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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 234744 matches for " Laura Pulkki-R?back "
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Childhood Disruptive Behaviour and School Performance across Comprehensive School: A Prospective Cohort Study  [PDF]
Saija Alatupa, Laura Pulkki-Rback, Mirka Hintsanen, Sari Mullola, Jari Lipsanen, Liisa Keltikangas-J?rvinen
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.26084
Abstract: In the present study we examined 1) whether childhood disruptive behaviour, in terms of aggressiveness, hyper-activity and social adjustment, predicts school performance since toddler age or whether becomes it relevant first since middle or late childhood, 2) whether gender differences within the associations between school perform-ance and disruptive behaviour exist, and 3) whether there are trait specific effects in these associations, i.e. whether hyperactivity is more relevant determinant for later school success than aggression and social adjust-ment. The subjects were derived from a representative, population based cohort study where 3600 subjects we followed for 27 years since their childhood. Our sample consisted of 973 participants (516 girls) who were 3, 6 and 9 years of age at baseline and were followed over their whole compulsory education, i.e. 3rd, 6th, and 9th grades. The most prominent finding was a gender specific association between disruptive behaviour and school performance: hyperactivity predicted later school performance among girls whereas aggression predicted school performance among boys. The association between social adjustment and school performance was less clear. Disruptive behaviour at toddler age (at the age of 3) was not predictable for later school performance but it started to predict school performance at later age, i.e. when it was assessed at the ages of 6 and 9, and the asso-ciations were true throughout the whole 9-year comprehensive school. Our findings suggest that early childhood disruptive behaviour has long-lasting effects. Thus, its intervention before the school entry would be of high importance.
Personality Profiles Identify Depressive Symptoms over Ten Years? A Population-Based Study
Kim Josefsson,P?ivi Merjonen,Markus Jokela,Laura Pulkki-Rback,Liisa Keltikangas-J?rvinen
Depression Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/431314
Abstract: Little is known about the relationship between temperament and character inventory (TCI) profiles and depressive symptoms. Personality profiles are useful, because personality traits may have different effects on depressive symptoms when combined with different combinations of other traits. Participants were from the population-based Young Finns study with repeated measurements in 1997, 2001, and 2007 ( to 1902). TCI was administered in 1997 and mild depressive symptoms (modified Beck’s depression inventory, BDI) were reported in 1997, 2001, and 2007. BDI-II was also administered in 2007. We found that high harm avoidance and low self-directedness related strongly to depressive symptoms. In addition, sensitive (NHR) and fanatical people (ScT) were especially vulnerable to depressive symptoms. high novelty seeking and reward dependence increased depressive symptoms when harm avoidance was high. These associations were very similar in cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. Personality profiles help in understanding the complex associations between depressive symptoms and personality. 1. Introduction The biosocial model of personality developed by Cloninger conceptualizes personality as the combination of two interrelated domains: temperament traits reflecting heritable and neurobiologically based differences in behavioral conditioning and character traits reflecting both neurobiological and sociocultural mechanisms of semantic and self-aware learning. Those domains are hypothesized to interact as a nonlinear dynamic system regulating the development of human psychological functions [1, 2]. According to Cloninger et al. [1, 3], temperament is related to heritable variation in automatic responses to environmental stimuli, especially to emotional ones, and is suggested to be involved in a specific neurotransmitter system of the brain. Temperament is characterized by novelty seeking (NS; a tendency toward exploratory activity and intense excitement in response to novel stimuli) that was originally hypothesized to be linked with low basal dopaminergic activity, harm avoidance (HA; a tendency to respond intensely to aversive stimuli and to avoid punishment and novelty) that was originally hypothesized to be linked with high serotonergic activity, reward dependence (RD; a tendency to respond intensely to reward and to learn to maintain rewarded behavior) that was originally hypothesized to be linked with low basal noradrenergic activity, and persistence (P) that has no special neural correlates [3]. However, Cloninger [1] has later acknowledged that the
Pairwise Measures of Causal Direction in the Epidemiology of Sleep Problems and Depression
Tom Rosenstr?m, Markus Jokela, Sampsa Puttonen, Mirka Hintsanen, Laura Pulkki-Rback, Jorma S. Viikari, Olli T. Raitakari, Liisa Keltikangas-J?rvinen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050841
Abstract: Depressive mood is often preceded by sleep problems, suggesting that they increase the risk of depression. Sleep problems can also reflect prodromal symptom of depression, thus temporal precedence alone is insufficient to confirm causality. The authors applied recently introduced statistical causal-discovery algorithms that can estimate causality from cross-sectional samples in order to infer the direction of causality between the two sets of symptoms from a novel perspective. Two common-population samples were used; one from the Young Finns study (690 men and 997 women, average age 37.7 years, range 30–45), and another from the Wisconsin Longitudinal study (3101 men and 3539 women, average age 53.1 years, range 52–55). These included three depression questionnaires (two in Young Finns data) and two sleep problem questionnaires. Three different causality estimates were constructed for each data set, tested in a benchmark data with a (practically) known causality, and tested for assumption violations using simulated data. Causality algorithms performed well in the benchmark data and simulations, and a prediction was drawn for future empirical studies to confirm: for minor depression/dysphoria, sleep problems cause significantly more dysphoria than dysphoria causes sleep problems. The situation may change as depression becomes more severe, or more severe levels of symptoms are evaluated; also, artefacts due to severe depression being less well presented in the population data than minor depression may intervene the estimation for depression scales that emphasize severe symptoms. The findings are consistent with other emerging epidemiological and biological evidence.
Temperament Clusters in a Normal Population: Implications for Health and Disease
Jaana Wessman, Stefan Sch?nauer, Jouko Miettunen, Hannu Turunen, Pekka Parviainen, Jouni K. Sepp?nen, Eliza Congdon, Susan Service, Markku Koiranen, Jesper Ekelund, Jaana Laitinen, Anja Taanila, Tuija Tammelin, Mirka Hintsanen, Laura Pulkki-Rback, Liisa Keltikangas-J?rvinen, Jorma Viikari, Olli T. Raitakari, Matti Joukamaa, Marjo-Riitta J?rvelin, Nelson Freimer, Leena Peltonen, Juha Veijola, Heikki Mannila, Tiina Paunio
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033088
Abstract: Background The object of this study was to identify temperament patterns in the Finnish population, and to determine the relationship between these profiles and life habits, socioeconomic status, and health. Methods/Principal Findings A cluster analysis of the Temperament and Character Inventory subscales was performed on 3,761 individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 and replicated on 2,097 individuals from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. Clusters were formed using the k-means method and their relationship with 115 variables from the areas of life habits, socioeconomic status and health was examined. Results Four clusters were identified for both genders. Individuals from Cluster I are characterized by high persistence, low extravagance and disorderliness. They have healthy life habits, and lowest scores in most of the measures for psychiatric disorders. Cluster II individuals are characterized by low harm avoidance and high novelty seeking. They report the best physical capacity and highest level of income, but also high rate of divorce, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Individuals from Cluster III are not characterized by any extreme characteristic. Individuals from Cluster IV are characterized by high levels of harm avoidance, low levels of exploratory excitability and attachment, and score the lowest in most measures of health and well-being. Conclusions This study shows that the temperament subscales do not distribute randomly but have an endogenous structure, and that these patterns have strong associations to health, life events, and well-being.
Supply Chain Network Optimization of the Canadian Forest Products Industry: A Critical Review  [PDF]
Shashi Shahi, Reino Pulkki
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.37073

The Canadian forest products industry has failed to retain its competitiveness in the global markets because of the under-utilization of its resources. Supply chain optimization models can identify the best possible fibre utilization strategies from multiple options of value creation based on fluctuating market conditions in the forest industries. This paper comprehensively reviews the literature related to supply chain models used both in general and specifically in the forest products industry. The optimization models use information from multiple agents (market demand attributes, flexible wood procurement and manufacturing processes, and resource characteristics), and share this information at each level in the supply chain network. However, the modeling of two-way flow of information (market to forests and vice-versa) for order promising and demand fulfillment through all facilities including manufacturing, processing, raw material procurement and inventory control is missing. The studies that focus on optimization are mostly deterministic in nature and do not account for uncertainty both in supply of raw materials and demand of forest products. Simulation and optimization models have been independently used for supply chain management in the past. The literature lacks an integrated approach that combines simulation and optimization models throughout the supply chain network of the Canadian forest products industry. Further studies should focus on developing simulation-based optimization models that will help in providing an operational planning tool that meets industrial expectations and provides much better solutions than current industrial practice.

The Art of Estimating a Moving Parameter and Reducing Bias Introduced by Inflated Measurements in Student Assessments  [PDF]
R. D. Wooten, D. Jelsovsky, R. Back, J. D’Andrea
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2018.81003
Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the art of estimating the greatest level of understanding obtained by a student based on five assessment types ranked based on their correlation between the set maximum levels of understanding. The results show a weighting system yields a point estimate that has a stronger correlation between the preset levels of understanding than a simple point system.
Revealing Variations in Perception of Mental States from Dynamic Facial Expressions: A Cautionary Note
Elisa Back, Timothy R. Jordan
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084395
Abstract: Although a great deal of research has been conducted on the recognition of basic facial emotions (e.g., anger, happiness, sadness), much less research has been carried out on the more subtle facial expressions of an individual's mental state (e.g., anxiety, disinterest, relief). Of particular concern is that these mental state expressions provide a crucial source of communication in everyday life but little is known about the accuracy with which natural dynamic facial expressions of mental states are identified and, in particular, the variability in mental state perception that is produced. Here we report the findings of two studies that investigated the accuracy and variability with which dynamic facial expressions of mental states were identified by participants. Both studies used stimuli carefully constructed using procedures adopted in previous research, and free-report (Study 1) and forced-choice (Study 2) measures of response accuracy and variability. The findings of both studies showed levels of response accuracy that were accompanied by substantial variation in the labels assigned by observers to each mental state. Thus, when mental states are identified from facial expressions in experiments, the identities attached to these expressions appear to vary considerably across individuals. This variability raises important issues for understanding the identification of mental states in everyday situations and for the use of responses in facial expression research.
Probing neutrinoless double beta decay with SNO+
Evelina Arushanova,Ashley R. Back
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Probing neutrinoless double beta decay is one of the primary goals for SNO+, SNOLAB's multi-purpose neutrino detector. In order to achieve this goal the SNO detector has been adapted so that it can be filled with Te-loaded liquid scintillator. During the initial double beta phase the target loading is 0.3% natural Te, which equates to $\sim790$ kg of double beta isotope. Estimating the sensitivity to neutrinoless double beta decay requires a well understood background model. For SNO+ this is provided by a comprehensive study considering all possible background contributions, whether they originate from within the liquid scintillator cocktail, the surrounding parts of the detector or other irreducible backgrounds. Given these considerations, for five years running in the initial phase, the expected sensitivity is $T_{1/2}^{0\nu\beta\beta} = 9.4\times10^{25}$ at 90% CL. In these proceedings we introduce the Majoron-emitting neutrinoless double beta decay modes, to which SNO+ may also be sensitive.
The Youth Academy Café: Gaining the Voices and Perspectives of Youth through Conversation  [PDF]
Michelle Cook, Joyce Levingston, Stanley Ebede, Brian Hadley, Younis Al-Hassan, Dong Yub Back, Marie Adebiyi, Christopher R. Edginton
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2019.91001
Abstract: The purpose of this article was to gain the voices of youth and to help community leaders from youth service organizations developing an understanding of the concerns and issues facing young people in today’s ever changing society. Youth voices are a valuable resource for community agencies who serve the population. Through implementing the World Café methodology, an environment was constructed to create meaningful conversation in a comfortable, mutually respectful and engaging environment. This qualitative study recruited 43 individuals (14 males and 29 females, age: 14 - 18) to discuss the following seven questions: 1) Can you discuss the ways you think the community can enhance the empowerment of youth? 2) How can we help young people live a life of meaning? 3) What do you see as a barrier or obstacle in reaching your post high school goals and how can we help? 4) In what ways do you think social media can be employed to understand the issues and concerns of youth? 5) What specific concerns in our community do young people face? What can we do to help you handle these concerns? 6) What do you think the community can do to enhance your wellbeing? And 7) What can the community do to assist young people in finding employment? Ultimately, the findings urge that program planners, government officials and policy makers as well as the citizenry, should continuously provide a respectful, meaningful and professional platform for youths to contribute their voice. As youth leaders, the sense of responsibly to appropriately lead young people should not minimize the importance of providing that sense of place to the youth. The five major themes that have emerged include: 1) empowerment and the need for expression; 2) the importance of living a meaningful life; 3) improving ways of knowing and awareness of opportunities; 4) lack of a gathering places; 5) the impact of social media; and 6) need to promote wellness. Conclusion and implications are discussed.
Teenagers’ Perception of Time Using the Song “Sinal Fechado” —Report of Experimental Results  [PDF]
Patricia Costa, Laura Rónai
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.519189
Abstract: The present article focuses on the experiences of this researcher while working with a youth chorus in Rio de Janeiro. With the goal of commemorating twenty years of activity as director of the choruses at the Colégio S?o Vicente de Paulo (Cosme Velho\RJ) in 2013, this researcher chose, for the annual concert presented by the youth choir SVEM, a repertoire of songs dealing with aspects of time; using this subject, it was possible to examine different interpretations related not only to the topic of time but also to the differences in meanings experienced by distinct age groups (the conductor and the young singers), resulting in a conflict of approaches during the rehearsals of the song “Sinal Fechado”. Consulted authors, such as Deleuze and Benjamin, through their reflections on the work of Marcel Proust (especially In Search of Lost Time) bring to the fore discussions of the meaning of the perception of time; this researcher intends to translate those questions as experienced in the process of rehearsal. Using material from doctoral classes at the PPGM-UNIRIO, some thoughts are proposed for a deeper understanding of the subject.
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