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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12372 matches for " Laura Sommer "
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Fruiting Body Production and Aroma Profile Analysis of Agrocybe aegerita Cultivated on Different Substrates  [PDF]
Vanessa Kleofas, Laura Sommer, Marco A. Fraatz, Holger Zorn, Martin Rühl
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.56022
Abstract:

The industrial cultivated basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita, also known as “Pioppino” in Italy or “Samthaube” in Germany, is a high quality mushroom with a delicious aroma. Cultivation of A. aegerita on wheat straw supplemented with different residues of the food industry showed the highest yields in fruiting body production with a biological efficiency of 36% when black tea pomace was added. The addition of other substrates resulted in biological efficiencies of 23% to 33%. Besides the mushroom yields, the number and size of fruiting bodies harvested on the different substrates were determined. A comparison of the aroma profiles of A. aegerita grown on wheat straw and on wheat straw supplemented with black tea by means of GC/MS/MS/O is presented.

CDM, Feedback and the Hubble Sequence
Jesper Sommer-Larsen,Martin Gotz,Laura Portinari
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1023/A:1019533817423
Abstract: We have performed TreeSPH simulations of galaxy formation in a standard LCDM cosmology, including effects of star formation, energetic stellar feedback processes and a meta-galactic UV field, and obtain a mix of disk, lenticular and elliptical galaxies. The disk galaxies are deficient in angular momentum by only about a factor of two compared to observed disk galaxies. The stellar disks have approximately exponential surface density profiles, and those of the bulges range from exponential to r^{1/4}, as observed. The bulge-to-disk ratios of the disk galaxies are consistent with observations and likewise are their integrated B-V colours, which have been calculated using stellar population synthesis techniques. Furthermore, we can match the observed I-band Tully-Fisher (TF) relation, provided that the mass-to-light ratio of disk galaxies, (M/L_I), is about 0.8. The ellipticals and lenticulars have approximately r^{1/4} stellar surface density profiles, are dominated by non-disklike kinematics and flattened due to non-isotropic stellar velocity distributions, again consistent with observations.
Galaxy Formation: CDM, Feedback and the Hubble Sequence
Jesper Sommer-Larsen,Martin Gotz,Laura Portinari
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/377685
Abstract: TreeSPH simulations of galaxy formation in a LCDM cosmology, with star formation, energetic stellar feedback and a meta-galactic UV field have been performed, resulting in realistic disk, S0 and E galaxies at z=0. The disk galaxies are deficient in angular momentum by only about a factor of two compared to observations for runs where fairly strong star-bursts in early, proto-galactic clouds lead to "blow-away" of the remaining gas. The surface density profiles of the stellar disks are approximately exponential and those of the bulges range from exponential to r^(1/4). B/D ratios and integrated B-V colours are consistent with observations. The observed I-band TF relation can be matched with M/L_I ~ 0.8, in fair agreement with recent determinations. The (E/S0)s have approximately r^(1/4) profiles, non disk-like kinematics and are flattened due to non-isotropic stellar velocity distributions. We predict hot halo gas to cool out and accrete onto the Galactic disk at 0.5-1 Msun/yr at z=0, consistent with upper limits from FUSE observations of O VI. We analyzed two Milky Way-sized galaxies and find accretion rates, and X-ray halo luminosities, 6-7 times larger at z=1 than at z=0. The gas infall declines nearly exponentially with time, supporting the approximation often used in chemical evolution models. The infall time-scales are comparable to what is used to solve the "G-dwarf problem". One disk forms "inside-out", the other "outside-in". For both, the mean stellar ages in the outskirts agree with findings for the disk of M31. The amount of hot gas in disk galaxy haloes is consistent with observational upper limits, as are dispersion measures to pulsars in the globular cluster M53 and the LMC, which were "inserted" in the disk galaxy haloes.
Loss of Glucocorticoid Receptor Expression by DNA Methylation Prevents Glucocorticoid Induced Apoptosis in Human Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells
Paul Kay,George Schlossmacher,Laura Matthews,Paula Sommer,Dave Singh,Anne White,David Ray
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024839
Abstract: Human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is highly aggressive, and quickly develops resistance to therapy. SCLC cells are typically insensitive to glucocorticoids due to impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. This is important as we have previously shown that expression of a GR transgene induces cell death in-vitro, and inhibits tumor growth in-vivo. However, the underlying mechanism for loss of GR expression is unknown. The SCLC cell line, DMS79, has low GR expression, compared to non-SCLC cell lines and normal bronchial epithelial cells. Retroviral GR expression in DMS79 cells caused activation of the apoptotic pathway as evidenced by marked induction of caspase-3 activity. Methylation analysis of the GR promoter revealed some methylation in the 1D, and 1E promoters of the GR gene, however the ubiquitous constitutively active 1C promoter was heavily methylated. In the 1C promoter there was a highly significant increase in DNA methylation in a panel of 14 human SCLC cell lines compared to a mixed panel of GR expressing, and non-expressing cell lines, and to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, within the panel of SCLC cell lines there was a significant negative correlation seen between methylation of the 1C promoter, and GR protein expression. Reversal of GR gene methylation with DNA methyltransferase inhibition caused increased GR mRNA and protein expression in SCLC but not non-SCLC cells. This resulted in increased Gc sensitivity, decreased Bcl-2 expression and increased caspase-3 activity in SCLC cells. These data suggest that DNA methylation decreases GR gene expression in human SCLC cells, in a similar manner to that for conventional tumor suppressor genes.
X-ray, Ly-alpha and H-alpha Emission from Simulated Disk Galaxies
Jesper Sommer-Larsen,Sune Toft,Jesper Rasmussen,Kristian Pedersen,Martin Gotz,Laura Portinari
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1023/A:1024099131927
Abstract: The X-ray properties of the haloes of disk galaxies formed in fully cosmological, hydro/gravity simulations are discussed. The results are found to be consistent with observational X-ray detections and upper limits. Disk galaxy haloes are predicted to be about an order of magnitude brighter in soft X-rays at z~1 than at z=0. The Ly-alpha and H-alpha surface brightness of an edge-on, Milky Way like model galaxy has been determined. The emission is found to be quite extended, with a scale height of about 600 pc, neglecting extinction corrections.
Estimating global mortality from potentially foodborne diseases: an analysis using vital registration data
Laura A Hanson, Elizabeth A Zahn, Sommer R Wild, D?rte D?pfer, James Scott, Claudia Stein
Population Health Metrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7954-10-5
Abstract: Vital registration (VR) data were used to build a multiple regression model incorporating nonhealth variables in addition to traditionally used health indicators. This model was subsequently used to predict FBD mortality rates for all countries of the World Health Organization classifications AmrA, AmrB, EurA, and EurB.Statistical modeling strongly supported the inclusion of nonhealth variables in a multiple regression model as predictors of potentially FBD mortality. Six variables were included in the final model: percent irrigated land, average calorie supply from animal products, meat production in metric tons, adult literacy rate, adult HIV/AIDS prevalence, and percent of deaths under age 5 caused by diarrheal disease. Interestingly, nonhealth variables were not only more robust predictors of mortality than health variables but also remained significant when adding additional health variables into the analysis. Mortality rate predictions from our model ranged from 0.26 deaths per 100,000 (Netherlands) to 15.65 deaths per 100,000 (Honduras). Reported mortality rates of potentially FBD from VR data lie within the 95% prediction interval for the majority of countries (37/39) where comparison was possible.Nonhealth variables appear to be strong predictors of potentially FBD mortality at the country level and may be a powerful tool in the effort to estimate the global mortality burden of FBD.The views expressed in this document are solely those of the authors and do not represent the views of the World Health Organization.Foodborne diseases (FBD) encompass a wide spectrum of illnesses that manifest after the ingestion of contaminated foods and food products. They can be caused by a variety of microbial pathogens, chemicals, and parasites that contaminate food at different points in the food production and preparation process. Notwithstanding the morbidity and disability resulting from foodborne diseases, the ingestion of contaminated food can lead to death. Diarrheal
The interrelationship between metabolic parameters in blood serum of cattle and fertility
H Sommer
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1976, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-8-2-295c
Abstract:
The importance of immune gene variability (MHC) in evolutionary ecology and conservation
Simone Sommer
Frontiers in Zoology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1742-9994-2-16
Abstract: Many natural populations are threatened not only by a dramatic reduction in total area of available habitat but also by increasing habitat fragmentation and degradation leading to declining population sizes and barriers to gene flow if exchange of individuals between subpopulations is restricted [1-3]. Small populations often suffer from reduction of genetic diversity due to genetic drift and inbreeding effects [4-6]. Negative effects such as increased rates of allelic loss, fixation of deleterious alleles and decreased average individual heterozygosity relative to the overall population were observed by both, theoretical and empirical studies [7,8]. The loss of genetic variation can lead to short-term reduction of fitness components such as survival, reproductive output, growth rates and to impaired ability to adapt to long-term changes in the environment [7,9-13]. An increasing number of studies indicates that host genetic diversity plays an important role in buffering populations against pathogens and widespread epidemics [6,14-20]. Study of the genetic effects of population fragmentation is therefore of central importance for conservation biology [21].Genetic studies of wild animals often employ neutral markers such as mitochondrial d-loop DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) to estimate the amount of variation present in individuals and populations [22-24]. While these markers are very informative for phylogenetic reconstructions and population history (bottleneck effects), for molecular clocks, to examine dispersal patterns of individuals (gene flow) and to classify individuals by relatedness and paternity analyses [25-28], the variation at neutral loci cannot provide direct information on selective processes involving the interaction of individuals with their environment or on the capacity for future adaptive changes [29,30]. However, these are issues of particular relevance in evolutionary ecology and conservation [31,32]. In
Upper-School Teaching at Steiner Waldorf Schools: Cognitive Challenges for the Embodied Self
Wilfried Sommer
RoSE : Research on Steiner Education , 2010,
Abstract: The processes at work in Steiner Waldorf (hereafter ‘Waldorf’) upper school teaching show specific characteristics. They address, for example, heterogeneous learning groups, structuring the learning process in a manner that engenders in the student communication with the world and with themselves. The didactic preparation of teaching material should not merely facilitate this but also consider the embodied self with its diverse life modes. This process shall be considered in the language of phenomenological anthropology. The dialectics of the centric and eccentric positions will be the subject of discussion as will be the significance of engaged and detached perspectives.Part I of this article, in this issue, discusses not only the teaching processes but also their philosophical setting. Two concrete examples from the classroom illustrate how this then translates into the appropriate path in practical teaching. In the next issue, Part II of the article will examine classroom methodology. This will discuss how classroom practice can help students, as embodied persons, to relate to their need for intellectual positioning and thus develop a way of thinking that does not alienate them from themselves as persons but puts their embodied, personal existence into context.
Oberstufenunterricht an der Waldorfschule: Kognitive Herausforderungen für das verk rperte Selbst
Wilfried Sommer
RoSE : Research on Steiner Education , 2010,
Abstract: Zusammenfassung. Die Unterrichtsprozesse in der Oberstufe Freier Waldorfschulen weisen spezifische Merkmale auf: Sie wenden sich z.B. an heterogene Lerngruppen und legen dort das Lernen so an, dass es sich zu einem Verst ndigungsprozess mit der Welt und mit sich selbst entwickeln kann. Die didaktische Aufbereitung der Unterrichtsinhalte muss das nicht nur zulassen, sondern auch das verk rperte Selbst mit seinen unterschiedlichen Lebensmodi berücksichtigen. Dieser Rahmen soll in der Sprache der ph nomenologischen Anthropologie charakterisiert werden. Die Dialektik von zentrischer und exzentrischer Position wird ebenso wie die Rolle von eingebundener und abgel ster Perspektive thematisiert.In einem ersten Teil kommen in dieser Ausgabe nicht nur die Unterrichtsprozesse zur Sprache, sondern auch deren philosophisches Umfeld. An zwei konkreten Unterrichtsbeispielen wird dann der entsprechende Weg in die p dagogische Praxis verdeutlicht. In der n chsten Ausgabe soll in einem zweiten Teil die Unterrichtsmethodik untersucht werden. Hier wird es um die Frage gehen, wie Schülerinnen und Schüler durch die Unterrichtspraxis ihr Bedürfnis nach intellektueller Verortung auch auf sich als verk rperte Personen beziehen und damit ein Denken entwickeln k nnen, das sie nicht von sich als Personen entfremdet, sondern vielmehr ihr verleiblichtes personales Dasein in Zusammenh nge stellt.
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