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Experimental Investigations of the Shear Capacity of Nails in a Row  [PDF]
Christian O. S?rensen, Ruth-Marie Nymark, Lars Baastad
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2013.33021

Tests of the capacity of shear connections consisting of nails in a row placed at distances 7, 10 and 14d, “d” being the cross-sectional dimension of the nail, versus single nail capacities, were executed. The performed tests do support the connotation that no reduction should be required for nails of diameter 2.8 mm or less in a row, provided that nails are spaced sufficiently far apart for wood cracking not to occur. At the ultimate capacity of the joint, all such thin nails in a row will be yielding, having developed plastic hinges, i.e. each single nail will have developed its ultimate capacity. Hence, the ultimate capacity of the connection will be each nail’s capacity times the number of nails in the row. The force pr. nail increases subsequent to the development of a plastic hinge. This is likely due to the axial pullout-force, i.e. the ultimate capacity of a shear connection is higher than the force required for developing plastic hinges in the nails. This additional capacity-reserve may also partly be attributed to the rotational resistance of nails. The number of nails in a row should make insignificant difference in the pr. nail capacity, as long as no wood cracking takes place. Thus, applying elastic theory to nails in a row does not seem relevant. This is in contrast to bolt-connections.

Differences in the Defense Mechanism Technique modified (DMTm) between Depressive and Somatoform Disorder Patients  [PDF]
Lars Olsson
Open Journal of Depression (OJD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojd.2015.41001
Abstract: Differences in the Defense Mechanism Technique modified (DMTm), a percept-genetic tachistoscopic technique, between 56 patients with a main diagnosis of mild, moderate or severe unipolar depression and 42 with a main diagnosis of somatoform disorder were studied. As expected, the affect defenses of inhibition, introaggression and barrier isolation—all through their specified motive related to the depressive position of the affect positions model of the Andersson developmental and psychodynamic model of the mind—appeared more often with the depressive than the somatoform patients. Repression scored at the place of the threatening person in the DMTm pictures (Pp-repression) was more often found with the depressive patients, projected introaggression and no Pp-repression but repression scored at the place of the non-threatening person (H-repression) with the somatoform. In total less than four scorings of affect anxiety and affect defense, seen to indicate alexithymia, characterized the somatoform patients and those with mild depression. Denial through reversal II 3 and denial through reversal IV were common with the somatoform patients and those with severe depression. Denial was uncommon with mild depression. Denial, denial through reversal II 3 and denial through reversal IV increased the more severe the depression. The findings were interpreted according to the Andersson model.
On the Nature of Suicide—Suicide as a Multipurpose Behaviour Nested in the Human Mind—An Alternative View!  [PDF]
Lars Jacobsson
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2018.82013
Abstract: Suicide is a universal human phenomenon and seems to be a multipurpose behaviour which occurs in a number of different situations that not necessarily have to do with mental distress/disorder. It might as well be a kind of defence of a threatened self-image or revenge or punishment or weapon in a struggle for something more important than the own life. Is there a suicidal virus or meme nested in the human mind? Maybe it is the mere idea of suicide as an alternative way of dealing with a number of human dilemmas that should be the focus of our suicide preventive efforts? Suicide ideas are common in most populations, but ideas are just ideas. It is when the ideas—the suicidal thoughts—are converted to actions that they become dangerous. The focus for our suicide preventive work should be to counteract a destructive use of suicidal ideation. So, the crucial question is thus: how do we do that?
Priority-Based Resource Allocation for Downlink OFDMA Systems Supporting RT and NRT Traffics  [PDF]
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2008.13034
Abstract: Efficient radio resource management is essential in Quality-of-Service (QoS) provisioning for wireless communication networks. In this paper, we propose a novel priority-based packet scheduling algorithm for downlink OFDMA systems. The proposed algorithm is designed to support heterogeneous applications consisting of both real-time (RT) and non-real-time (NRT) traffics with the objective to increase the spectrum efficiency while satisfying diverse QoS requirements. It tightly couples the subchannel allocation and packet scheduling together through an integrated cross-layer approach in which each packet is assigned a priority value based on both the instantaneous channel conditions as well as the QoS constraints. An efficient suboptimal heuristic algorithm is proposed to reduce the computational complexity with marginal performance degradation compared to the optimal solution. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the system performance in terms of high spectral efficiency and low outage probability compared to conventional packet scheduling algorithms, thus is very suitable for the downlink of current OFDMA systems.
Atrial Fibrillation Predicts Worse Long Time Prognosis after CABG – A 6-Year Survival Analysis  [PDF]
Lars P. Riber
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery (OJTS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojts.2012.22006
Abstract: Background: Postoperative atrial fibrillation occurs in 5% - 65% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Although postoperative atrial fibrillation is often regarded as a temporary, benign, operation-related problem, it is associated with a two- to threefold increased risk of adverse events, including permanent or transient stroke, acute myocardial infarction, and death. Methods: Two hundred and fifty eligible consecutively enrolled coronary artery bypass grafting patients were included in the randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial RASCABG. That study showed a safe, practical, feasible, and effective prophylactic amiodarone regimen, which significantly decreased the risk of atrial fibrillation with 14% (5.0 - 24) from 26% to 11%, with the number needed to treat 6.9 (4.2 - 20). This study is a 6-year follow-up study regarding the long-term prognostic factor of postoperative atrial fibrillation, amiodarone prophylaxis and diabetes mellitus. Results: The long-term 6-year mortality risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation was 31% equally distributed among patients in the active and in the placebo prophylactic group. The 6-year mortality risk in the sinus rhythm group was 18% likewise equally distributed, whereas the 6-year mortality risk in the background population was approximately 8%. The 6-year mortality risk of diabetes mellitus was 33% equally distributed, whereas the excluded off pump coronary artery bypass group experiences an increased 6-year mortality risk of 47%. Conclusions: Postoperative prophylaxis with a high dose of oral amiodarone after an intravenous bolus infusion is a safe, practical, feasible, and effective regimen for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting patients in a 6-year long-term perspective. Atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus is correlated to increased mortality risk.
Exploring Collaborative Training with Educational Computer Assisted Simulations in Health Care Education: An Empirical Ecology of Resources Study  [PDF]
Lars O. Hall
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326117
Abstract: This study explores collaborative training with educational computer assisted simulations (ECAS) in health care education. The use of simulation technology is increasing in health care education (Issenberg et al., 2005; Bradley, 2006), and research is addressing the techniques of its application. Calls have been made for informing the field with existing and future educational research (e.g. Issenberg et al., 2011). This study investigates and examines collaboration as a technique for structuring simulation training. Part of a larger research and development project (H?ll et al., 2011; H?ll & S?derstr?m, 2012), this paper primarily utilizes qualitative observation analysis of dentistry students learning radiology to investigate the challenges that screen-based simulation technology poses for collaborative learning. Grounded in Luckin’s ecology of resources framework (Luckin, 2010) and informed by computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) research, the study identifies some disadvantages of free collaboration that need to be dealt with for collaboration to be a beneficial technique for ECAS in health care education. The discussion focuses on the use of scripts (Weinberger et al., 2009) to filter the interactions between the learner and the more able partner, supporting the collaborative-learning activity and enhancing learning with ECAS in health care education.
Lookup Table Optimization for Sensor Linearization in Small Embedded Systems  [PDF]
Lars E. Bengtsson
Journal of Sensor Technology (JST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jst.2012.24025
Abstract: This paper treats the problem of designing an optimal size for a lookup table used for sensor linearization. In small embedded systems the lookup table must be reduced to a minimum in order to reduce the memory footprint and intermediate table values are estimated by linear interpolation. Since interpolation introduces an estimation uncertainty that increases with the sparseness of the lookup table there is a trade-off between lookup table size and estimation precision. This work will present a theory for finding the minimum allowed size of a lookup table that does not affect the overall precision, i.e. the overall precision is determined by the lookup table entries’ precision, not by the interpolation error.
Case report: Effect of immunoglobulin on pain in Post-Polio Syndrome—Three case reports  [PDF]
Lars Werhagen, Kristian Borg
Pain Studies and Treatment (PST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/pst.2013.11001
Abstract: Study design: Case reports. Setting: University hospital setting. Objective: To analyze the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin on neuropathic and nociceptive pain in three patients with Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS). Materials and Methods: Three patients with PPS and pain who received treatment with 90 g IvIg are described. Results: Before treatment one of the patients had pure neuropathic pain and the other two had a combination of neuropathic and nociceptive pain. There was no effect on pain in the patient with pure neuropathic pain and only effect on the nociceptive pain in the patients with a combination of neuropathic and nociceptive pain. Discussion: Pain is one of the most common symptoms in PPS. Previous studies have shown an effect on pain in PPS patients receiving IvIg. The results of the present study point to that the effect on pain is limited to nociceptive pain and that there is no effect on neuropathic pain which leads to increased knowledge of characterization of responders of IvIg treatment. Conclusion: IvIg treatment treatmentreduces nociceptive but not neuropathic pain in PPS patients.
Measuring the time costs of exercise: a proposed measuring method and a pilot study
Lars Hagberg, Lars Lindholm
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7547-8-9
Abstract: We began this investigation by developing a model for measuring the time spent on exercise, based on the most important theoretical frameworks for valuing time. In the model, the value of utility in anticipation (expected health benefits) of performing exercise is expressed in terms of health-related quality of life. With this approach, the cost of the time spent on exercise is defined as the value of utility in use of leisure activity forgone minus the value of utility in use of exercise. Utility in use for exercise is valued in comparison with utility in use for leisure activity forgone and utility in use for work.To put the model into practice, we developed a questionnaire with the aim of investigating the valuations made by exercisers, and applied this questionnaire among more experienced and less experienced exercisers.Less experienced exercisers valued the time spent on exercise as being equal to 26% of net wages, while more experienced exercisers valued this time at 7% of net wages (p < 0.001). The higher time costs seen among the less experienced exercisers correlated to a less positive experience of exercise and a more positive experience of the lost leisure activity. There was a significant inverse correlation between the costs of time spent on exercise, and the frequency and duration of regular exercise.The time spent on exercise is an important factor in interventions aimed at promoting physical activity, and should be taken into consideration in cost-effectiveness analyses. The proposed model for measuring the costs of the time spent on exercise seems to be a better method than the previously-used assumptions of time costs.Physical activity prevents a number of diseases [1,2], and has an impact on health-related quality of life [3]. The society have a number of inputs with aim to promote physical; for example, physical education in schools is one way to create a healthy and physically active way of life. Furthermore, campaigns with the aim of promoting
Pathophysiology and Treatment Options in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: A Review of the Literature  [PDF]
Lars Rasmusson, Armin Bidarian, Lars Sennerby, Gareth Scott
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.36087
Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnoea, OSA, is formally defined as an apnoeahypopnoea index (AHI) of at least 5 episodes/hour (mild). Obesity, alcohol, smoking and sedatives may contribute to the development of OSA, as well as tonsilar hypertrophy and maxillary and/or mandibular retrognathia. Endocrine conditions such as hypothyroidism and acromegaly have also been reported associated with OSA. Except for excessive daytime sleepiness, headaches and irritability, OSA may lead to hypertension, heart failure, MI and stroke. Management involves reduction of predisposing factors such as obesity and alcohol. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is currently most common and best documented. Also uvulopalatopharyngeal surgery and so called phase II surgery, which means advancement of the jaw(s) with orthognatic surgical methods are used. Treatment with dental appliances is getting increasingly popular but the long term outcome remains debatable.
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