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This article proposes a model of endogenous protection by integrating
informed and non-informed voters in the population. The model also
distinguishes between interest groups and pressure groups, by considering that
the members of one interest group do not necessarily organize as a pressure
group (lobby). The endogenous tariff stemming from the model is an increasing
function of the relative influence of the lobby, and the aforementioned
function itself increases in accordance with the part of non-informed voters.
This framework avoids formalizing contributions. It also permits to show that
the conditions of the lobbying’s efficiency depend on the nature of the free
rider comportment of the interest group members.
Earthing (grounding) refers to bringing the human body in direct contact with the negative electric charge of the earth’s surface by barefoot exposure outdoors or using special conductive indoor systems that are connected to the Earth. To determine if earthing improves facial blood circulation/flow, a double-blind study was designed with forty subjects either grounded or sham-grounded (27 grounded subjects and 13 sham-grounded subjects acting as controls) for at least one hour in a comfortable recliner chair equipped with conductive mat, pillow, and patches. The grounding systems were either grounded or sham-grounded via a wire to the ground port (third hole) of a power outlet. A Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging camera was used to continuously record changes in facial blood flow non-invasively. Facial blood flow regulation clearly improved among grounded— but not sham-grounded—subjects. The results demonstrate, for the first time, that even one-hour contact with the earth restores blood flow regulation to the face suggesting enhanced skin tissue repair and improved facial appearance with possible implications for overall health. Further studies, using larger comparison groups, longer monitoring times, and more measuring methods, are warranted in order to confirm the novel influence of the Earth as a protector of skin health and appearance.