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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3379 matches for " Lawrence "
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Economies of Scale in Local Government: General Government Spending  [PDF]
Lawrence Southwick
iBusiness (IB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2012.43034
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to determine whether larger or smaller municipalities are more efficient in their levels of overhead costs. The operative measure is per capita annual costs for these services. In addition, the issue of market structure as a factor in these costs is also to be studied. It is not for the purpose of considering costs for specific services but rather the general overhead items that are required of all local governments. The method of study will be to use the cities and towns of New York State over a number of years. This will ensure that the study group is relatively homogeneous over applicable state laws as well as giving a wide variation in the population levels studied. The per capita expenditures will be regressed against population and market power variables using several equation forms. The results will be tested for significance in scale effects and market power effects. Optimal population sizes will be calculated where possible. The outline of the paper is as follows: 1) Introduction, 2) Background issues, 3) The study design, 4) Data, 5) Results, and 6) Conclusions.
Neuroscience, unconscious processes: Clinical applications  [PDF]
Lawrence Greenman
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.31007

This article reviews selected neuroscience and psychoanalytic writings about respective concepts regarding unconscious processes. Two objectives are pursued. The first is the modification of an apparent dualistic view of the psychoanalytic, dynamic unconscious described by Freud and the implicit, automated unconscious described by neuroscientists into a unified unconscious process concept. Secondly, to examine the functional, structural theory of Freud and to connect it to neuroscience findings via neurodevelopment and the concomitant development of speech and language, an exclusive communicative capacity of the human species. The goal is to illustrate the application of the objectives into clinical settings.

Macrophage sequestration of HIV-1 enhances homeostatic-related systems in promoting viral spread and replication  [PDF]
Lawrence Agius
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.47A1001

Decisive modulatory systems of compromise and systems of dynamic turnover in lymphoid cells and macrophages are activated by repeated bursts of viremia and as promotional schemes of representation of subsequent spread and replication of HIV-1. In such operative systems of micro-environmental conditioning and reconditioning, a significant mechanism towards the turnover of specific cell-types occurs within context of sequestration within macrophages and circulating monocytes. Dendritic cells in germinal follicles and within specific organs such as the Langerhans cells of the skin are allied to dysfunctionality of such cellular subtypes as exemplified by the resident microglia of the central nervous system. Decisive perturbation in cell-type number and in dysfunctional activation indicate an exquisite modulatory role for HIV-1 in promoting homeostatic-related mechanisms within organs and tissues towards utilization in terms of viral dynamics and cytokine operability. In such manner, HIV-1 replication is itself a system of promotion in spread of viruses across cell-type and host cell specificities that tend to characterize and recharacterize systems of cytokine network operability in particular.

Are There Economies of Scale in Highway Maintenance? What about Costs Due to Market Power?  [PDF]
Lawrence Southwick
iBusiness (IB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2014.62010

The object of this paper is to determine whether there are economies or diseconomies of scale in highway maintenance and whether higher concentration levels/greater market power across the governments involved in highway maintenance results in higher or lower cost levels. The data used come from New York State municipalities. New York is divided into Towns and Cities that added together give the total land area for the State. There are also Villages that are located in one or more Towns. All of these government entities may own and manage/maintain highways. The results are that 1) there are significantly U-shaped average cost curves, but the differences in average costs between communities with lower numbers or higher numbers of lane miles than the most efficient are not very great and 2) there are both substantial and significant increases in average costs when market power is greater. Thus, making the case for mergers of communities is more difficult and such mergers would be more problematic.

Distribution of the Median in Samples from the Laplace Distribution  [PDF]
John Lawrence
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2013.36050

The Laplace distribution is one of the oldest defined and studied distributions. In the one-parameter model (location parameter only), the sample median is the maximum likelihood estimator and is asymptotically efficient. Approximations for the variance of the sample median for small to moderate sample sizes have been studied, but no exact formula has been published. In this article, we provide an exact formula for the probability density function of the median and an exact formula for the variance of the median.

The Use of Police as Robbers for the Government and the Social Harm Resulting from That Use  [PDF]
Lawrence Southwick
iBusiness (IB) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2018.102003
Abstract: The object of this essay is to look at the use of civil asset forfeiture (CAF) in the US and to show how CAF acts to damage relations among income and racial groups in the US society. Prior papers by others have shown the ways that CAF is constitutionally suspect and have developed arguments for its injustice. I agree with those but want to add the adverse effect on society to the other problems that contraindicate its use. This paper is written to show what social problems are likely and argue that the price paid is too much for any benefits derived.
HIV-1 Primarily Targets the Innate Immune System and Only Secondarily Modulates Adaptive Immune Cell Depletion  [PDF]
Lawrence M. Agius
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.23029
Abstract: Persistence of HIV-1 infection allows for permissive microenvironmental conditioning in terms of contextual innate immune participation. The progression of host cell injury constitutes an additional parametric formulation in self-amplifying modulation of the adaptive immune response in a manner that inclusively promotes the emergence of a final stage of AIDS that is both depletive and permissive for opportunistic infections and various forms of neoplasia. It is within contextual indices of promotion of depleted T-helper lymphocytes and of augmented viremic loads that manifestations of classic lesions emerge as the AIDS phenomenon. It is further to be realized that an apoptotic response of multiple cell subtypes including T-lymphocytes includes host-cell participation within formulated settings of further persistence of the retroviral infection. An all-inclusive phenomenon of dendritic cell-lymphocyte synapse formulation corresponds to the establishment of HIV-1 infection that specifically conditions all subsequent stages in depletion of the injured host cells regardless of the dynamics or kinetics of the retroviral replicative infectious process itself.
Distinctive parameters of action of stem cells and modulatory microenvironmental microcirculation in gliomagenesis  [PDF]
Lawrence M. Agius
Stem Cell Discovery (SCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/scd.2013.31001

Definition of the malignant transformation event is central to a distinction between neural stem cells and cancer stem cells. In such manner, the descriptive analysis of various tumors such as gliomas would allow for the distinction of genetic injury and probably epigenetic events that transform gene transcription pathways. Hypoxia is a major conditioning influence acting on stem cell niche microenvironments that evolve in terms particularly of micro-vascular dynamics. The incremental involvement of entire fields of cancerization allows for the establishment of permissive conditions of repetitive nature and within the contextual involvement of multiple clones of injured cells that condition, in turn, the stem cell niche. In view of the establishment of progressive malignant change, it is significant to view the cancerization as an integral involvement of both sequential and concurrent events in defining the roles of stem cells and cancer stem cells in terms of a primal process of dedifferentiation beyond simple markers of morphologic transformation.

Other Possible Causes of a Well-Publicized Outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Following Arthroscopy in Texas  [PDF]
Lawrence F. Muscarella
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2013.32021

Background: Seven patients at a hospital in Houston, TX, were diagnosed during a two-week period in 2009 with joint space infection of pansusceptible P. aeruginosa following arthroscopic procedures of the knee or shoulder. Tosh et al. (2011), who investigated and published the principal report discussing this bacterial outbreak, conclude that its most likely cause was the improper reprocessing of certain reusable, physically-complex, heat-stable arthroscopic instruments used during these arthroscopic procedures. These reusable instruments reportedly remained contaminated with remnant tissue, despite diligent efforts by the hospital to clean their internal structures. This retained bioburden presumably shielded the outbreak’s strain of embedded P. aeruginosa from contact with the pressurized steam, reportedly resulting in ineffective sterilization of these arthroscopic instruments and bacterial transmission. Objectives: First, to clarify which specific sterilization methods, in addition to steam sterilization, Methodist Hospital employed to process its reusable arthroscopic instrumentation at the time of its outbreak, in 2009; second, to evaluate Tosh et al.’s (2011) conclusion that ineffective steam sterilization due to inadequate cleaning was the most likely cause of this hospital’s outbreak; third, to consider whether any other hitherto unrecognized factors could have plausibly contributed to this outbreak; and, fourth, to assess whether any additional recommendations might be warranted to prevent disease transmission following arthroscopic procedures. Methods: The medical literature was reviewed; some of the principles of quality assurance, engineering and a root-cause analysis were employed; and Tosh et al.’s (2011) findings and conclusions were reviewed and compared with those of other published reports that evaluated the risk of disease transmission associated with the steam sterilization of physically-complex, heat-stable, soiled surgical instruments. Results and Conclusion: Reports documenting outbreaks of P. aeruginosa or another vegetative bacterium associated with the steam sterilization of inadequately cleaned surgical or arthroscopic instruments are scant. This

Operative sequentiality in tumor differentiation and progression as protein molecular structure and sequence context in modulating alternative splicing events  [PDF]
Lawrence M. Agius
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2013.32010

This review article discusses dimensional reconstruction of alternative splicing that not only affects primarily the distributional dimensions of isoforms of various protein species but especially influences the nature of interactivity events between various protein species and also the structure of the given protein molecules. In such terms, disorders of differentiation of individual tumors and of tumor types and subtypes would correlate with distinctive dimensions of expression of a limited number of genes in various modes of expressed selectivity programs. In particular, the differentiation programs of normal tissues would correlate with combinatorial systems of splicing factors and of auxiliary factors in the development of patterns of gene expression. The significance of mis-splicing events is consonant with the wide range of phenotypic expression of neoplastic lesions and in the great variety of differentiation patterns and also of the variable degrees of differentiation of various components of a given neoplasm. The structure of given protein isoforms resulting from alternative splicing correlate with the sequence context of exons in the enhancement or inhibition of splicing events and would also influence pathobiologic behavior patterns of given neoplastic lesions. The development of abnormal cell signalling pathways and of interactivity patterns in a combinatorial way would directly influence the stability and trafficking dynamics of given protein molecular species in inducing an abundance of protein isoform production. Series of multi-component systems ranging from receptivity to consequential pathways of development of differential phenotype would allow for a high degree of modulatory effect within systems implicating in particular the interactions of individual tumor cells with each other and with the matrix components. It is within the context of constitutive versus alternative splicing events that this review article proposes that proportional recreation of differentiation pathways promotes a self-progression of the pathobiologic processes of a given neoplastic lesion.

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