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As concerns about energy and environment emerge the concept of sustainable development, this paper develops a five-sector endogenous technological change economic growth model considering sustainable use of energy and pollution control. We introduce energy and environment into production function and utility function, solve the conditions for sustainable economic growth with the optimal control method, further reveal the dynamic relationship which should be met by energy consumption rate, pollution control and sustainable economic growth, prove the possibility of sustainable economic growth and reveal the path and conditions of sustainable economic growth under the dual constraints of energy and environment.
Based on the features of energy consumption
and economic development in China,
since single pollutant can hardly express the situation of environmental pollution,
we propose a pollution emissions index that can reflect the level of environmental
quality, measure China’s
28 provinces’ environmental quality from 1995 to 2010 with a dynamic objective evaluation
method based on the overall differences first time. Then panel data model was applied
to analyze the impact of energy consumption and economic development on China’s
and regional environmental quality. The results showed that emissions index varied
among different regions and there was great potential for emission reduction; there
was a significant positive correlation between emissions index and scale of economies
and industrial structure; there was a negative correlation between emissions index
and energy efficiency, energy prices and degree of opening up. Policy implications
are as follows: 1) reduction policies should be made in line with local conditions; 2) the eastern
region is the key areas of emissions reduction; 3) to improve energy
efficiency is an important way to reduce emissions.
A weak value of an observable is studied for a quantum system which
is placed under the influence of an environment, where a quantum system
irreversibly evolves from a pre-selected state to a post-selected state. A
general expression for a weak value influenced by an environment is provided.
For a Markovian environment, the weak value is calculated in terms of the
predictive and retrodictive density matrices, or by means of the quantum
regression theorem. For a non-Markovian environment, a weak value is examined
by making use of exactly solvable models. It is found that although the
anomalous property is significantly suppressed by a Markovian
environment, it can survive a non-Markovian environment.