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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1681 matches for " Laurence Godiard "
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Transcriptomic analysis of the interaction between Helianthus annuus and its obligate parasite Plasmopara halstedii shows single nucleotide polymorphisms in CRN sequences
Falah As-sadi, Sébastien Carrere, Quentin Gascuel, Thibaut Hourlier, David Rengel, Marie-Christine Le Paslier, Amandine Bordat, Marie-Claude Boniface, Dominique Brunel, Jér?me Gouzy, Laurence Godiard, Patrick Vincourt
BMC Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-498
Abstract: A 454 pyrosequencing run of two infected sunflower samples (inbred lines XRQ and PSC8 infected with race 710 of P. halstedii, which exhibit incompatible and compatible interactions, respectively) generated 113,720 and 172,107 useable reads. From these reads, 44,948 contigs and singletons have been produced. A bioinformatic portal, HP, was specifically created for in-depth analysis of these clusters. Using in silico filtering, 405 clusters were defined as being specific to oomycetes, and 172 were defined as non-specific oomycete clusters. A subset of these two categories was checked using PCR amplification, and 86% of the tested clusters were validated. Twenty putative RXLR and CRN effectors were detected using PSI-BLAST. Using corresponding sequences from four races (100, 304, 703 and 710), 22 SNPs were detected, providing new information on pathogen polymorphisms.This study identified a large number of genes that are expressed during H. annuus/P. halstedii compatible or incompatible interactions. It also reveals, for the first time, that an infection mechanism exists in P. halstedii similar to that in other oomycetes associated with the presence of putative RXLR and CRN effectors. SNPs discovered in CRN effector sequences were used to determine the genetic distances between the four races of P. halstedii. This work therefore provides valuable tools for further discoveries regarding the H. annuus/P. halstedii pathosystem.Downy mildew in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) is caused by the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berlese et de Toni. Both the host plant and the pathogen species originated in North America, where co-evolution has taken place [1]. As the result of the fast evolution of the pathogen and despite considerable efforts by public research and seed companies, downy mildew remains a major risk for the crop, as new races of the pathogen are bypassing the resistance of sunflower hybrids [2], which is generally based on race-specific Pl genes [3-6]. On
Continuous Maps on Digital Simple Closed Curves  [PDF]
Laurence Boxer
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/am.2010.15050
Abstract: We give digital analogues of classical theorems of topology for continuous functions defined on spheres, for digital simple closed curves. In particular, we show the following. ? A digital simple closed curve of more than 4 points is not contractible, i.e., its identity map is not nullhomotopic in . ? Let and be digital simple closed curves, each symmetric with respect to the origin, such that (where is the number of points in ). Let be a digitally continuous antipodal map. Then is not nullho- motopic in . ? Let be a digital simple closed curve that is symmetric with respect to the origin. Let be a digitally continuous map. Then there is a pair of antipodes such that .
Modelling Visible Foliar Injury Effects on Canopy Photosynthesis and Potential Crop Yield Losses Resulting from Fluoride Exposure  [PDF]
David Doley, Laurence Rossato
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.39113
Abstract: Crop production models are highly developed to account for different nitrogen, light, temperature and water availability conditions and, in some species, disease or air pollutant effects. There is very limited knowledge on responses of many tropical crops, such as oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), to air pollutants although predictions of these effects are essential for industrial planning in several countries. In the absence of limitations due to water supply, the effects of leaf area loss due to necrosis and chlorosis are much more important to canopy photosynthesis than are changes in the physiological attributes that influence the efficiency of light use. Therefore, potential losses of crop production due to air pollutants such as fluoride can be inferred usefully from the extent of visible injury to foliage that may be associated with different levels of pollutant exposure.
The Cross-Sectional Risk Premium of Decomposed Market Volatility in UK Stock Market  [PDF]
Yan Yang, Laurence Copeland
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.27006

We decompose UK market volatility into short- and long-run components using EGARCH component model and examine the cross-sectional prices of the two components. Our empirical results suggest that these two components are significantly priced in the cross-section and the negative risk premia are consistent with the existing literature. The Fama-French three-factor model is improved by the inclusion of the two volatility components. However, our ICAPM model using market excess return and the decomposed volatility components as state variables compares inferiorly to the traditional three-factor model.

Guardians and Targets: A Routine Activity Approach to Terrorism in Southeast Asia  [PDF]
Camille Laurence Pauline Bigot
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.512011
Since 9/11, terrorism has been an important subject of study within the political and social fields, having often been examined critically. However, empirical frameworks have been lacking within the study of terrorism. This paper aims to counter reductionist views of terrorism and provide a holistic analysis under the arch of a criminological ontological framework. This study tests the relevance of routine activity theory to terrorism, taking the specific case study of terrorism within Southeast Asia. Working with Interpol, terror attacks, and counter-terrorism operations were quantified to mathematically model Routine Activity Theory where I aimed to find predictive terror patterns. Using a time-series analysis of terrorist attacks and counter-terrorism operations, Deterrence Theory, Randomness Theory in targeting and Contagion theory will be tested. A comparative framework will be established between religious attacks and politically related ones. My research aims to disprove any discursive assumptions of terrorism through a quantitative empirical focus. Furthermore, it aims to find patterns within terrorism to learn how to better combat it.
Versatility of RNA-Binding Proteins in Cancer
Laurence Wurth
Comparative and Functional Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/178525
Abstract: Posttranscriptional gene regulation is a rapid and efficient process to adjust the proteome of a cell to a changing environment. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are the master regulators of mRNA processing and translation and are often aberrantly expressed in cancer. In addition to well-studied transcription factors, RBPs are emerging as fundamental players in tumor development. RBPs and their mRNA targets form a complex network that plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis. This paper describes mechanisms by which RBPs influence the expression of well-known oncogenes, focusing on precise examples that illustrate the versatility of RBPs in posttranscriptional control of cancer development. RBPs appeared very early in evolution, and new RNA-binding domains and combinations of them were generated in more complex organisms. The identification of RBPs, their mRNA targets, and their mechanism of action have provided novel potential targets for cancer therapy.
Mouse Models of Human Autoimmune Diseases: Essential Tools That Require the Proper Controls
Laurence Morel
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020241
Hereditary angioedema in women
Laurence Bouillet
Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1710-1492-6-17
Abstract: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner: consequently both women and men can be affected. However, published series of hereditary angioedema report a clear female predominance (60%) [1,2]. This might be explained by the fact that women are more likely to be symptomatic than men. In HAE associated with C1 Inh deficiency, Professor Bork has shown that women have more clinical episodes than men (p < 0.02) [2].Hormonal factors play a significant role in the precipitation or worsening of the condition in women. There appear to be variation in overall frequency of angioedema symptoms according to the different female life stages of childhood, puberty, menses, pregnancies and menopause. Reports have noted a close relationship between female hormones and angioedema: a mother and her daughter whose HAE-related symptoms appeared to be sex hormone dependent [3]. Their first attack happened around puberty; angioedema worsened premenstrual and when they took combined oral contraceptives. The case of a woman [4] with HAE and Turner's syndrome is also very interesting: starting physiological oestrogen replacement at the age of 34 years old, this woman experienced a worsening both in the severity and in the frequency of angioedema attacks. McGlinchey and al [5] described a patient whose symptoms of HAE emerged after starting hormone replacement therapy (HRT).Female sex hormones are known to affect the synthesis of many proteins. In the context of bradykinin mediated angioedema, they act on the kallikrein-kinin system by increasing synthesis of bradykinin. In ovariectomized rats, studies showed that 17β-estradiol increases Hageman factor levels by stimulation of gene transcription [6-9]. This hormone also increases kininogen and kallikrein levels [10]. Additionally oestrogens regulate B2 receptor gene expression and function: the vasodepressor response to bradykinin and the B2 receptor mRNA levels are reduced in ovariectomized rats, and restored by o
A framework for evolutionary systems biology
Laurence Loewe
BMC Systems Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1752-0509-3-27
Abstract: Here I propose a novel framework that brings together evolutionary theory and current systems biology approaches in order to quantify small effects of mutations and their epistatic interactions in silico. Central to this approach is the definition of fitness correlates that can be computed in some current systems biology models employing the rigorous algorithms that are at the core of much work in computational systems biology. The framework exploits synergies between the realism of such models and the need to understand real systems in evolutionary theory. This framework can address many longstanding topics in evolutionary biology by defining various 'levels' of the adaptive landscape. Addressed topics include the distribution of mutational effects on fitness, as well as the nature of advantageous mutations, epistasis and robustness. Combining corresponding parameter estimates with population genetics models raises the possibility of testing evolutionary hypotheses at a new level of realism.EvoSysBio is expected to lead to a more detailed understanding of the fundamental principles of life by combining knowledge about well-known biological systems from several disciplines. This will benefit both evolutionary theory and current systems biology. Understanding robustness by analysing distributions of mutational effects and epistasis is pivotal for drug design, cancer research, responsible genetic engineering in synthetic biology and many other practical applications.Mutations with weak effects on fitness that interact with each other are of great interest to evolutionary genetics and genomics, as their long-term consequences are much harder to predict than those of mutations with large effects. These mutations with small effects are also much more frequent [1,2]. Systems biology has accumulated much data on mutations with relatively large effects by using experimental methods and theoretical tools like flux balance analysis, which analyses the flux of metabolites in b
Des groupes de parole avec les adolescents: une parole subjectivée dans l'institution scolaire
Gavarini, Laurence;
Fractal : Revista de Psicologia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-02922009000300003
Abstract: in connection with "copsy-enfant" (french national agency for research, 2006-2009), our recent research on the construction of gender and generational identity among teenagers, we set up seven discussion groups for middle and high school students in a working-class neighborhood of metropolitan paris. the purpose of this article is to situate our research within the context of today's interrogations on adolescence. such groups provided for the teenagers who requested them, a space within the school reducing the gap between their pupil's status and their teenager's being subject. in this paper, we speak about the structuration of these groups whose orientation was psychoanalytic. we address the containing function and the social bonds that such groups provided for the teenagers.
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