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Cladosporium: Causal agent of scab in purple passion fruit or gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims.)  [PDF]
Donald Riascos, Ivonne Quiroga, Rafael Gómez, Lilliana Hoyos-Carvajal
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.32034
Abstract: The Scab of purple passion fruit or gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims.) is a serious disease, affecting all aerial organs of the plant, but also to reducing the visual quality of the fruits, which reduces export production. To determine the primary causal agent of disease in Colombia, associated microorganisms were isolated from scab lesions on stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, recovering in PDA. Obtaining Cladosporium, Colletotrichum and Botrytis. Cladosporium had the highest frequency of fungal isolates. 15 strains were evaluated for their pathogenicity on fruits and leaves of gulupa in laboratory and greenhouse conditions. 9 strains caused symptom expression at 95% humidity and 17°C - 20°C, validating Cladosporium as causal agent of gulupa scab. For those pathogenic strains, were determinate incubation and latency periodsin leaves (7 - 11 and 8 - 12 DPI) and fruits (6 - 10 and 8 - 12 DPI) revealing differences or virulence levels in the pathogen populations.
A New Scheduling Algorithm for Reducing Data Aggregation Latency in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Meirui Ren, Longjiang Guo, Jinbao Li
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2010.38091
Abstract: Existing works on data aggregation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) usually use a single channel which results in a long latency due to high interference, especially in high-density networks. Therefore, data aggre- gation is a fundamental yet time-consuming task in WSNs. We present an improved algorithm to reduce data aggregation latency. Our algorithm has a latency bound of 16R + Δ – 11, where Δ is the maximum degree and R is the network radius. We prove that our algorithm has smaller latency than the algorithm in [1]. The simulation results show that our algorithm has much better performance in practice than previous works.
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2008,
Abstract: bovine herpesvirus-1 is a world wide spread virus that causes significant economic losses due mainly to a decrease in the efficiency and in the health and productivity indicators in all the infected herds. after a primary infection of the respiratory tract of the animals, the virus establishes viral latency state in sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia and germinal centers of pharyngeal tonsils. periodically, the virus reactivates from latency, is shed through secretions, and can infect other susceptible animals. during latency there is a dramatic reduction of viral gen expression; only two transcripts are abundantly expressed: the latency related (lr) rna and the viral orf-e. multiple studies have shown lr and orf-e role in the regulation of bhv-1 latencyreactivation cycle. this review focuses on the description and analysis of the litherature that had lead to incriminate lr gene and viral orf-e, their transcripts and protein products in the establishment, maintenance and reactivation of bhv-1 latency state.
Medidas da latência das emiss?es otoacústicas - produto de distor??o em neonatos
Azevedo, Renata Frasson de;Carvallo, Renata;
Revista Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-72992003000500015
Abstract: latency of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (dpoe) is defined as the time that the acoustic stimulus takes to reach the site generating the otoacoustic emission, inside de cochlea, and the return to the external acoustic meatus, to be register. dpoe latency may serve as a useful tool to study cochlear maturational changes as well as the micromechanics of the cochlea, since a relationship between dpe latency and the cochlear traveling wave was observed. studies on adults showed a decrease in the latency with an increase of the sound frequency, varying from 13.8 ms in 787 hz to 4.4 ms in 5 kz. this decrease occurs due to tonotopic arrangement of the cochlea. studies on this area are rare in the literature and no criteria of normality are found for these measurements, mainly in newborns. aim: thus, the main of this study was to characterize the latency measurements of the dpoe in full-term newborns without any hearing risk. study design: control study. material and method: thirty-one full term newborns of both sexes were evaluated. the procedure used was the "latencygram" program. the tested frequencies were 3 to 6 khz at the intensity of 70 dbna for f1 and f2. results: the obtained results showed a decrease in the latency with the increase in the sound frequency and a difference between sexes was also observed.
Comparación de cuatro protocolos anestésicos para ovariohisterectomía canina en jornadas de esterilización masiva
Pe?a,Jairo A; Sánchez,Raúl A; Restrepo,Luis F; Ruiz,John D;
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias , 2007,
Abstract: four anesthetic protocols were evaluated for ovariohysterectomy in twenty female dogs. the bitches were randomly divided in four groups of five animals each and were assigned to one of four different anesthetic protocols. in all the protocols xylazine, acepromacine and atropine were included in preanesthesia; ketamine was added to groups 3 and 4 in premedication. induction was made with ketamine in groups 1 and 4, or propofol in groups 2 and 3. three anesthesiological variables (latency period, length of the anesthesia and recovery from anesthesia) and six physiological variables (body temperature, cardiac frequency, respiratory frequency, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation in blood, carbon dioxide in exhaled air) were evaluated. for analysis of data a fully random - balanced fix effect - experimental design, with five replications for treatment was used. the tukey test with 95% confidence intervals was used for analysis of quantitative variables. a unidirectional descriptive analysis was also used. body temperature decreased up to 37 oc in all animals in group 1. the respiratory frequency showed a great variation, especially in groups 1 and 2 (without ketamine in premedication), being more stable in protocol 3 (propofol without ketamine) (p<0.05). cardiac frequency was slightly increased in group 1. oxygen saturation in blood and carbon dioxide in exhaled air were stable and similar in all groups (within physiological limits). systolic and diastolic blood pressures were stable with propofol, higher with ketamine in preanesthesia and induction, and unstable when ketamine was used in induction only. the anesthesiological variables evaluated did not show statistically significant differences among the four protocols. based on the clinical behavior and on the physiological variables, it was concluded that, the use of ketamine and propofol (protocol 3) for preanesthesia and induction, respectively, is the best anesthetic combination for massive neu
"Comparison Of Amplitude& Latency Of Auditory Middle Latency Responses In Congenitally Blind And Normally Sighted Subjects In The Range Of 14-20 Yrs. "
Gh. Mohamad-khani,A. Molasadeghi,H. Majidi,Z. Jafari
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Auditory and visual stimuli are the most important factors in communication. It seems during the brain maturation, decrease of visual inputs causes enhancement of somatosensory and auditory cortical responses. In this research latency and amplitude of auditory middle latency responses (AMLR) are studied in blinds and normally sighted subjects. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 40 congenitally blinds and 40 normally sighted subjects in the range of 14-20 years. All of cases had normal hearing sensitivity and acoustic reflexes without any middle ear disorders. The reason of this age range is the maturation of auditory middle latency responses. Sampling was randomized. Results: There was significant difference between amplitude of Na, Pa & Nb waves and latency of Na while no significant difference between latency of Pa & Nb in blinds and normally sighted subjects. Conclusion: Increase of amplitude and decrease of latency of AMLR in blind subjects were due to sensory compensation phenomenon, probably. It seems rate of processing and auditory perception in blinds is better than normally sighted subjects.
C.Kalyana Chakravarthy,Prof. P.V.G.D. Prasad Reddy
International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks , 2009,
Abstract: Packet and flow scheduling algorithms for WiMAX has been a topic of interest for a long time since the very inception of WiMAX networks. WiMAX offers advantages particularly in terms of Quality of service it offers over a longer range at the MAC level. In our paper, we propose two credit based scheduling schemes one in which completed flows distributes the left over credits equally to all higher priority flows(FDCBSS) and another in which completed flows give away all the excess credits to the highest priority uncompleted flow(SDCBSS). Both the schemes are compatible with 802.16 MAC protocol and can efficiently serve real time bursty traffic with reduced latency and hence improved QOS for real time flows. We compare the two proposed schemes for their latency, bandwidth utilization and throughput for real time burst flows with the basic Deficit Round Robin scheduling scheme.
Modified Queue-Based Exponential Rule Scheduler for Improved QOS in OFDMA Systems
C.Kalyana Chakravarthy,P.V.G.D. Prasad Reddy
International Journal of UbiComp , 2010,
Abstract: In our paper, we propose a modification of queue based exponential scheduler that dynamicallyimproves the channel gain of far away users (by increasing their credits) at the cost of a small reductionof the same for the nearby users(by reducing the credits), since users nearby anyway have a fairly highgain. Results clearly suggest that the proposed method is able to maintain a constant averagethroughput(always greater than that of the P.F scheduling) while it far outperforms the P.F and Queue-Based Exponential Rule Scheduler in the delay characteristics. The throughput fairness index wasinterestingly observed to improve with increasing number of users while it worsens for the other twoschemes.
Homologies entre les deux rétrovirus BLV et HTLV-1 et développement d’une nouvelle approche thérapeutique basée sur la levée de la latence virale
Nicolas Gillet,Richard Kettmann,Luc Willems
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 2007,
Abstract: Homologies between BLV and HTLV-1 retroviruses and development of a novel therapeutic approach based on induction of viral expression. BLV (bovine leukemia virus) and HTLV-1 (human T-cell leukemia virus) are related retroviruses inducing leukemia (BLV and HTLV-1) or inflammatory diseases (HTLV-1) in the bovine and the human species respectively. The diseases are characterized by an apparent lack of viral expression in many infected cells in vivo. A humoral and a cellular immune response directed against viral antigens is continuously present. In fact, these two viruses have developed a series of mechanisms tightly controlling their expression, thereby allowing escape from the immune surveillance. Among these, chromatin compaction plays an essential role in the transcriptional regulation of the virus. The level of chromatin compaction is the result of an interplay between antagonistic actions of two families of enzymes: HATs (histone acetyltransferases) and HDACs (histone deacetylases) which, respectively, incorporate or withdraw histone acetyl groups. HDAC inhibitors induce a decondensation of chromatin and consequently increase the transcription. Thus, latent infected cells are forced to express viral proteins and are destroyed by the immune response. This viral gene activation therapy might be a novel approach for the treatment of BLV and HTLV-1 induced diseases.
Specificity and sensitivity of visual evoked potentials P100 latency to different events exercise  [PDF]
Jing-Guo Zhao, Shu-Juan Pang, Guang-Wei Che
Health (Health) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/health.2009.11009
Abstract: Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are a series of signals about visual occipital cortex in response to visual stimuli and can be used as one of ob-jective non-invasive neuro-physiological pa-rameters to reflect the visual organs and central visual pathway’s functional integrity. Previous studies have shown that acute and chronic ex-ercise could affect VEPs independent from body temperature and other physiological parameters. VEPs may well be used as neuro-physiological criteria in defining the performances of the ath-letes. Different sports training have different effects on VEPs, but the results are not consis-tent. P100 latency is the representative compo-nent of VEPs and it is of high, steady amplitude and of slight intra- and inter-individual variabil-ity so that the index is most commonly used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the specificity and sensitivity of P100 latency to dif-ferent physical activities. The neural electricity device of NDI-200 was used to measure the pattern reversal VEPs of all subjects, including the values of the resting state before and after different events exercise. Different events exer-cise contained an aerobic cycloergometric ex-ercise (7 subjects were conducted to a Bruce Graded Exercise Test on the Monark Ergomedic 839E cycloergometer, THR (target heart rate) = 85% HRmax, 3 times/week, about 10 minutes once time, 6 weeks), tennis training (16 volun-teers, 2 hours/day, 3 days/week, 8 weeks), aerobic Latin exercise (7 subjects, 1 hour/day, 3 days/week, 6 weeks) and the Baduanjin of Health Qigong training (6 subjects, 1 hour/day, 3 days/week, 6 weeks). The VEPs recordings of the control groups obtained synchronized with the experimental groups. SPSS 11.5 for win-dows was used for statistical analysis. A level of P﹤0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. The VEPs P100 latency of post-exercise of all experimental groups except Baduanjin group became shorter significantly compared with those of pre-exercise (P﹤0.05). No significant difference was found between pre-and post- exercise for the control groups. This study showed that exercise could shorten the P100 la-tency significantly. Moreover, it also indicated that VEPs were sensitive to exercise to a certain extent. We concluded that VEPs might well be used as neuro-physiological criteria in defining the performances of the athletes. It was found that the VEPs P100 latency became shorter after most training programs; furthermore, it demon-strated that P100 latency of VEPs had little specificity to different events.
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