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This article reviews selected neuroscience and psychoanalytic writings about respective concepts regarding unconscious processes. Two objectives are pursued. The first is the modification of an apparent dualistic view of the psychoanalytic, dynamic unconscious described by Freud and the implicit, automated unconscious described by neuroscientists into a unified unconscious process concept. Secondly, to examine the functional, structural theory of Freud and to connect it to neuroscience findings via neurodevelopment and the concomitant development of speech and language, an exclusive communicative capacity of the human species. The goal is to illustrate the application of the objectives into clinical settings.
Decisive modulatory systems of compromise and systems of dynamic turnover in lymphoid cells and macrophages are activated by repeated bursts of viremia and as promotional schemes of representation of subsequent spread and replication of HIV-1. In such operative systems of micro-environmental conditioning and reconditioning, a significant mechanism towards the turnover of specific cell-types occurs within context of sequestration within macrophages and circulating monocytes. Dendritic cells in germinal follicles and within specific organs such as the Langerhans cells of the skin are allied to dysfunctionality of such cellular subtypes as exemplified by the resident microglia of the central nervous system. Decisive perturbation in cell-type number and in dysfunctional activation indicate an exquisite modulatory role for HIV-1 in promoting homeostatic-related mechanisms within organs and tissues towards utilization in terms of viral dynamics and cytokine operability. In such manner, HIV-1 replication is itself a system of promotion in spread of viruses across cell-type and host cell specificities that tend to characterize and recharacterize systems of cytokine network operability in particular.
The object of this
paper is to determine whether there are economies or diseconomies of scale in
highway maintenance and whether higher concentration levels/greater market
power across the governments involved in highway maintenance results in higher
or lower cost levels. The data used come from New York State municipalities.
New York is divided into Towns and Cities that added together give the total
land area for the State. There are also Villages that are located in one or
more Towns. All of these government entities may own and manage/maintain
highways. The results are that 1) there are significantly U-shaped average cost
curves, but the differences in average costs between communities with lower
numbers or higher numbers of lane miles than the most efficient are not very
great and 2) there are both substantial and significant increases in average
costs when market power is greater. Thus, making the case for mergers of
communities is more difficult and such mergers would be more problematic.
The Laplace distribution is one of the oldest defined and studied distributions. In the one-parameter model (location parameter only), the sample median is the maximum likelihood estimator and is asymptotically efficient. Approximations for the variance of the sample median for small to moderate sample sizes have been studied, but no exact formula has been published. In this article, we provide an exact formula for the probability density function of the median and an exact formula for the variance of the median.
Definition of the malignant transformation event is central to a distinction between neural stem cells and cancer stem cells. In such manner, the descriptive analysis of various tumors such as gliomas would allow for the distinction of genetic injury and probably epigenetic events that transform gene transcription pathways. Hypoxia is a major conditioning influence acting on stem cell niche microenvironments that evolve in terms particularly of micro-vascular dynamics. The incremental involvement of entire fields of cancerization allows for the establishment of permissive conditions of repetitive nature and within the contextual involvement of multiple clones of injured cells that condition, in turn, the stem cell niche. In view of the establishment of progressive malignant change, it is significant to view the cancerization as an integral involvement of both sequential and concurrent events in defining the roles of stem cells and cancer stem cells in terms of a primal process of dedifferentiation beyond simple markers of morphologic transformation.
patients at a hospital in Houston, TX, were diagnosed during a two-week period in 2009 with joint space
infection of pansusceptible P. aeruginosa following arthroscopic procedures of the knee or shoulder. Tosh et al. (2011), who investigated and
published the principal report discussing this bacterial outbreak, conclude
that its most likely cause was the improper reprocessing of certain reusable,
physically-complex, heat-stable arthroscopic instruments used during these arthroscopic
procedures. These reusable instruments reportedly remained contaminated with
remnant tissue, despite
diligent efforts by the hospital to clean their internal structures. This retained bioburden presumably
shielded the outbreak’s strain of embedded P.
aeruginosa from contact with the pressurized steam, reportedly resulting in
ineffective sterilization of these arthroscopic instruments and bacterial
transmission. Objectives: First, to clarify which specific
sterilization methods, in addition to steam sterilization, Methodist Hospital
employed to process its reusable arthroscopic instrumentation at the time of
its outbreak, in 2009; second, to evaluate Tosh et al.’s (2011) conclusion that ineffective steam sterilization due
to inadequate cleaning was the most likely cause of this hospital’s outbreak;
third, to consider whether any other hitherto unrecognized factors could have
plausibly contributed to this outbreak; and, fourth, to assess whether any
additional recommendations might be warranted to prevent disease transmission
following arthroscopic procedures. Methods: The medical literature was reviewed; some of the principles of quality
assurance, engineering and a root-cause analysis were employed; and Tosh et al.’s (2011) findings and conclusions
were reviewed and compared with those of other published reports that evaluated
the risk of disease transmission associated with the steam sterilization of
physically-complex, heat-stable, soiled surgical instruments. Results and Conclusion: Reports
documenting outbreaks of P. aeruginosa or
another vegetative bacterium associated with the steam sterilization
of inadequately cleaned
surgical or arthroscopic instruments are scant. This
This review article
discusses dimensional reconstruction of alternative splicing that not only
affects primarily the distributional dimensions of isoforms of various protein
species but especially influences the nature of interactivity events between
various protein species and also the structure of the given protein molecules.
In such terms, disorders of differentiation of individual tumors and of tumor
types and subtypes would correlate with distinctive dimensions of expression of
a limited number of genes in various modes of expressed selectivity programs.
In particular, the differentiation programs of normal tissues would correlate
with combinatorial systems of splicing factors and of auxiliary factors in the
development of patterns of gene expression. The significance of mis-splicing
events is consonant with the wide range of phenotypic expression of neoplastic
lesions and in the great variety of differentiation patterns and also of the
variable degrees of differentiation of various components of a given neoplasm.
The structure of given protein isoforms resulting from alternative splicing
correlate with the sequence context of exons in the enhancement or inhibition
of splicing events and would also influence pathobiologic behavior patterns of
given neoplastic lesions. The development of abnormal cell signalling pathways
and of interactivity patterns in a combinatorial way would directly influence
the stability and trafficking dynamics of given protein molecular species in inducing
an abundance of protein isoform production. Series of multi-component systems
ranging from receptivity to consequential pathways of development of differential
phenotype would allow for a high degree of modulatory effect within systems
implicating in particular the interactions of individual tumor cells with each other
and with the matrix components. It is within the context of constitutive versus
alternative splicing events that this review article proposes that proportional
recreation of differentiation pathways promotes a self-progression of the
pathobiologic processes of a given neoplastic lesion.