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Longitudinal impact of a youth tobacco education program
Martin C Mahoney, Joseph E Bauer, Laurene Tumiel, Sarah McMullen, Jeff Schieder, Denise Pikuzinski
BMC Family Practice , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-3-3
Abstract: Twenty-eight schools, which were in relatively close geographic proximity, were randomized into three groups; Group 1 was used to assess whether attitudes/knowledge were changed in the hypothesized direction by the intervention, and if those changes were retained four months later. Groups 2 and 3, were used as comparison groups to assess possible test-retest bias and historical effects. Groups 1 and 3 were pooled to assess whether attitudes/knowledge were changed by the intervention as measured by an immediate post-test. The non-parametric analytical techniques of Wilcoxon-Matched Pairs/Sign Ranks and the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon Rank Sums Tests were used to compare proportions of correct responses at each of the schools.Pooled analyses showed that short-term retention on most items was achieved. It was also found that retention on two knowledge items 'recognition that smokers have yellow teeth and fingers' and 'smoking one pack of cigarettes a day costs several hundred dollars per year' was maintained for four months.The findings suggest that inexpensive, one-time interventions for tobacco-use prevention can be of value. Changes in attitudes and knowledge conducive to the goal of tobacco-use prevention can be achieved for short-term retention and some relevant knowledge items can be retained for several months.Given the epidemiology of smoking initiation, a great deal of public health policy and programmatic attention has been directed at youth smoking in the United States [1]. Approximately 80% of tobacco users initiate use before 18 years of age, and if this trend in early initiation of cigarette smoking continues, estimates are that 5 million children aged less than 18 years who are alive today will die prematurely as adults [2].In an effort to discourage initiation of tobacco use, several youth tobacco education programs have been created and are currently available for presentation to elementary school students. Many of these approaches are school-based programs,
For the love of Santa Fé: the medieval city in the context of O continente and the origin of the Terra-Cambará family
Laurene Veras
Via Litterae , 2011,
Abstract: The article proposes a reflection on the similarities between the city of Santa Fe in its formation, described by Erico Verissimo in the first two volumes of O tempo e o vento and the medieval city by Jacques Le Goff in Por amor às cidades: conversa es com Jean Lebrun, on the premise that the city, from its primordial days have been a magnet for pilgrims and families who decide to abandon the nomadic life in search of protection. The article focuses on Ana Terra e Um certo capit o Rodrigo chapters, which cover the period in which the village of Santa Fe is built like the generational process of the medieval city, kept their differences come from the obvious historical anachronism between american period romanticized by Veríssimo and the foudation of medieval european city.
Three dimensional non-linear evolution of a magnetic flux tube in a spherical shell: Influence of turbulent convection and associated mean flows
Laurene Jouve,Allan Sacha Brun
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/701/2/1300
Abstract: We present the first 3D MHD study in spherical geometry of the non-linear dynamical evolution of magnetic flux tubes in a turbulent rotating convection zone. We study numerically the rise of magnetic toroidal flux ropes from the base of a modelled convection zone up to the top of our computational domain where bipolar patches are formed. We compare the dynamical behaviour of flux tubes in a fully convective shell possessing self-consistently generated mean flows such as meridional circulation and differential rotation, with reference calculations done in a quiet isentropic zone. We find that two parameters influence the tubes during their rise through the convection zone: the initial field strength and amount of twist, thus confirming previous findings in Cartesian geometry. Further, when the tube is sufficiently strong with respect to the equipartition field, it rises almost radially independently of the initial latitude (either low or high). By contrast, weaker field cases indicate that downflows and upflows control the rising velocity of particular regions of the rope and could in principle favour the emergence of flux through Omega-loop structures. For these latter cases, we focus on the orientation of bipolar patches and find that sufficiently arched structures are able to create bipolar regions with a predominantly East-West orientation. Meridional flow seems to determine the trajectory of the magnetic rope when the field strength has been significantly reduced near the top of the domain. Finally differential rotation makes it more difficult for tubes introduced at low latitudes to reach the top of the domain.
Pedigree-Free Estimates of Heritability in the Wild: Promising Prospects for Selfing Populations
Laurene Gay, Mathieu Siol, Joelle Ronfort
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066983
Abstract: Estimating the genetic variance available for traits informs us about a population’s ability to evolve in response to novel selective challenges. In selfing species, theory predicts a loss of genetic diversity that could lead to an evolutionary dead-end, but empirical support remains scarce. Genetic variability in a trait is estimated by correlating the phenotypic resemblance with the proportion of the genome that two relatives share identical by descent (‘realized relatedness’). The latter is traditionally predicted from pedigrees (ΦA: expected value) but can also be estimated using molecular markers (average number of alleles shared). Nevertheless, evolutionary biologists, unlike animal breeders, remain cautious about using marker-based relatedness coefficients to study complex phenotypic traits in populations. In this paper, we review published results comparing five different pedigree-free methods and use simulations to test individual-based models (hereafter called animal models) using marker-based relatedness coefficients, with a special focus on the influence of mating systems. Our literature review confirms that Ritland’s regression method is unreliable, but suggests that animal models with marker-based estimates of relatedness and genomic selection are promising and that more testing is required. Our simulations show that using molecular markers instead of pedigrees in animal models seriously worsens the estimation of heritability in outcrossing populations, unless a very large number of loci is available. In selfing populations the results are less biased. More generally, populations with high identity disequilibrium (consanguineous or bottlenecked populations) could be propitious for using marker-based animal models, but are also more likely to deviate from the standard assumptions of quantitative genetics models (non-additive variance).
Analysis of potential locations of asteroidal moonlets
Hexi Baoyin,Xiaodong Liu,Laurene Beauvalet
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: In this study, the potential locations of asteroidal small satellites (also called moonlets) with quasi-circular mutual orbit are analyzed. For the motion of the moonlets, only the solar gravity perturbation and the primary's 2nd degree-and-order gravity field are considered. By eliminating of short periodic terms, the dynamical behavior of the Hamiltonian for the moonlets is investigated. The observational data of some high size ratio binary asteroids show that the orbits of the moonlets lie close to the classical Laplace equilibria, which reach global minimum values of the Hamiltonian. It is found that tides or Yarkovsky effects alone cannot account for the reason why the orbits of asteroidal moonlets are not exactly at the classical Laplace equilibria. The analysis in this study is expected to provide useful information for the potential locations of asteroidal moonlets, and contribute to principles to relate predictions to observations.
Assimilating data into an αω dynamo model of the sun: A variational approach
Laurene Jouve,Allan Sacha Brun,Olivier Talagrand
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/735/1/31
Abstract: We have developed a variational data assimilation technique for the Sun using a toy {\alpha}{\Omega} dynamo model. The purpose of this work is to apply modern data assimilation techniques to solar data using a physically based model. This work represents the first step toward a complete variational model of solar magnetism. We derive the adjoint {\alpha}{\Omega} dynamo code and use a minimization procedure to invert the spatial dependence of key physical ingredients of the model. We find that the variational technique is very powerful and leads to encouraging results that will be applied to a more realistic model of the solar dynamo. We also note that the continuous adjoint mean-field induction equation is derived in the appendix.
Hypernatremic dehydration, diabetes insipidus, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in a neonate: a case report
Laurene M Fleischer, Thomas A Wilson, Margaret M Parker
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-1-66
Abstract: A 13 day old Caucasian infant presented with failure to thrive, dehydration, and listlessness. She was born at 37 weeks following induced labor and vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery because of oligohydramnios. Birth weight was 2.9 kg. The mother had been treated with metformin for polycystic ovary syndrome until the 2nd trimester, terbutaline for asthma, and amoxicillin for a urinary tract infection. The baby was exclusively breastfed. On day 10 she was seen by her primary care physician because of poor feeding but was noted to have good urine output (about 5–6 wet diapers per day according to her parents). Her weight was 1.9 kg. Supplemental feedings with formula were recommended. Feedings remained poor and on day 13 she was admitted to our institution after presenting to an outside hospital with lethargy and dehydration. Admission weight was 2.3 kg (on a different scale), temperature of 98°F rectally, heart rate 125, respiratory rate 32, and blood pressure 106/72. She appeared alert but cachectic, had a sunken anterior fontanel, dry mucous membranes, capillary refill of 4 seconds, and mild tenting of the skin. Serum sodium level was 173 mmol/L, potassium was unavailable due to hemolysis, chloride 140 mmol/L, bicarbonate 20 mmol/L, blood urea nitrogen 143 mg/dL, creatinine 1.6 mg/dL, glucose 120 mg/dL, calcium 10.5 mg/dL. Initial CBC revealed a white blood cell count of 16.8, hemoglobin 18.9, hematocrit 56.3, likely due to hemoconcentration. On follow up CBC 12 hours later the white blood cell count was 9.9, hemoglobin 14.0, and hematocrit 41.3.The patient received two normal saline boluses at 20 cc/kg intravenously, then 0.25% saline at maintenance on presentation to the outside hospital prior to the results of her chemistry panel. Urine output remained brisk, at 1 cc/kg/hr for the first 5 hours even though the patient was clinically dehydrated. A foley catheter was placed for more accurate monitoring and her intravenous fluids were adjusted according to her electr
Photoluminescence quenching in gold - MoS2 hybrid nanoflakes
Udai Bhanu,Muhammad R. Islam,Laurene Tetard,Saiful I. Khondaker
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Achieving tunability of two dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) functions calls for the introduction of hybrid 2D materials by means of localized interactions with zero dimensional (0D) materials. A metal-semiconductor interface, as in gold (Au) - molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), is of great interest from the standpoint of fundamental science as it constitutes an outstanding platform to investigate plasmonic-exciton interactions and charge transfer. The applied aspects of such systems introduce new options for electronics, photovoltaics, detectors, gas sensing, catalysis, and biosensing. Here we consider pristine MoS2 and study its interaction with Au nanoislands, resulting in local variations of photoluminescence (PL) associated with various Au-MoS2 hybrid configurations. By controllably depositing monolayers of Au on MoS2 to form Au nanostructures of given size and thickness, we investigate the electronic structure of the resulting hybrid systems. We present strong evidence of PL quenching of MoS2 as a result of charge transfer from MoS2 to Au: p-doping of MoS2. The results suggest new avenues for 2D nanoelectronics, active control of transport or catalytic properties.
The Impact of Neurocysticercosis in California: A Review of Hospitalized Cases
Curtis Croker ,Matthew Redelings,Roshan Reporter,Frank Sorvillo,Laurene Mascola,Patricia Wilkins
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001480
Abstract: To assess the burden of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in California we examined statewide hospital discharge data for 2009. There were 304 cases hospitalized with NCC identified (incidence = 0.8 per 100,000). Cases were mostly Latino (84.9%), slightly more likely to be male than female (men 57.6%, women 42.4%) with an average age of 43.5 years. A majority of cases were hospitalized in Southern California (72.1%) and many were hospitalized in Los Angeles County (44.7%). Men were more likely than women to have severe disease including hydrocephalus (29.7% vs. 18.6%, p = 0.027), resulting in longer hospitalizations (>4 days, 48.0% vs. 32.6%, p = 0.007) that were more costly (charge>$40 thousand men = 46.9% vs. woman = 4.1%, p = 0.026). Six deaths were recorded (2.0%). The total of NCC-related hospital charges exceeded $17 million; estimated hospital costs exceeded $5 million. Neurocysticercosis causes appreciable disease and exacts a considerable economic burden in California.
Seasonal Patterns in Hydrogen Isotopes of Claws from Breeding Wood-Warblers (Parulidae): Utility for Estimating Migratory Origins
Kevin C. Fraser,T. Kurt. Kyser,Raleigh J. Robertson,Laurene M. Ratcliffe
Avian Conservation and Ecology , 2008,
Abstract: The global decline in many species of migratory birds has focused attention on the extent of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering populations. Stable-hydrogen isotope (δD) analysis of feathers is a useful technique for measuring connectivity, but is constrained by features of molt location and timing. Claws are metabolically inert, keratinous tissues that grow continuously and can be sampled at any point in the annual cycle, thus providing potentially useful clues about an individual's previous movements. However, variation in the rate at which claws incorporate local δD values is not well described. We measured δD values in claws of two species of Neotropical-Nearctic migrant wood-warblers (Golden-winged Warbler and Cerulean Warbler) breeding in eastern Ontario, Canada to investigate the rate of δD change through the breeding season and the utility of claw δD values for estimating migratory origins. δD values of claw tips from 66 different individuals, each sampled once during the breeding season, showed an average change of -0.3 to -0.4 per day in the direction of the expected local Ontario value. There were no significant sex or species differences in the rate of change. These results suggest δD values of claw tips in Parulids may reflect those of the non-breeding area for 3–7 weeks after arrival on the breeding grounds, and are useful estimators of non-breeding migratory origin. Our results also suggest that these species may leave the breeding ground before claw tips fully incorporate a local δD signature, as claws sampled at the end of the breeding season did not match locally grown feather and claw δD values. This is the first study to examine the seasonal rate of the change in δD values of claws in long-distance, insectivorous, migratory birds.
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