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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4711 matches for " Laurent Lassabatere "
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Modeling Water Infiltration and Solute Transfer in a Heterogeneous Vadose Zone as a Function of Entering Flow Rates  [PDF]
Erij Ben Slimene, Laurent Lassabatere, Thierry Winiarski, Remy Gourdon
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.713083
Abstract: Due to its rapid movement, preferential flow (PF) in the vadose zone allows much faster contaminant transport, which may have a significant impact on ground-water quality. PF can occur in heterogeneous vadose zones and it strongly depends on hydric and hydraulic conditions like entering flow rates at surface. This study deals with the modeling of the establishment of PF, and related solute transfer during the infiltration phase in a strongly heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit. This deposit is made of four contrasting lithofacies (sand, gravel, bimodal gravel and matrix-free gravel) and lies underneath an urban infiltration basin (Lyon, France). Previous studies have been carried out on this site and linked the regionalization of soil pollution with the lithological heterogeneity. But none of them clearly demonstrated how heterogeneity could impact flow and solute transfer and may explain such a regionalization. In this study, we model flow and solute transfer at the trench scale for both uniform and heterogeneous profiles in order to characterize the effect of lithological heterogeneity. In addition, such a modeling was performed for two different entering flow rates to depict the influence of condition at surface on PF. A key result is that heterogeneity clearly impacts unsaturated flow and solute transfer. Numerical modeling permitted pointing out the existence of PF paths associated with the sedimentary heterogeneity of the glaciofluvial deposit. For lower surface fluxes, the sand lens and matrix-free gravel were the sources of capillary barrier effects, leading to a funneled flow and a groundwater recharge characterized by earlier and more dispersed wetting fronts. Such a flow pattern enhances solutes transfer and reduces solute retention by soil. Thus, the effect of heterogeneity on solute transfer is significant, especially for the most reactive solutes.
Combined Effect of Infiltration, Capillary Barrier and Sloping Layered Soil on Flow and Solute Transfer in a Heterogeneous Lysimeter  [PDF]
Le Binh Bien, Dieuseul Predelus, Laurent Lassabatere, Thierry Winiarski, Rafael Angulo-Jaramillo
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2013.33018
Abstract: This aim of this paper is to describe a study of the combined effect of infiltration, capillary barrier and sloping layered soil on both flow and solute transport processes in a large, physical model (1 × 1 × 1.6 m3) called LUGH (Lysimeter for Urban Groundwater Hydrology) and a 3D numerical flow model. Sand and a soil composed of a bimodal sand-gravel mixture were placed in the lysimeter to simulate one of the basic structural and textural elements of the heterogeneity observed in the vadose zone under an infiltration basin of Lyon (France). Water and an inert tracer (KBr) were injected from the top of the lysimeter using a specific water sprinkler system and collected at 15 different outlets at the bottom. The outlet flows and the 15 breakthrough curves obtained presented high heterogeneity, emphasising the establishment of preferential flows resulting from both capillary barrier and soil layer dip effects. Numerical modelling led to better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for these heterogeneous transfers and it was also used to perform a sensitivity analysis of the effects of water velocity (water and solute flux fed by the sprinkler) and the slope interface. The results show that decreasing velocity and increasing the slope of the interface can lead to the development of preferential flows. In addition, the offset of the centre of gravity of the flow distribution at the output increases linearly as a function of the slope angle of the layered soil. This paper provides relevant information on the coupling between hydrodynamic processes and pollutant transfer in unsaturated heterogeneous soil and emphasizes the role of the geometry of the interfaces between materials and boundary conditions as key factors for preferential flow.

Tracing Water Flow and Colloidal Particles Transfer in an Unsaturated Soil  [PDF]
Dieuseul Prédélus, Laurent Lassabatere, Artur Paiva Coutinho, Cédric Louis, Thomas Brichart, Erij Ben Slimène, Thierry Winiarski, Rafael Angulo-Jaramillo
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.67067

In recent years, many studies have been carried out on colloidal particle transfer in the unsaturated zone because they can be a risk to the environment either directly or as a vector of pollutants. A study was conducted on the influence of porous media structure in unsaturated conditions on colloidal particle transport. Three granular materials were set up in columns to replicate a fluvio-glacial soil from the unsaturated zone in the Lyon area (France). It is a sand, a bimodal mixture in equal proportion by weight of sand and gravel, and a fraction of bimodal mixture. Nanoparticles of silica (SiO2-Au-FluoNPs), having a hydrodynamic diameter between 50 and 60 nm, labeled by organic fluorescent molecules were used to simulate the transport of colloidal particles. A nonreactive tracer, bromide ion (Br-) at a concentration of C0,s = 10-2 M was used to determine the hydrodispersive properties of porous media. The tests were carried out first, with a solution of nanoparticles (C0,p = 0.2 g/L) and secondly, with a solution of nanoparticles and bromine. The transfer model based on fractionation of water into two phases, mobile and immobile, MIM, correctly fits the elution curves. The retention of colloidal particles is greater in the two media of bimodal particle size than that in the sand, which clearly demonstrates the role of textural heterogeneity in the retention mechanism. The increase in ionic strength produced by alimenting the columns with colloidal particle suspension in the presence of bromide, increases retention up to 25% in the sand. The total concentration profile of nanoparticles collected at the end of the experiment shows that the colloidal particles are retained primarily at the entrance of the columns. Hydrodispersive calculated parameters indicate

Vadose Zone Heterogeneity Effect on Unsaturated Water Flow Modeling at Meso-Scale  [PDF]
Artur Paiva Coutinho, Laurent Lassabatere, Thierry Winiarski, Jaime Joaquim da Silva Pereira Cabral, Antonio Celso Dantas Antonino, Rafael Angulo-Jaramillo
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.74028
Abstract: The understanding of unsaturated flow in heterogeneous formations is a prerequisite to the understanding of pollutant transfer in the vadose zone and the proper management of infiltration basins settled over such heterogeneous formations. This study addresses the effect of lithological heterogeneity of a glaciofluvial deposit on flow in the vadose zone underneath an infiltration basin settled in the Lyon suburbs. The basin had already been the subject of several previous studies, some of which demonstrated the impact of soil heterogeneity. But all of them were only based on the sedimentological study of a trench and no study addressed the potential spatial variability of results due to the spatial variability of soil heterogeneity. In this study, we model flow in the vadose zone for several case studies, including drainage, water infiltration during a rainfall event, and a complete meteorological chronic. These calculations were conducted for several sections, previously characterized in the basin using GPR and sedimentological study and compared with a blank (homogeneous section). The results clearly show that heterogeneity impacts unsaturated flow and that these impacts depend upon the section considered. Some geometrical architectural and textural parameters were proposed to explain the spatial variability and effect of the soil heterogeneity on unsaturated flow, thus establishing the first step towards modeling unsaturated flow in the basin at the meso-scale.
Marine Biology: A Sub-Sample of a Vast Topic  [PDF]
Laurent Seuront
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2013.32A001

Marine Biology: A Sub-Sample of a Vast Topic

Generalized Powers of Substitution with Pre-Function Operators  [PDF]
Laurent Poinsot
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.47A004

An operator on formal power series of the form S \"\" μS , where μ is an invertible power series, and σ is a series of the form t+\"\"(t2) is called a unipotent substitution with pre-function. Such operators, denoted by a pair (μ σ )  , form a group. The objective of this contribution is to show that it is possible to define a generalized powers for such operators, as for instance fractional powers \"\"σ for every\"\" .

The Mediating Role of the Sense of Relatedness and Task Cohesion in the Relation between Psychological Power Distance and Efficicency of a Working Team  [PDF]
Laurent Auzoult
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.410105

Understanding of the effectiveness of work-teams is a major issue in the business world, where they are expected to facilitate developing individual skills and increasing organizations’ efficiency. Eighty-three engineers working in teams have responded to a questionnaire devised to measure perceptual power distances, the sense of relatedness, cohesion measured by integration around the task, and teams’ effectiveness. Results reveal that “task cohesion” and sense of relatedness mediate the relationship between power distance and perceived effectiveness. These results are related with those observed in the context of the self-determination theory and presented in order to highlight their practical implications.

Health 3.0—The patient-clinician “arabic spring” in healthcare  [PDF]
Serge Gagnon, Laurent Chartier
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.42008
Abstract: A growing number of citizen-patients and clinicians use Communication and Self-Managed Health Technologies (CSMHT) in their relationship. Doing so, they shift from the current paradigm of dependency to a co-responsibility paradigm in healthcare. Facing the runaway utilization of health services, we need to think “outside the box” to unblock the system. A Health 3.0 development model of governance that position patients as primary members of the clinicians’ team is presented to map this institutional transformation. At the practical level, an MD 3.0 relational model and a Citizen-Patient 3.0 behavioral profile are presented.
Deploying Safety-Critical Applications on Complex Avionics Hardware Architectures  [PDF]
Robert Hilbrich, Laurent Dieudonné
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.65028

Aviation electronics (avionics) are sophisticated and distributed systems aboard an airplane. The complexity of these systems is constantly growing as an increasing amount of functionalities is realized in software. Thanks to the performance increase, a hardware unit must no longer be dedicated to a single system function. Multicore processors for example facilitate this trend as they are offering an increased system performance in a small power envelope. In avionics, several system functions could now be integrated on a single hardware unit, if all safety requirements are still satisfied. This approach allows for further optimizations of the system architecture and substantial reductions of the space, weight and power (SWaP) footprint, and thus increases the transportation capacity. However, the complexity found in current safety-critical systems requires an automated software deployment process in order to tap this potential for further SWaP reductions. This article used a realistic flight control system as an example to present a new model-based methodology to automate the software deployment process. This methodology is based on the correctness-by-construction principle and is implemented as part of a systems engineering toolset. Furthermore, metrics and optimization criteria are presented which further help in the automatic assessment and refinement of a generated deployment. A discussion regarding a tighter integration of this approach in the entire avionics systems engineering workflow concludes this article.

Estimating firing rates from calcium signals in locust projection neurons in vivo
Laurent Moreaux,Gilles Laurent
Frontiers in Neural Circuits , 2007, DOI: 10.3389/neuro.04.002.2007
Abstract: Combining intracellular electrophysiology and multi-photon calcium imaging in vivo, we studied the relationship between calcium signals (sampled at 500–750?Hz) and spike output in principal neurons in the locust antennal lobe. Our goal was to determine whether the firing rate of individual neurons can be estimated in vivo with calcium imaging and, if so, to measure directly the accuracy and resolution of our estimates. Using the calcium indicator Oregon Green BAPTA-1, we describe a simple method to reconstruct firing rates from dendritic calcium signals with 80–90% accuracy and 50?ms temporal resolution.
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