findings among drug resistant Tuberculosis Patients on therapy-a pilot study
Lebogang Ramma, Titus S Ibekwe
International Archives of Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1755-7682-5-3
Abstract: A cross-sectional study of adult MDR and XDR-TB patients was conducted in a general hospital in Cape-Town-South-Africa. Ethical approval was secured and all consenting patients administered with pretested and validated questionnaire under the guidance of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health(ICF) Checklist-version-2.1a. Audiometric evaluation included: Otoscopy, Diagnostic Audiometry and Tympanometry. The data analyses were done with SPSS version 16, Chi-square and StatCalc-7.Fifty-three adults, ages 18-60 (mean-33 years) comprising 26 males and 27 females participated in the study. Hospital stay duration varied from 1-18 months (mean-6 months) and all were on anti-Koch's second line drugs (regimen 2). MDR TB group were 45(85%) and XDR 8(15%). Vertigo was the most common vestibular symptoms, 24(45%) whereas, tinnitus 23(42%) and hearing loss 13(25%) were most frequent auditory complaints. Bilateral sensorineural hearing losses of varying degrees were confirmed in 23(47%).There was no association between gender and age with hearing loss [χ2 (P = 0.16, ? = 0.05) and (p = 0.13, ? = 0.05)]. Furthermore, MDR and XTR TB groups [20/42 Vs 3/8; Z = 0.46 and P = 0.64], showed no difference in pattern of the hearing losses.A multi-disciplinary close surveillance of MDR and XDR TB patients on therapy is imperative. Finally, researches into therapeutic trials on antidotes and potent safer substitutes for aminoglycosides in the management are recommended.Following the advent of HIV-AIDS in 1981 there has been the explosion of opportunistic infections and global resurgence of diseases, prominent among which is tuberculosis (TB). The control of this disease especially in the developing world has suffered a great set back following resistance to conventional regimen for treatment of TB. As a result, the prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis particularly in Africa has been on the rise. Meyer and McAdam i
Free-Green Synthesis and Dynamics of Reduced Graphene Sheets via Sun Light Irradiation  [PDF]
Nangamso Nathaniel Nyangiwe, Mohammed Khenfouch, Force Tefo Thema, Kenneth Nukwa, Lebogang Kotsedi, Malik Maaza
Graphene (Graphene) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/graphene.2015.43006
Abstract: It is universally known that the preparation of high quality graphene on a large scale and in a cost-effective manner is essential for many technological applications. Graphene oxide (GO) has emerged as the precursor of choice for bulk production of graphene-based materials, as it can be synthesized from inexpensive graphite powders. In this paper, a simple method is described for reduction of GO solution by a free and green irradiation based technique. The majority of oxygen-containing functional groups of GO are removed by sun light. This methodology provides an effective way to quantitatively produce high quality graphene sheets. This paper presents irradiation by sun light of synthesized graphene oxide nano-flakes prepared by Hummer’s method. These nano-flakes have been successfully reduced while the dynamic of this irradiation process is discussed. The irradiated nano-flakes of graphene oxide have been investigated using X-Ray diffraction, ATR-FTIR and UV-Vis-NIR.
Informing Comprehensive HIV Prevention: A Situational Analysis of the HIV Prevention and Care Context, North West Province South Africa
Sheri A. Lippman, Sarah Treves-Kagan, Jennifer M. Gilvydis, Evasen Naidoo, Gertrude Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Lynae Darbes, Elsie Raphela, Lebogang Ntswane, Scott Barnhart
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102904
Abstract: Objective Building a successful combination prevention program requires understanding the community’s local epidemiological profile, the social community norms that shape vulnerability to HIV and access to care, and the available community resources. We carried out a situational analysis in order to shape a comprehensive HIV prevention program that address local barriers to care at multiple contextual levels in the North West Province of South Africa. Method The situational analysis was conducted in two sub-districts in 2012 and guided by an adaptation of WHO’s Strategic Approach, a predominantly qualitative method, including observation of service delivery points and in-depth interviews and focus groups with local leaders, providers, and community members, in order to recommend context-specific HIV prevention strategies. Analysis began during fieldwork with nightly discussions of findings and continued with coding original textual data from the fieldwork notebooks and a select number of recorded interviews. Results We conducted over 200 individual and group interviews and gleaned four principal social barriers to HIV prevention and care, including: HIV fatalism, traditional gender norms, HIV-related stigma, and challenges with communication around HIV, all of which fuel the HIV epidemic. At the different levels of response needed to stem the epidemic, we found evidence of national policies and programs that are mitigating the social risk factors but little community-based responses that address social risk factors to HIV. Conclusions Understanding social and structural barriers to care helped shape our comprehensive HIV prevention program, which address the four ‘themes’ identified into each component of the program. Activities are underway to engage communities, offer community-based testing in high transmission areas, community stigma reduction, and a positive health, dignity and prevention program for stigma reduction and improve communication skills. The situational analysis process successfully shaped key programmatic decisions and cultivated a deeper collaboration with local stakeholders to support program implementation.
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