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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7697 matches for " Language "
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Language Genesis  [PDF]
Enrique Burunat
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2015.52008
Abstract: Language is a specifically human mental function, although some neurobiological adaptations associated with communication can be found in other primates, in other mammalian orders, and even in other kinds of animals (evolutionary trend). Exposure to language is necessary for its acquisition (culture), there are specific alleles of some genes for human language (gene), and the brain circuits for language are mainly lateralized towards the left hemisphere (brain lateralization). However, some data suggest that the crucial factor for human verbal language, which originates in childhood in both, ontogeny and phylogeny, must be of motivational nature, and have at least the same importance as other genetic, brain or cultural factors. So, this article proposes that language was promoted by the building of love, and that it was maintained by hominid women as proto-language during some hundreds of thousands years through the maternal-filial interaction, until the first permanent settlements of the current human species, between 40,000-10,000 years ago. Also, that it was then when the woman transmitted speech to the man (it is further suggested that this may have been the Original Sin of the biblical Genesis), signalizing this transmission with the beginning of the symbolic thought, thus promoting the first artistic displays, like sculptures, painting or music, which were associated with the expansion of love and speech to the relationship between the sexes, with the consequent diversification of languages, mainly in the last 10,000 to 5,000 years. Love caused and causes human speech in both, phylogeny and ontogeny.
Bridging Language Attitudes with Perceived Language Notions  [PDF]
Andreas Papapavlou, Andia Mavromati
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2017.72013
Abstract: The current study examines students’ beliefs about languages in general, their overt attitudes towards Cypriot Greek and the status that is accorded to this variety. Results, from a quantitative research approach, show that the Cypriot Greek variety is in a process of changing status and it seems that it is appreciated more than in the past (Papapavlou, 1998, 2004, 2010; Tsiplakou, 2006; Ioannidou, 2009). Participants (university students) believe that languages are: a) a mirror of society and a robust means of communication, b) a reflection of the cultures of a given country, c) constantly evolving and adjusting to the needs of a society, and d) an image of our way of thinking and interacting in society. However, participants do not agree that language is the only factor in defining their ethnic identity. On the contrary, they believe that it is also affected by factors not related to language. Additionally, results reveal that misguided judgments about the supremacy and powerfulness of standard languages are inversely related to the views that the same speakers hold about non-standard languages and dialects. The findings of the present study suggest that the linguistic identity of young people in Cyprus is shifting, and this shift may have implications on issues related to language policy and planning, currently under discussion.
A Perspective-Based Reading of Culture in English Language Teaching: From the Conventional Perspective to the Intercultural Language Teaching Perspective  [PDF]
Khaled Jebahi
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.33029

This paper reviews culture as perceived in a number of language teaching perspectives. The term “culture” and its relation with language has been a center of interest in different fields of studies. Because the term “culture” is borrowed between disciplines, it is understood differently and altered in the process by the goals and traditions of the borrowers. As such culture remains an elusive concept for the language teacher. Here, I attempt to understand how culture has been understood in different English language teaching perspectives in the last fifty years. This reading helps understand how change in the teaching approach affects how culture is dealt with in class and in teaching materials.

Implementation of the Whole Language in Hong Kong Kindergartens: The Teachers’ Perceptive  [PDF]
Pui Lee Liu
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.33023

The whole language approach is an important language theory in the West. In recent years, many kindergartens in Hong Kong have been implementing the whole language approach. To understand how this western educational concept is being implemented in the Chinese society, this research aims to investigate the current practices of teachers implementing the Whole Language Approach in Hong Kong. The study employed a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods with data collected through questionnaires and interviews. 138 questionnaires were sent to experienced teachers. A total of six teachers were interviewed, and they were all experienced. Findings indicate that most of the kindergarten teachers have the basic understanding of the whole language approach. However, it finds that many teachers cannot fully implement the meaning of the whole language approach in it entirely. Further training for teachers is needed.

The Relationship between Perfectionism and Language Proficiency in Intermediate, Upper Intermediate, and Advanced Students of Kerman Institutes  [PDF]
Mina Rastegar, Massoud Khabir, Ehsan Mehrabi Kermani
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2017.72011
Abstract: Language proficiency is the ultimate goal of English as a Foreign Language studies. The present study attempted to explore any significant relationships between perfectionism and its dimensions as a whole and language proficiency of students of Kerman institutes. A number of 98 participants studying English at intermediate, upper-intermediate, and advanced levels as a foreign language at Kerman institutes took part in this study. To obtain the required data, the following instruments were administered: Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Frost &Marten, 1990) to measure participants’ level of perfectionism and its dimensions and the short version of Michigan Test (Briggs, Dobson, Rohlick, Spann, & Strom, 1997) to measure the participants’ level of language proficiency. The SPSS results depicted that there was a significant positive relationship between the construct perfectionism and language proficiency.
Locations of L2/Ln Sign Language Pedagogy  [PDF]
Jodie M. Ackerman, Ju-Lee A. Wolsey, M. Diane Clark
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.913148
Abstract: There has been tremendous growth in the teaching of sign language as a foreign sign language in elementary/secondary schools, colleges/universities, private businesses, and agencies. While this surge has allowed students to obtain foreign language credit for personal or professional reasons, the acceptance of teaching sign languages has had its challenges. Traditionally, sign language courses have been provided face-to-face using a variety of curricula in diverse departments, academic programs, and degree programs in different countries. This paper acts as a reference guide that provides locations of where sign languages are formally taught around the world, as well as learning about Deaf culture. Historical and current pedagogical practices are also discussed. Looking ahead to the future, one growing trend is providing sign language courses online in a distance-learning format to meet the high demands of interested students and reach a wider population. Moreover, examining the importance of utilizing well-trained and certified instructors, and implementing current pedagogical practices and materials that include appropriate cultural opportunities are needed to effectively teach sign language classes.
Language and Mathematics: Bridging between Natural Language and Mathematical Language in Solving Problems in Mathematics  [PDF]
Bat-Sheva Ilany, Bruria Margolin
Creative Education (CE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2010.13022
Abstract: In the solution of mathematical word problems, problems that are accompanied by text, there is a need to bridge between mathematical language that requires an awareness of the mathematical components, and natural language that requires a literacy approach to the whole text. In this paper we present examples of mathematical word problems whose solutions depend on a transition between a linguistic situation on one side and abstract mathematical structure on the other. These examples demonstrate the need of treating word problems in a literacy approach. For this purpose, a model for teaching and learning is suggested. The model, which was tested successfully, presents an interactive multi-level process that enables deciphering of the mathematical text by means of decoding symbols and graphs. This leads to understanding of the revealed content and the linguistic situation, transfer to a mathematical model, and correspondence between the linguistic situation and the appropriate mathematical model. This model was tested as a case study. The participants were 3 students: a student in the sixth grade, a student in the ninth grade and a college student. All the students demonstrated an impressive improvement in their mathematical comprehension using this model.
Constructionist Theory of Representation in Language and Communication: A Philosophical Analysis  [PDF]
Bonachristus Umeogu, Ojiakor Ifeoma
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.22021
Abstract: There is nothing as an innocent word because every word no matter how simple it sounds is loaded with meaning. For communication to have taken place, the meaning of a word or symbol is grasped and understood by the receiver. This paper maintains that there are variables which influence the construction and decoding of meaning with the resultant effect that no two individuals construct meanings in uniform way.
Metaphoric Topicality in Femi Osofisan’s Drama  [PDF]
Clement O. Ajidahun
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/als.2013.11001
Abstract: This paper examines the functional and the significant role of metaphors in literary works. It discusses the centrality of metaphors as a dominant literary device consciously deployed by Femi Osofisan to project the theme of oppression, dehumanization, social injustice and poverty in his plays. The paper focuses on the use of animal and predatory metaphors in Osofisan’s plays to launch an offensive literary attack on the rich and the ruling elite in the society who use their privileged positions to brazenly oppress and brutalize the poor and the downtrodden. The paper, on the other hand, examines the appropriate use of animal metaphors to enlighten and educate the poor on their precarious condition as preys in the hands of the carnivorous ruling class. Finally, the paper discusses the settings and the titles of Osofisan’s plays, the quest motif and the traditional modes as metaphors for oppression.
Strategy Use and Language Performance by Second Language Learners in Nigeria  [PDF]
Laz Chinedu Ogenyi
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/als.2015.33011
Abstract: It is commonly believed that Nigerian students perform very poorly in the English language. Many reasons adduced to be the causative variables for students’ poor performance in the English language are located away from the students themselves. What the above scenario portends is that no effort has been made to find out the strategies which the students themselves use in their efforts to learn the English language; it also implies that no effort has been made to find out the relationship between such strategies and the level of students’ performance in the target language. The problem which this study addressed was not only to evaluate the language learning strategies which the sampled study population use in their efforts to learn English, but also to determine the extent to which their mean achievement scores in English depend on their use of various language learning strategies. The study was carried out using a descriptive survey research design. Its population consisted of Senior Secondary School (SSS) form II students in three states of south-eastern Nigeria. Random sampling technique was used to select a total of one thousand, four hundred and one (1401: 747 = males, 654 = females) students used for the study. Two sets of instrument were used to collect data for the investigation: appraisal instrument (cloze test), and questionnaire. Two research questions and corresponding two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Results of the study revealed that 1) the greatest proportion of the Igbo learners of English in SSS II (84.3%) made use of socio-affective language learning strategy, while cognitive strategy had the lowest proportion of users (50.9%); 2) there was a significant difference, in the English language performance, between the users and non-users of the various language learning strategies.
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