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Metagenomic biomarker discovery and explanation
Nicola Segata, Jacques Izard, Levi Waldron, Dirk Gevers, Larisa Miropolsky, Wendy S Garrett, Curtis Huttenhower
Genome Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2011-12-6-r60
Abstract: Biomarker discovery has proven to be one of the most broadly applicable and successful means of translating molecular and genomic data into clinical practice. Comparisons between healthy and diseased tissues have highlighted the importance of tasks such as class discovery (detecting novel subtypes of a disease) and class prediction (determining the subtype of a new sample) [1-4], and recent metagenomic assays have shown that human microbial communities can be used as biomarkers for host factors such as lifestyle [5-7] and disease [7-10]. As sequencing technology continues to develop and makes microbial biomarkers increasingly easily detected, this enables clinical diagnostic and microbiological applications through the comparison of microbial communities [11,12].The human microbiome, consisting of the total microbial complement associated with human hosts, is an important emerging area for metagenomic biomarker discovery [13,14]. Changes in microbial abundances in the gut, oral cavity, and skin have been associated with disease states ranging from obesity [15-17] to psoriasis [18]. More generally, the metagenomic study of microbial communities is an effective approach for identifying the microorganisms or microbial metabolic characteristics of any uncultured sample [19,20]. Analyses of metagenomic data typically seek to identify the specific organisms, clades, operational taxonomic units, or pathways whose relative abundances differ between two or more groups of samples, and several features of microbial communities have been proposed as potential biomarkers for various disease states. For example, single pathogenic organisms can signal disease if present in a community [21,22], and increases and decreases in community complexity have been observed in bacterial vaginosis [23] and Crohn's disease [8]. Each of these different types of microbial biomarkers is correlated with disease phenotypes, but few bioinformatic methods exist to explain the class comparisons afford
Canada's "Brain Drain" and Its Impact on Health Care
Vlad Miropolsky
University of Toronto Medical Journal , 2001, DOI: 10.5015/utmj.v78i3.1052
The University of Toronto as a World Leader in Medical Genetics: Past, Present and Future
Charis Kepron,Chris Lane,David Maslove,Vladislav Miropolsky
University of Toronto Medical Journal , 2000, DOI: 10.5015/utmj.v78i1.969
Diagnostics and Description of Children's of Five Speech in Terms of Inner Programming and Grammatical Structuring
Larisa Kalmykova
Ad verba liberorum , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10196-011-0004-3
Abstract: Introduction Diagnostics and description of children's of five speech in terms of inner programming and grammatical structuring operations are showed here. The article is dedicated to the actual problems of psycho-linguistics of the development, particularly to the research of grammatical-structuring operations in children of senior preschool age. It elucidates the opening of meaning of these experimental facts as the preconditions of lingvodidactic perfection and realization of principles of perspectiveness and continuation. Aim of the study To give the detail analysis of grammatical mounting of speech of senior pre-schoolchildren - as a pre-condition of making the effective technologies for speech development of children and realization of perspectiveness and followingness in the development of communicative abilities in children on the intermediate links of linguistic education - the pre-school and elementary school ones. Materials and methods Functional analysis of the higher psychic functions, in particular, oral utterance of children in an operational way, diagnostics of the state of speech functions for the analysis of children's readiness to school education and for finding the causes of difficulties (real and potential) in speech formation; analysis of not enough developed links of functional system, which provide the children's speech function and principally influence on the understanding the causes of unsuccessful speech activity mastering. 365 children aged five participated in our experiment. Results It was found that 30% of all lexemes in children"s speech are nouns; 38% - verbs; 17% - adverbs; 9% - pronouns; and only 2% - adjectives and 1% - link words. Common for all the children peculiarity was the full absence in their speech the verbal adverbs and very rare use of participles, pronouns, adjectives, prepositions - those words the using of which influence on the level of widening of the structure of the sentence. Not direct word order testifies the inability to keep the program in mind. The inversion appears in the cases when the process of sense widening stipulate the rebuilding of inner program. And it takes place in children in the moment when in outward speaking arises the need to use the word in the second or third distant positions. The great complication for children makes using of indirect cases with prepositions and without them, at the time when case-preposition forms, their meaning perform the most important in speech production function. Pre-schoolchildren do not know how to express adverbial modifiers with the help of forms of indirect cases with prepositions. They feel difficulties also in expressing attributes by different forms. Conclusions Pre-schoolchildren feel difficulties in using in their speech the cases and prepositions which are necessary for providing the full of value realization of inner speech intention and grammar transformations, that is for inner speech and outward widening of sentential utterance
Creating an Authentic Learning Environment in the Foreign Language Classroom
Larisa Nikitina
International Journal of Instruction , 2011,
Abstract: Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation where the real world becomes a part of the educational experience and necessitates the use of an authentic language by the learners. This article describes a video project carried out by Russian language learners at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS). It examines how the work on the project created and supported authenticity of the learning experience. Though the article focuses on the video project done in the context of language learning and teaching this activity could be successfully implemented in teaching various subjects at both secondary and tertiary levels.
Proverbs and Medicine: The Problem of Applied Folklore
Larisa Fialkova
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2010,
Abstract: The difference between medical proverbs and proverbs in medicinehas been largely ignored. The former are proverbs used for medical purposes even though they may have no medical content. The perception of a proverb as medical in content is flexible, varying from collection to collection. In thematic proverb collections the items are usually taken out of the context but their very inclusion is in itself a context-specifying factor. A new definition of appliedfolklore is proposed, stressing the role of non-folklorists. The wish to use proverbs for concrete purposes inheres in the material itself as much as the wish to reveal its universal formulas.
Determining Keystone Species
Larisa Khanina
Ecology and Society , 1998,
"The Saga of strangers": the analysis of the frame alienation in contemporary culture
Larisa Gorohovskaya
Koncept : Scientific and Methodological e-magazine , 2013,
Abstract: The article deals with the image of the Alien created a fantastic modern cinema, it is considered from the standpoint of the imagination of otherness. The analysis is based on a frame-analysis I. Hoffmann. Detected primary social frame "Alien." A comparison of the medieval and early modern imaginary Alien as secondary frames.
The everyday world of popular culture
Larisa Vorobec
Koncept : Scientific and Methodological e-magazine , 2013,
Abstract: This article analyzes this phenomenon of modern society as a mass culture from the perspective of axiological knowledge. The focus of the work, the author devotes the disclosure of the scope and practical everyday world of the phenomenon. The article presents the author's definition of concepts such as value, and popular culture. In addition, conclusions about the prospects for the development of popular culture at this stage of its existence.
Nurturing creativity in students
Larisa Kyrbatova
Koncept : Scientific and Methodological e-magazine , 2013,
Abstract: The article deals with the education of the students creativity, stand conditions and the factors affecting the formation of a creative professional. It is proposed in the educational process is based on the pedagogy of creativity proposed by Torrance.
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