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phenotypic variation among 16 isolates of Ramularia
areola of Gossypium hirsutum collected from five different geographical regions of Brazil was studied
through virulence spectrum on three cultivars in the glasshouse and through
ERIC- and REP-PCR and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA analysis. Difference in virulence
spectrum and molecular analysis of some isolates was observed. ERIC- and
REP-PCR showed similar results and revealed a high level of diversity among the
isolates. A unique profile for both ERIC and REP was obtained for most
isolates. On the other hand, the ITS rDNA analysis did not show different
PCR-RFLP patterns. While some isolates differed among each other considering
genotypic and phenotypic reactions, no clear cut evidence was found about the
existence of genetic lineages of R.
areola in Brazil.
Identification of genetic variability among the R. areola isolates originated from different geographic regions
would permit screening of Brazilian germplasm and achieve sources with a wide
spectrum of resistance. This is the first report of the genotypic and
phenotypic variability among the R.
areola isolates originated from five cotton growing regions of Brazil.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) thin films were deposited onto glass and silicon substrates by RF magnetron sputtering using a zinc-aluminum target. Both films were deposited at a growth rate of 12.5 nm/min to a thickness of around 750 nm. In the visible region, the films exhibit optical transmittances which are greater than 80%. The optical energy gap of ZnO films increased from 3.28 eV to 3.36 eV upon doping with Al. This increase is related to the increase in carrier density from 5.9 × 1018 cm-3 to 2.6 × 1019 cm-3. The RMS surface roughness of ZnO films grown on glass increased from 14 to 28 nm even with only 0.9% at Al content. XRD analysis revealed that the ZnO films are polycrystalline with preferential growth parallel to the (002) plane, which corresponds to the wurtzite structure of ZnO.