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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11789 matches for " Laura Behrendt "
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Interactions among the A and T Units of an ECF-Type Biotin Transporter Analyzed by Site-Specific Crosslinking
Olivia Neubauer, Christin Reiffler, Laura Behrendt, Thomas Eitinger
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029087
Abstract: Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters are a huge group of micronutrient importers in prokaryotes. They are composed of a substrate-specific transmembrane protein (S component) and a module consisting of a moderately conserved transmembrane protein (T component) and two ABC ATPase domains (A components). Modules of A and T units may be dedicated to a specific S component or shared by many different S units in an organism. The mode of subunit interactions in ECF transporters is largely unknown. BioMNY, the focus of the present study, is a biotin transporter with a dedicated AT module. It consists of the S unit BioY, the A unit BioM and the T unit BioN. Like all T units, BioN contains two three-amino-acid signatures with a central Arg residue in a cytoplasmic helical region. Our previous work had demonstrated a central role of the two motifs in T units for stability and function of BioMNY and other ECF transporters. Here we show by site-specific crosslinking of pairs of mono-cysteine variants that the Ala-Arg-Ser and Ala-Arg-Gly signatures in BioN are coupling sites to the BioM ATPases. Analysis of 64 BioN-BioM pairs uncovered interactions of both signatures predominantly with a segment of ~13 amino acid residues C-terminal of the Q loop of BioM. Our results further demonstrate that portions of all BioN variants with single Cys residues in the two signatures are crosslinked to homodimers. This finding may point to a dimeric architecture of the T unit in BioMNY complexes.
On Legacy
Larissa Behrendt
Public Space : the Journal of Law and Social Justice , 2009,
Abstract: (Courtesy of abc.net.au) When John Howard's minister for Indigenous Affairs, Mal Brough, authorised the Northern Territory intervention, public response was mixed. Was it a necessarily extreme response to meet an extreme situation, or an inherently racist piece of legislation that didn't engage with the key problems? More than 2 years and a new government later, controversy still surrounds the intervention, even as it has been modified by the new minister Jenny Macklin. Delivering the final Sydney PEN lectures for 2009, aboriginal lawyer, academic and activist Larissa Behrendt delivered a damning assessment of the last two years, and the ideological agenda that she believes underlies the intervention.
Conscious Experience and Episodic Memory: Hippocampus at the Crossroads
Ralf-Peter Behrendt
Frontiers in Psychology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00304
Abstract: If an instance of conscious experience of the seemingly objective world around us could be regarded as a newly formed event memory, much as an instance of mental imagery has the content of a retrieved event memory, and if, therefore, the stream of conscious experience could be seen as evidence for ongoing formation of event memories that are linked into episodic memory sequences, then unitary conscious experience could be defined as a symbolic representation of the pattern of hippocampal neuronal firing that encodes an event memory – a theoretical stance that may shed light into the mind-body and binding problems in consciousness research. Exceedingly detailed symbols that describe patterns of activity rapidly self-organizing, at each cycle of the θ rhythm, in the hippocampus are instances of unitary conscious experience that jointly constitute the stream of consciousness. Integrating object information (derived from the ventral visual stream and orbitofrontal cortex) with contextual emotional information (from the anterior insula) and spatial environmental information (from the dorsal visual stream), the hippocampus rapidly forms event codes that have the informational content of objects embedded in an emotional and spatiotemporally extending context. Event codes, formed in the CA3-dentate network for the purpose of their memorization, are not only contextualized but also allocentric representations, similarly to conscious experiences of events and objects situated in a seemingly objective and observer-independent framework of phenomenal space and time. Conscious perception, creating the spatially and temporally extending world that we perceive around us, is likely to be evolutionarily related to more fleeting and seemingly internal forms of conscious experience, such as autobiographical memory recall, mental imagery, including goal anticipation, and to other forms of externalized conscious experience, namely dreaming and hallucinations; and evidence pointing to an important contribution of the hippocampus to these conscious phenomena will be reviewed.
Influence of point mutations on the stability, dimerization, and oligomerization of human cystatin C and its L68Q variant
Aneta Szymańska,Izabela Behrendt
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnmol.2012.00082
Abstract: Human cystatin C (hCC) is a small but very intriguing protein. Produced by all nucleated cells is found in almost all tissues and body fluids where, at physiological conditions, plays a role of a very potent inhibitor of cysteine proteases. Biologically active hCC is a monomeric protein but during cellular trafficking it forms dimers, transiently losing its inhibitory activity. In vitro, dimerization of cystatin C was observed for the mature protein during crystallization trials, revealing that the mechanism of this process is based on the three dimensional swapping of the protein domains. In our work we have focused on the impact of two proposed “hot spots” in cystatin C structure on its conformational stability. Encouraged by promising results of the theoretical calculations, we designed and produced several hCC hinge region point mutation variants that display a variety of conformational stability and propensity for dimerization and aggregation. A similar approach, i.e., rational mutagenesis, has been also applied to study the amyloidogenic L68Q variant to determine the contribution of hydrophobic interactions and steric effect on the stability of monomeric cystatin C. In this overview we would like to summarize the results of our studies. The impact of a particular mutation on the properties of the studied proteins will be presented in the context of their thermal and mechanical stability, in vitro dimerization tendency as well as the outcome of crystallization. Better understanding of the mechanism and, especially, factors affecting conformational stability of cystatin C and access to stable monomeric and dimeric versions of the protein opens new perspectives in explaining the role of dimers and the domain swapping process in hCC oligomerization, as well as designing potential inhibitors of this process.
A Course Approach to Student Transition to University: A Case Study in Agricultural Business Management  [PDF]
Yann Guisard, Karl Behrendt, Peter Mills, Shevahn Telfser, Warwick Weatley, Carole Hunter, Rebecca Acheson, Zelma Bone
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326135
Abstract: The focus of this paper is to present a case study of an integrated course approach to student transition in an undergraduate agricultural business management program. This wholistic approach is particularly relevant to courses with small student intake (defined here as less or equal to 20 full time students). These small intakes represent approximately 38% of all intakes in Australian universities. Most universities have an orientation week with generic and course specific activities to assist students in their transition to university life but very few have a ‘total package’ of sustained transitional support with an overnight tour, mentoring program, curriculum mapping and course design for all of the first stage subjects as just some of their strategies. The transition was planned to take place over the entire first stage of the course. A course team working collaboratively and cohesively was paramount to the success of this project. The approach was first implemented in 2010 and three years of data are presented here. These data clearly demonstrate that although student grades did not significantly improve, student satisfaction and perception of the “worth” of the various fundamental subjects taught in the first year of their course increased. This is associated with a recent decrease in first year student attrition. Finally and perhaps more importantly, academics reported that students seemed to display a higher standard of academic literacy and deeper critical thinking in their various assessment tasks.
Scanning rotational Raman lidar at 355 nm for the measurement of tropospheric temperature fields
M. Radlach, A. Behrendt,V. Wulfmeyer
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: For high-resolution measurements of temperature fields in the atmospheric boundary layer and the lower free troposphere a scanning eye-safe lidar which deploys the rotational Raman technique at 355 nm was developed. To optimize the filters of the receiver for both high nighttime and daytime performance, detailed simulation studies have been performed. The receiver is fiber-coupled to a sequential setup of multicavity interference filters used under small angles of incidence. Examples of nighttime and daytime measurements with the system which has a total power-aperture-efficiency product of 0.006 W m2 are presented. Noontime temperature measurements with a temporal resolution of 60 s result in 1-sigma statistical temperature uncertainty of <1 K up to 1 km height and <2 K up to 2 km height. With an integration time of 60 min and a gliding average of 750 m a 1-sigma statistical temperature uncertainty of <1 K up to 14 km height is achieved during night.
Elastic-backscatter-lidar-based characterization of the convective boundary layer and investigation of related statistics
S. Pal, A. Behrendt,V. Wulfmeyer
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2010,
Abstract: We applied a ground-based vertically-pointing aerosol lidar to investigate the evolution of the instantaneous atmospheric boundary layer depth, its growth rate, associated entrainment processes, and turbulence characteristics. We used lidar measurements with range resolution of 3 m and time resolution of up to 0.033 s obtained in the course of a sunny day (26 June 2004) over an urban valley (central Stuttgart, 48°47' N, 9°12' E, 240 m above sea level). The lidar system uses a wavelength of 1064 nm and has a power-aperture product of 2.1 W m2. Three techniques are examined for determining the instantaneous convective boundary layer (CBL) depth from the high-resolution lidar measurements: the logarithm gradient method, the inflection point method, and the Haar wavelet transform method. The Haar wavelet-based approach is found to be the most robust technique for the automated detection of the CBL depth. Two different regimes of the CBL are discussed in detail: a quasi-stationary CBL in the afternoon and a CBL with rapid growth during morning transition in the presence of dust layers atop. Two different growth rates were found: 3–5 m/min for the growing CBL in the morning and 0.5–2 m/min during the quasi-steady regime. The mean entrainment zone thickness for the quasi-steady CBL was found to be ~75 m while the CBL top during the entire day varied between 0.7 km and 2.3 km. A fast Fourier-transform-based spectral analysis of the instantaneous CBL depth time series gave a spectral exponent value of 1.50±0.04, confirming non-stationary CBL behavior in the morning while for the other regime a value of 1.00±0.06 was obtained indicating a quasi-stationary state of the CBL. Assuming that the spatio-temporal variation of the particle backscatter cross-section of the aerosols in the scattering volume is due to number density fluctuations (negligible hygroscopic growth), the particle backscatter coefficient profiles can be used to investigate boundary layer turbulence since the aerosols act as tracers. We demonstrate that with our lidar measurements, vertical profiles of variance, skewness, and kurtosis of the fluctuations of the particle backscatter coefficient can be determined. The variance spectra at different altitudes inside the quasi-steady CBL showed an f 5/3 dependency. The integral scale varied from 40 to 90 s (depending on height), which was significantly larger than the temporal resolution of the lidar data. Thus, the major part of the inertial subrange was detected and turbulent fluctuations could be resolved. For the quasi-stationary case, negative values of skewness were found inside the CBL while positive values were observed in the entrainment zone near the top of the CBL. For the case of the rapidly growing CBL, the skewness profile showed both positive and negative values even inside the CBL.
Scanning rotational Raman lidar at 355 nm for the measurement of tropospheric temperature fields
M. Radlach,A. Behrendt,V. Wulfmeyer
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: For high-resolution measurements of temperature fields in the atmospheric boundary layer and the lower free troposphere a scanning eye-safe lidar which deploys the rotational Raman technique at 355 nm was developed. To optimize the filters of the receiver for both high nighttime and daytime performance, detailed simulation studies have been performed. The receiver is fiber-coupled to a sequential setup of multicavity interference filters used under small angles of incidence. Examples of nighttime and daytime measurements with the system which has a total power-aperture-efficiency product of 0.006 W m2 are presented. Noontime temperature measurements with a temporal resolution of 60 s result in 1-sigma statistical temperature uncertainty of <1 K up to 1 km height and <2 K up to 2 km height. With an integration time of 60 min and a gliding average of 750 m a 1-sigma statistical temperature uncertainty of <1 K up to 14 km height is achieved during night.
Donor killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genes and reactivation of cytomegalovirus after HLA-matched hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: HLA-C allotype is an essential cofactor
Carolyn E. Behrendt,John A. Zaia
Frontiers in Immunology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00036
Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells whose killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) recognize human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligand are “licensed” for activity. In contrast, non-licensed NK cells display KIRs for which ligand is absent from the self genotype and are usually hyporesponsive. Surprisingly, non-licensed cells are active in tumor control after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) and dominate NK response to murine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. From those reports, we hypothesized that control of human CMV early after HSCT is influenced by donor KIR genes whose HLA ligand is absent-from-genotype of HLA-matched donor and recipient. To investigate, we studied CMV reactivation through Day 100 after grafts involving CMV-seropositive donor and/or recipient. A multivariate proportional rates model controlled for variability in surveillance and established covariates including acute graft-versus-host disease; statistical significance was adjusted for testing of multiple KIRs with identified HLA class I ligand (2DL1, 2DL2/3, 2DS1, 2DS2, full-length 2DS4, 3DL1/3DS1, 3DL2). Among HSCT recipients (n = 286), CMV reactivation-free survival time varied with individual donor KIR genes evolutionarily specific for HLA-C: when ligand was absent from the donor/recipient genotype, inhibitory KIRs 2DL2 (P < 0.0001) and 2DL1 (P = 0.015) each predicted inferior outcome, and activating KIRs 2DS2 (P < 0.0001), 2DS1 (P = 0.016), and 2DS4 (P = 0.016) each predicted superior outcome. Otherwise, with ligand present-in-genotype, donor KIR genes had no effect. In conclusion, early after HLA-matched HSCT, individual inhibitory and activating KIR genes have qualitatively different effects on risk of CMV reactivation; unexpectedly, absence of HLA-C ligand from the donor/recipient genotype constitutes an essential cofactor in these associations. Being KIR- and HLA-C-specific, these findings are independent of licensing via alternate NK cell receptors (NKG2A, NKG2C) that recognize HLA-E.
Clusters of Small Clumps as an Explanation for The Peculiar Properties of Giant Clumps Detected in Gas-Rich, High-Redshift Galaxies
Manuel Behrendt,Andreas Burkert,Marc Schartmann
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Giant clumps are a characteristic feature of observed high-redshift disk galaxies. We propose that these kpc-sized clumps have a complex substructure and are the result of many smaller clumps self-organizing themselves into clump clusters (CC). This is in contrast to the common understanding that these giant clumps are single homogeneous objects. Using a high resolution hydrodynamical simulation of an isolated, fragmented massive gas disk and mimicking the observations from Genzel et al. (2011) at $z \sim 2$, we find remarkable agreement in many details. The CCs appear as single entities of sizes $R_{HWHM} \simeq 0.9-1.4$ kpc and masses $\sim 1.5-3 \times 10^9 \ M_{\odot}$ representative of high-z observations. They are organized in a ring around the center of the galaxy. The origin of the observed clump's high intrinsic velocity dispersion $\sigma_{intrinsic} \simeq 50 - 100 \ km \ s^{-1}$ is fully explained by the internal irregular motions of their substructure in our simulation. No additional energy input, e.g. via stellar feedback, is necessary. Furthermore, in agreement with observations, we find a small velocity gradient $V_{grad} \simeq 8 - 27 \ km \ s^{-1} \ kpc^{-1}$ along the CCs in the beam smeared velocity residual maps which corresponds to net prograde and retrograde rotation with respect to the rotation of the galactic disk. The CC scenario could have strong implications for the internal evolution, lifetimes and the migration timescales of the observed giant clumps, bulge growth and AGN activity, stellar feedback and the chemical enrichment history of galactic disks.
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