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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3405 matches for " Lawrence Ogwal "
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Effect of Mode of Auxin Application on Rooting and Bud Break of Shea Tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) Cuttings  [PDF]
Moses Okao, Lawrence Ogwal, Gloria Mutoni, Samuel Oyuko Alip, John Bosco Lamoris Okullo, Clement Akais Okia
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.715194
Abstract: Vegetative propagation by stem cutting is an important technique applied for agricultural production where rooting success is one of the major aspects. A study to assess the effects of mode of application of rooting hormones (IBA) on adventitious root formation of V. paradoxa stem cuttings was conducted. Accordingly, four application methods were investigated in a 4 × 3 factorial experiment using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The application methods were: 24-hour extended soak, foliar spraying, basal quick dip and delayed IBA application method. Thus, the parameters used to determine rooting success were mean root length and root number. The effect of these application methods on occurrence of bud break was also considered. On the whole, root length was observed to be a function of IBA concentration, whereby root length increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with an increment in IBA concentration. Stem cuttings subjected to 24-h extended soak at 100 ppm rooted best (59.5% ± 8.33%), where as foliar sprayed stem cuttings exhibited the worst rooting success (11.9 ± 3.06 - 23.8% ± 4.16%). Bud break appeared to decrease with increasing IBA concentration and delaying IBA application enhanced rooting percentage of the quick dip method by 7.1%, 9.5% and 11.9% at 2500 ppm, 3500 ppm and 4500 ppm, respectively. The extended soak method of IBA application at 80 ppm shows potential for large scale production of V. paradoxa through stem cuttings.
Biovailability and stability of erythromycin delayed release tablets
Sydney Ogwal, T.U. Xide
African Health Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: Background : Erythromycin is available as the free base, ethylsuccinate, estolate, stearate, gluceptate, and lactobionate derivatives. When given orally erythromycin and its derivatives except the estolate are inactivated to some extent by the gastric acid and poor absorption may result. Objectives : To establish whether delayed release erythromycin tablets meet the bioequivalent requirement for the market Methods : Spectrophotometric analysis was used to determine the dissolution percentage of the tablets in vitro. High performance liquid chromatography and IBM/XT microcomputer was used to determine the biovailability and pharmacokinetic parameters in vivo. Results : Dissolution percentage in thirty minutes reached 28.9% and in sixty minutes erythromycin was completely released. The parameters of the delayed release tablets were Tlag 2.3hr,Tmax.4.5hr, and Cmax 2.123g/ml Ka 0.38048hr-1 T _ 1.8 hr, V*C/F 49.721 AUC 12.9155.The relative biovailability of erythromycin delayed release tablet to erythromycin capsules was 105.31% Conclusion : The content, appearance, and dissolution biovailability of delayed release erythromycin tablets conforms to the United States pharmacopoeia standards. The tablets should be stored in a cool and dry place in airtight containers and the shelf life is temporarily assigned two years. African Health Sciences 2001; 1(2):90-96
Aflatoxins metabolism, effects on epigenetic mechanisms and their role in carcinogenesis  [PDF]
Godfrey S. Bbosa, David Kitya, John Odda, Jasper Ogwal-Okeng
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.510A1003
Abstract: Chronic consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated foods is a global problem in both developing and developed countries especially where there is poor regulation of their levels in foods. In the body, aflatoxins (AFBs) mainly AFB1 are biotransformed to various metabolites especially the active AFB1-exo-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). The AFB, AFBO and other metabolites interact with various biomolecules in the body including nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA and the various metabolic pathways such as protein synthesis, glycolytic pathway and electron transport chain involved in ATP production in body cells. The AFB interacts with DNA to form AFB-DNA adducts causing DNA breakages. The AFB and its metabolites induce the up regulation of nuclear receptors such as pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) through gene expression that regulates the metabolizing enzymes such as CYP450 involved in Phase I and Phase II metabolism of xenobiotics. AFB activates these nuclear receptors to produce the metabolizing enzymes. The AFB1 is metabolized in the body by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme isoforms such as CYP1A2, CYP1A2, CYP3A4/ CYP3A5, and CYP3A7 in fetus, glutathione S-transferase, aflatoxin B1-aldehyde reductase leading to reactive metabolites, some of which can be used as aflatoxin exposure biomarkers. These enzymes are involved in the Phase I and Phase II metabolic reactions of aflatoxins. The CYP1A2 is the principal metabolizer of aflatoxin at low concentrations while the reverse is true for CYP3A4. The accumulation of AFB and its metabolites in the body especially the AFB1-exo-8,9-epoxide
Sustained heavy ethanol drinking affects CD4+ cell counts in HIV-infected patients on stavudine (d4T), lamivudine (3TC) and nevirapine (NVP) treatment regimen during 9 months follow-up period  [PDF]
Godfrey S. Bbosa, David B. Kyegombe, William W. Anokbonggo, Apollo Mugisha, Jasper Ogwal-Okeng
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.65061

Sustained heavy ethanol drinking is a common problem globally and ethanol is one of the most abused drugs among individuals of different socio-economic status including the HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral drugs. Ethanol is reward drug and a CNS depressant especially at high doses. The study determined the effect of sustained heavy ethanol drinking by HIV-infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP regimen on CD4+ cell counts in Uganda using WHO AUDIT tool and chronic alcohol-use biomarkers. A case control study using repeated measures design with serial measurements model was used. The patients on stavudine (d4T) 30 mg, lamivudine (3TC) 150 mg and nevirapine (NVP) 200 mg and chronic alcohol use were recruited. A total of 41 patients (20 in alcohol group and 21 in control group) were screened for chronic alcohol use by WHO AUDIT tool and chronic alcohol use biomarkers. They were followed up for 9 months with blood sampling done at 3 months intervals. CD4+ cell count was determined using Facscalibur Flow Cytometer system. Results were then sorted by alcohol-use biomarkers (GGT, MCV and AST/ ALT ratio). Data were analysed using SAS 2003 version 9.1 statistical package with repeated measures fixed model and the means were compared using student t-test. The mean CD4+ cell counts in all the groups were lower than the reference ranges at baseline and gradually increased at 3, 6 and 9 months of follow-up. The mean CD4+ cell counts were higher in the control group as compared to the chronic alcohol use group in both WHO AUDIT tool group and chronic alcohol-use biomarkers group though there was no significant difference (p > 0.05). Chronic alcohol use slightly lowers CD4+ cell count in HIV-infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP treatment regimen.

Effects of intervention measures on irrational antibiotics/antibacterial drug use in developing countries: A systematic review  [PDF]
Godfrey S. Bbosa, Geoff Wong, David B. Kyegombe, Jasper Ogwal-Okeng
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.62027
Abstract: Irrational antibiotics/antibacterial (AB) drug use is a global problem, especially in developing countries. This results in an increased emergence of resistance to most common bacteria, higher cost of treatment, prolonged hospitalization and adverse drug reactions. Interventions measures have been instituted to avert the problem but it still persists. A systematic review was conducted to determine the effect of different interventions (education, managerial, diagnostic tests, regulatory, economic and multifaceted) on misuse of AB drugs in developing countries. A total of 722 articles were retrieved and 55 were reviewed. About 10.9% of the studies were from Africa, 63.6% from Asia, 9.1% from Latin America, and 16.4% from Southeastern Europe. A total of 52.7% of the studies were from hospital settings, 5.5% from outpatient departments, 21.8% were from public health care facilities, 12.7% from private pharmacies/drug stores, and 7.3% from the communities. Education intervention had 27.3% studies, managerial had 20%, managerial/education had 3.6%, regulatory had 9.1%, education/regulation had 9.1% and diagnostic had 3.6% studies. Multifaceted intervention had 27.3% studies, with 63% improvement in appropriate AB doses prescribed, 2.6% mean number of AB encounter reduction, 23% AB prescription reduction, 18.3% generic AB prescription improvement, 32.1% reduction in AB use, 89% reduction in AB use in acute respiratory infection, 82% in surgery, 62.7% mean reduction in deliveries, 39% in STDs, 36.3% mean reduction in diarrhea, 14.6% mean reduction AB use in malaria, and 6%-11% in the cost of treating bacteria-resistant organisms. Also noted was 6.3% reductions in mean AB encounters after 1 month of intervention, and then increased to 7.7% after 3 months thus lacking sustainability. Multifaceted interventions were effective in reducing irrational AB drug use in the various health facilities and communities as well as reduction in the emergence of resistance to the commonest bacteria in the developing countries though there was lack of sustainability or continuity of rational drug use over the time.
Economies of Scale in Local Government: General Government Spending  [PDF]
Lawrence Southwick
iBusiness (IB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2012.43034
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to determine whether larger or smaller municipalities are more efficient in their levels of overhead costs. The operative measure is per capita annual costs for these services. In addition, the issue of market structure as a factor in these costs is also to be studied. It is not for the purpose of considering costs for specific services but rather the general overhead items that are required of all local governments. The method of study will be to use the cities and towns of New York State over a number of years. This will ensure that the study group is relatively homogeneous over applicable state laws as well as giving a wide variation in the population levels studied. The per capita expenditures will be regressed against population and market power variables using several equation forms. The results will be tested for significance in scale effects and market power effects. Optimal population sizes will be calculated where possible. The outline of the paper is as follows: 1) Introduction, 2) Background issues, 3) The study design, 4) Data, 5) Results, and 6) Conclusions.
Neuroscience, unconscious processes: Clinical applications  [PDF]
Lawrence Greenman
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.31007

This article reviews selected neuroscience and psychoanalytic writings about respective concepts regarding unconscious processes. Two objectives are pursued. The first is the modification of an apparent dualistic view of the psychoanalytic, dynamic unconscious described by Freud and the implicit, automated unconscious described by neuroscientists into a unified unconscious process concept. Secondly, to examine the functional, structural theory of Freud and to connect it to neuroscience findings via neurodevelopment and the concomitant development of speech and language, an exclusive communicative capacity of the human species. The goal is to illustrate the application of the objectives into clinical settings.

Macrophage sequestration of HIV-1 enhances homeostatic-related systems in promoting viral spread and replication  [PDF]
Lawrence Agius
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.47A1001

Decisive modulatory systems of compromise and systems of dynamic turnover in lymphoid cells and macrophages are activated by repeated bursts of viremia and as promotional schemes of representation of subsequent spread and replication of HIV-1. In such operative systems of micro-environmental conditioning and reconditioning, a significant mechanism towards the turnover of specific cell-types occurs within context of sequestration within macrophages and circulating monocytes. Dendritic cells in germinal follicles and within specific organs such as the Langerhans cells of the skin are allied to dysfunctionality of such cellular subtypes as exemplified by the resident microglia of the central nervous system. Decisive perturbation in cell-type number and in dysfunctional activation indicate an exquisite modulatory role for HIV-1 in promoting homeostatic-related mechanisms within organs and tissues towards utilization in terms of viral dynamics and cytokine operability. In such manner, HIV-1 replication is itself a system of promotion in spread of viruses across cell-type and host cell specificities that tend to characterize and recharacterize systems of cytokine network operability in particular.

Are There Economies of Scale in Highway Maintenance? What about Costs Due to Market Power?  [PDF]
Lawrence Southwick
iBusiness (IB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2014.62010

The object of this paper is to determine whether there are economies or diseconomies of scale in highway maintenance and whether higher concentration levels/greater market power across the governments involved in highway maintenance results in higher or lower cost levels. The data used come from New York State municipalities. New York is divided into Towns and Cities that added together give the total land area for the State. There are also Villages that are located in one or more Towns. All of these government entities may own and manage/maintain highways. The results are that 1) there are significantly U-shaped average cost curves, but the differences in average costs between communities with lower numbers or higher numbers of lane miles than the most efficient are not very great and 2) there are both substantial and significant increases in average costs when market power is greater. Thus, making the case for mergers of communities is more difficult and such mergers would be more problematic.

Distribution of the Median in Samples from the Laplace Distribution  [PDF]
John Lawrence
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2013.36050

The Laplace distribution is one of the oldest defined and studied distributions. In the one-parameter model (location parameter only), the sample median is the maximum likelihood estimator and is asymptotically efficient. Approximations for the variance of the sample median for small to moderate sample sizes have been studied, but no exact formula has been published. In this article, we provide an exact formula for the probability density function of the median and an exact formula for the variance of the median.

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