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Obesity in Lebanon: A National Problem  [PDF]
S. Mallat, A. Gerges Geagea, R. A. Jurjus, A. Rizkallah, D. Oueidat, M. Matar, J. Tawilah, A. Berbari, A. R. Jurjus
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2016.66017
Abstract: Obesity is a major health problem, because of its relationship with serious medical illnesses and significant economic consequences. This article explores various factors and variables affecting the prevalence of obesity in Lebanon, to focus public health initiatives and medical interventions in the management of obesity. This study interviewed 593 subjects, of more than 20 years, from all governorates of Lebanon. The interview covered personal and demographic data, awareness, knowledge, attitude and practices towards obesity including diet and physical activity. Males’ and females’ percentages were 51.6% and 48.4%, respectively, and a young population profile was with 52.8% less than 40 years of age. The BMI index showed that 52.77% were obese with 70.6% males and 34.27% females. The great majority were educated. TV was the most used media outlet, 79.61% watching daily between 1 - 4 hours. Obesity was considered as the most important health problem by 27.6% and ranking the 5th after cancer, cardiovascular, smoking and HIV/AIDS. About two thirds considered it a risk factor for hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus and 80.27% for cardiovascular diseases. Interventions should include changes in diet habits whereby, approximately one third (33.5%) drink carbonated beverages on a daily basis and 50.76% eat fast food, with a lack of awareness about daily calories intake by 75.38%. About half of the population (56.32%) walks daily for 20 minutes. Most people favored behavioral and lifestyle modifications in management rather than medications and surgery (67.79%). This study provides baseline data regarding several aspects of an obesogenic environment, a major risk factor for several diseases including hypertension, diabetes and other non-communicable diseases. After describing the factors and variables affecting the prevalence of obesity, some suggestions for appropriate interventions are included, with the hope of reducing the health burden of obesity in Lebanon.
El feudalismo político del sistema confesional libanés
Hana Jalloul
UNISCI Discussion Papers , 2008,
Abstract: This article tries to explain the complex Lebanese confessional system, an obsolete system whicy today continues to condition the life of the Lebanese population, in the the religious, political, social and economic areas.
Geothermal Water in Lebanon: An Alternative Energy Source  [PDF]
Amin Shaban
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2010.11003
Abstract: Recently, demand for energy has been increased worldwide, notably in the view of high economic value and competi-tion of fossil fuel, as well as the negative impact of fuel consumption through carbon release, and thus the consequences on human health and environment. Various aspects of energy sources into Earth’s crust have been discovered and utilized. Geothermal energy is one aspect of these sources where they have been well pronounced in many countries and proved to be a potential energy source for the future needs. Lebanon, the country with rare natural energy, the renewable energy sources are almost ignored and there is only limited utilization of hydro-power, wind and solar energy, whilst oil imports occupy a substantial portion for energy use. Yet, geothermal energy has not raised and no concern has been given to this renewable source. Meanwhile, there are several indicators showing the existence of geothermal water in different regions in Lebanon. They almost occur where basalt rocks are exposed. This was evidenced whether from water in drilled wells or from various discharging springs, as well as indications of thermal water was observed also in many localities along the Lebanese coastal water. This study shows the available information in this respect, considering the occurrence of geothermal water in Lebanon as an alternative energy source. Thus four major geothermal domains were recognized. The study introduces detailed characterization on the existing aspects of geothermal water and inducing its hydrologic regime and mechanism of groundwater heating. It would be a reconnaissance stage that may help applying further detailed assessment.
Using MODIS Images and TRMM Data to Correlate Rainfall Peaks and Water Discharges from the Lebanese Coastal Rivers  [PDF]
Amin SHABAN, Crodula ROBINSON, Farouk EL-BAZ
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.14028
Abstract: Water flows from rivers into the sea (plumes) is a common phenomenon in many coastal zones. The hydro-logic behavior of plumes differs from one river to another depending on rainfall rate and intensity, as well as it is influenced by the hydrologic characteristics of river basin. In order to investigate the precipitation re-gime in a drainage basin versus the flow into the sea, sequential data must be available. Remotely sensed data can fulfill this scope, thus it can provide climatic and hydrologic data. The scope of this study is to monitor the behavior of water input in the catchments versus the output from rivers in the Lebanese coastal zone using remote sensing data. For this purpose, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission) data and MODIS satellite images were used. Hence, rainfall data from TRMM was compared with the areal extent of water plumes from rivers. This enables establishing interpolation between water input/output for each river basin. In addition, the lag time and residence time of plumes into the sea can be measured and compared between the issuing rivers. The extracted data from remote sensing was compared with terrain measures and shows its reliability and accordance. The used approach proved to be creditable, non-invasive and cost effec-tive and can be applied to other costal river basins.
Studying Heavy Metals in Sediments Layers along Selected Sites on the Lebanese Coast  [PDF]
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.21006
Abstract: Ensuring the environmental protection of the Lebanese coast requires a continues monitoring system. For this purpose, four heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu and Pb in the marine sediments along the Lebanese coast were selected for analysis Sampling was carried out from two sites: Beirut and Batroun. Thus, 1g of dried sample is used for digestion by wet mineralization in order to determine the concentration of the four heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that Beirut area is polluted, by Fe and Mn as well as the station Bat 2 of Batroun. For Cu and Pb, Batroun region is more polluted in the superficial layers. The analysis also showed significant difference between the sites except for Cu. A difference between depths and between particles size fractions are observed for all the parameters studied. There is no a significant difference in layer sequence except for the Pb, and neither between the repetitions of the same sample. Results showed that the values of the four metals studied do not exceed the maximum limits at both sites, but they showed increase in comparison with the analyses obtained before July 2006 conflict, which was caused by the release of large quantity of fuel-oil from Jiyeh Power Station.
Support of Space Techniques for Groundwater Exploration in Lebanon  [PDF]
Amin Shaban
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.25054
Abstract: Lebanon is known by the availability in water resources whether on surface or among the existing rock for-mations. However, the status-quo does not reflect this availability due to a number of physical factors, as well as the mismanagement of these resources. Hence, the per capita has been reduced by about 50% in the last three decades. There are sixteen exposed rock formations in Lebanon, two of them are major aquifers and they are characterized by highly fractured and karstified carbonate rocks. Recently, challenges for groundwater in Lebanon have been developed. These are the: overexploitation, climate change and the acute geologic setting, which led to decline in rainfall rate, and thus exacerbated water demand. The existing chal-lenges resulted with a number of problems in ground water resources management, namely: quality deterio-ration, impact on springs and groundwater behavior, loss of groundwater o the sea, saltwater intrusion and exacerbated by the lack of data and mismanagement in water sector. In this respect, new technologies can be utilized as a helpful instrument in managing groundwater resources to treat the unfavorable situation. Space techniques and GIS have been recently raised in several topics on water resources management, including, mainly exploration and monitoring. They proved to be capable to extract hydrogeologic information and thus to manipulate this information in creditable approaches of analysis. This study introduced the present status on the Lebanese groundwater resources and the existing challenges and problems. Thus, it extends an appli-cation from Lebanon on the used new approaches for exploring groundwater.
Influence of production processes in quality of fermented milk "Laban" in Lebanon  [PDF]
Zeineddine Mayssoun, Nassif Nadine
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.24057
Abstract: Yoghurt (Laban) is one of the most consumed food products in Lebanon. Thus its quality has given a concern. In this study, the sensory, chemical and rheological properties of commercial and traditional samples were investigated in order to characterize this fermented milk. Hence, Laban samples were collected from 14 areas in Lebanon; especially from mountainous regions and from the capital Beirut. Forty-two samples were provided by processing industry whether at small, medium, or large scale. A statistical analysis was carried out, and thus sensory and physicochemical properties were subjected to two approaches of variance analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients between attributes were also calculated. Both, the analyses of variance and correlations were conducted using SPSS 3. The physicochemical analysis and the microbiological analysis exhibit a significant effect of the date, and the manufacturing process. Also, the instrumental data showed no significant correlation between physicochemical and microbiological parameters, which indicates that they are completely independent. Moreover, the general appreciation of descriptive sensory analysis of products display that this appreciation is not dependant on the production process. It is also noticed that some sensory characteristics can be dread by instrumental measures. This research endorses the essential role of quality control for the manufacturing of yoghurt in Lebanon.
Waste Related Pollutions and Their Potential Effect on Cancer Incidences in Lebanon  [PDF]
Sahar K. Azar, Safa S. Azar
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.76070

Pollution represents an important threat to human health. Waste pollution with its adverse health risks, mainly cancer incidences, is one of the main issues present in Lebanon. Random disposal of wastes is instilling a complex and challenging situation that is affecting the entire population. Here, a comprehensive study is presented along with collected data addressing the correlation between long-term exposure to the different forms of pollution and the chances of being affected with cancer. Lebanon, a country currently facing an extensive garbage crisis, is undergoing alarming surges in pollution rates. Inevitably, these environmental factors become chief elements in influencing disease statistics. It is therefore of urgent importance to seek all solutions possible while raising awareness in order to reduce life threatening risks.

Estimate of the Aquifer Temperature of Assammaqieh Well in Akkar by Geothermometric Equations  [PDF]
Abdulrahim Ibrahim
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.93018
Abstract: This research aims at estimating the temperature of the aquifer that supplies Assammaqieh well at the depth of 550 m, on the basis of chemical analyses and geothermometric techniques which are one of the methods used for searching for the renewable geothermal energy and conserving the environment. In this study, about twenty-two geothermometric indicators have been used. For verifying the results, these results have been compared with data and estimates of temperature of fluids of deep typical wells in New Zealand, and it has been noticed that the theoretical and actual results approach the limits of 95% in many indicators. The study has been restricted to the relations of Cations because they are the most reliable, and the least affected by dissolution and evaporation. Most of the indicators that are based on the four chemical elements: Calcium (Ca), Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg), have been adopted. The laboratory analysis data of Assammaqieh well confirmed that it was hot sulphurous water that acquired its chemical properties from complicated geochemical conditions, underground thermal conditions and volcanic rock nature. It also turned out that the underground heating process was basically due to thermal conductivity and rock adjacency, and that Assammaqieh well was supplied with water from adjacent groundwater tables whose source was the penetration of surface water. It also appeared that most of the equations used in the search for geothermal energy revealed the presence of an aquifer of hot and very hot water, and they were compatible with the high thermal gradient in volcanic rocks. It also tuned out that 86% of the used geothermometric equations estimated the aquifer temperature of Assammaqieh well as being hot and very hot with around 135.5 Celsius (±20). The study concluded with the hypothesis that Akkar possessed a huge geothermal energy, and benefiting from this energy might put an end to the chronic problem of electricity in Lebanon, and opened up many prospects and uses that could participate in a sustainable and comprehensive development of Akkar and Lebanon as a whole.
Students’ and Instructors’ Perceptions of Turnitin: A Plagiarism Deterrent?  [PDF]
Najwa Saba Ayon
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.813141
Abstract: Academicians consider plagiarism a major threat to academia. To combat that threat, a lot of universities, including the researcher’s university, have been using Turnitin. It is believed that this software is likely to deter students’ plagiarism. The aim of this study is, therefore, to investigate1) the impact of Turnitin on students’ plagiarism from the perspectives of both students and instructors in a private Lebanese English-speaking university and 2) the reasons that push students to plagiarize. A concurrent mixed-methods design is employed, and different data collection methods are used. The data are analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Findings reveal that although a lot of the participants perceive Turnitin as a good deterrent to plagiarism, it did not completely inhibit it. The findings also reveal that not all instructors were committed enough to use Turnitin in their courses. Some of the reasons for plagiarism that the participants named are lack of citation skills, laziness, and indifference among students to abide by ethical writing norms.Besides reinforcing the use of Turnitin among all instructors, the researcher recommends that students’ writing and citation skills be improved and that students be helped to become more ethical writers.
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