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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 900 matches for " Lakshmi Pulakat "
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Cardiac Insulin Resistance and MicroRNA Modulators
Lakshmi Pulakat,Annayya R. Aroor,Rukhsana Gul,James R. Sowers
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/654904
Abstract: Cardiac insulin resistance is a metabolic and functional disorder that is often associated with obesity and/or the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS), and this disorder may be accentuated by chronic alcohol consumption. In conditions of over-nutrition, increased insulin (INS) and angiotensin II (Ang II) activate mammalian target for rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) signaling, whereas chronic alcohol consumption inhibits mTOR/S6K1 activation in cardiac tissue. Although excessive activation of mTOR/S6K1 induces cardiac INS resistance via serine phosphorylation of INS receptor substrates (IRS-1/2), it also renders cardioprotection via increased Ang II receptor 2 (AT2R) upregulation and adaptive hypertrophy. In the INS-resistant and hyperinsulinemic Zucker obese (ZO) rat, a rodent model for CRS, activation of mTOR/S6K1signaling in cardiac tissue is regulated by protective feed-back mechanisms involving mTOR↔AT2R signaling loop and profile changes of microRNA that target S6K1. Such regulation may play a role in attenuating progressive heart failure. Conversely, alcohol-mediated inhibition of mTOR/S6K1, down-regulation of INS receptor and growth-inhibitory mir-200 family, and upregulation of mir-212 that promotes fetal gene program may exacerbate CRS-related cardiomyopathy.
The β-blocker Nebivolol Is a GRK/β-arrestin Biased Agonist
Catherine E. Erickson, Rukhsana Gul, Christopher P. Blessing, Jenny Nguyen, Tammy Liu, Lakshmi Pulakat, Murat Bastepe, Edwin K. Jackson, Bradley T. Andresen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071980
Abstract: Nebivolol, a third generation β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) antagonist (β-blocker), causes vasodilation by inducing nitric oxide (NO) production. The mechanism via which nebivolol induces NO production remains unknown, resulting in the genesis of much of the controversy regarding the pharmacological action of nebivolol. Carvedilol is another β-blocker that induces NO production. A prominent pharmacological mechanism of carvedilol is biased agonism that is independent of Gαs and involves G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)/β-arrestin signaling with downstream activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Due to the pharmacological similarities between nebivolol and carvedilol, we hypothesized that nebivolol is also a GRK/β-arrestin biased agonist. We tested this hypothesis utilizing mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that solely express β2-ARs, and HL-1 cardiac myocytes that express β1- and β2-ARs and no detectable β3-ARs. We confirmed previous reports that nebivolol does not significantly alter cAMP levels and thus is not a classical agonist. Moreover, in both cell types, nebivolol induced rapid internalization of β-ARs indicating that nebivolol is also not a classical β-blocker. Furthermore, nebivolol treatment resulted in a time-dependent phosphorylation of ERK that was indistinguishable from carvedilol and similar in duration, but not amplitude, to isoproterenol. Nebivolol-mediated phosphorylation of ERK was sensitive to propranolol (non-selective β-AR-blocker), AG1478 (EGFR inhibitor), indicating that the signaling emanates from β-ARs and involves the EGFR. Furthermore, in MEFs, nebivolol-mediated phosphorylation of ERK was sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of GRK2 as well as siRNA knockdown of β-arrestin 1/2. Additionally, nebivolol induced redistribution of β-arrestin 2 from a diffuse staining pattern into more intense punctate spots. We conclude that nebivolol is a β2-AR, and likely β1-AR, GRK/β-arrestin biased agonist, which suggests that some of the unique clinically beneficial effects of nebivolol may be due to biased agonism at β1- and/or β2-ARs.
Using Magnetic Nanoparticles to Eliminate Oscillations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Processes  [PDF]
Lakshmi N. Sridhar
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2012.23004
Abstract: This article provides computational evidence to show that functionalized magnetic nanoparticles can eliminate the wasteful oscillatory behavior in fermentation processes involving Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There has been a consi-derable amount of work demonstrating the existence of oscillations in fermentation processes. Recently Reference [1] computationally demonstrated very simple strategies to eliminate the oscillations in the fermentation process. In the case of the of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation process it was shown that the addition of a little bit of oxygen would be successful in eliminating the oscillation causing Hopf bifurcations. The work of [2,3] demonstrated that oxygen mass transfer could be enhanced by using functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. The aim of this work is to incorporate the model used by [3] regarding the enhancement of oxygen mass transfer in the cybernetic Jones Kompala model [4] describing the dynamics of the Saccharomnyces cerevisiae fermentation process and demonstrate that using the functionalized magnetic nanoparticles can by altering the mass transfer coefficient actually succeed in eliminating the oscillatory behavior that plagues the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation process. This occurs because the oscillation causing Hopf bifurcations are sensitive to the amount of input oxygen and increasing the oxygen mass transfer coefficient causes the disappearance of the Hopf bifurcation points.
Global Optimization of Continuous Fermentation Involving Zymomonas mobilis  [PDF]
Lakshmi N. Sridhar
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.31008

Global steady-state optimization of Zymomonas mobilis fermentation process problems is performed to demonstrate the existence of multiple optimum solutions necessitating the use of a global optimization strategy. It is shown that the steady-state equations for the Zymomonas mobilis fermentation process can be reduced to a single equation which when used as a constraint results in yielding only one optimum solution, the global one.

Wireless Transmission Based Image Quality Analysis Using Uni-Level Haar Wavelet Transform  [PDF]
K. Senthamilselvan, Lakshmi Dhevi
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.78156
Abstract: This article deals with picture excellence examination by different parameters utilizing uni-level Haar wavelet transmission in excess of remote channel. The quality is analyzed based on power. The goal is towards reducing absolute power assigned in favour of picture compression and communication, while power in favour of every bit is reserved at prearranged value. Two Power Algorithms were presented. The greatest iterative power control calculation and Minimum Power Adaptation Algorithm (MPAA) are proposed. Those algorithms methodology was utilized for improving the aggregate power dispensed for multimedia such as picture because of input compression and transmission focus towards a settled bit source mutilation. Simulations were performed utilizing Haar wavelet than Additive White Gaussian Ration (AWGN) channel. Different picture excellence parameters, for example, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), M-Normalized Cross-Correla- tion, Average Difference; Structural Content parameters, for example, Maximum Difference, Normalized Absolute Error, Elapsed Time, CPU time, demonstrate a improved presentation with MPAA, Maximum Power Adaptation Algorithms (MAPAA) instead of Conventional Power Adaptation Algorithm (CPAA).
Financial Inclusion: Opportunities, Issues and Challenges  [PDF]
George Varghese, Lakshmi Viswanathan
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.811126
Abstract: An all-inclusive financial system is essential for a nation as it augments efficiency and welfare by providing scope for secure and safe saving practices and by facilitating a wide range of improved financial services. The focus of the present study is on identifying the opportunities, issues, and challenges of financial inclusion in India.
Unhealthy Cooking and Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Indian Women: A Case Study  [PDF]
Abha Lakshmi Singh, Saleha Jamal
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.37078
Abstract: Unhealthy cooking is one of the major cause of mortality and morbidity and a risk factor for occurrence of tuberculosis among Indian women. India is the TB burden country in the world and accounts for nearly 20 percent of global burden of tuberculosis. The present study establishes the association between unhealthy cooking conditions (use of biomass fuels/chulhas, cooking in multipurpose room, Non-ventilated kitchen, living in kutcha/semi-pucca houses) and prevalence of tuberculosis in women. This study is based on primary sources of data collected through questionnaire interviews from 2101 women respondents belonging to different income categories from Aligarh city. The study examines the socio-economic characteristics, cooking conditions, monitoring of indoor air quality of different types of kitchen locations using different types of fuels. Symptomatic linkages of tuberculosis with type of fuel use, kitchen locations and house type were analysed. The results show that the women using biomass fuels/chulhas cooking in non-ventilated kitchens and multipurpose room, living in kutcha/semi pucca houses were most prone to tuberculosis.
Outbreak Investigation of Cholera in a Slum of Northern India  [PDF]
Manoj Kumar, Vijay Lakshmi Sharma
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2014.44031
Abstract: Cholera is one of the oldest and best understood endemic diseases. An actual bacterial enteric disease, it is characterized in its severe form by sudden onset, profuse painless watery stools (rice-water stool), nausea and profuse vomiting early in the course of illness. Endemic and pandemics are strongly linked to the consumption of unsafe water, poor hygiene, poor sanitation and crowded living conditions. A rapid survey was conducted for the outbreak investigation on August 4, 2008. The objectives were to investigate the outbreak, risk factors for cholera and recommend control measures immediately. Questionnaire based random convenient sample based investigative study. 60 families were contacted by the public health students. Approximate 300 individuals were screened for cholera cases. Simultaneously six water samples were also collected from the contacted family. Microbiological test for Vibrio cholera and E. coli was conducted. Randomly six water samples were collected from the Rajive colony. Microbiological test for Vibrio cholera and E. coli was conducted from the department of Microbiology, PU. Vibrio cholera and E. coli were found absent, in all the samples. One sample was found positive for unidentified bacteria.
Understanding the Role of Monsoon Depressions on Intraseasonal Oscillations over Indian Sub-Continent  [PDF]
P. Suneetha, K. Naga Lakshmi
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2018.94015
Summer monsoon and its synoptic, meso-scale systems provide 80% of total annual rainfall over India. Monsoon depressions are weak, low-pressure circulation within the monsoon trough that forms in the head Bay of Bengal and moves northwestward and westward across the Indian sub-continent during summer monsoon season. Another convective system from this planetary scale circulation is the Intraseasonal Oscillation (ISO) also occurs in the daily mode. It is very important to study the impact of monsoon depressions in synoptic scale on ISOs through its strength, frequency and duration. In the recent decades, frequency of monsoon depressions and sea surface temperature over head Bay is decreasing while the intensity is increasing over Bay of Bengal. The study brings out the relationship between the ISOs and monsoon depressions over Bay of Bengal through their structure and movement for the period 1990-2014. Composites of monsoon and no monsoon depression days are calculated and found that rainfall is mainly occupied over Kerala and Interior Peninsula within the range of 10 - 50 cm during monsoon depression days. Relative vorticity brings out that the shallower layer of convergence mainly from 1000 - 850 hPa level and a deeper layer of weak divergence above it is mainly associated with the depression. Next, thermodynamic structure of monsoon depression and its intensity is directly proportional to the increasing of CAPE. Wavelet spectrum also indicates the intraseasonal oscillations are very active during monsoon depression days. Finally this study helps to bring out plausible reasons through circulations, dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics involved in monsoon depression days in association with the ISOs.
Does “Yummy” Food Help You Grow and Avoid Illness? Children's and Adults' Understanding of the Effect of Psychobiological Labels on Growth and Illness
Lakshmi Raman
Child Development Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/638239
Abstract: Three studies examined children's understanding of the role of psychobiological labels such as tasty (“yummy”) and not tasty (“yucky”) foods on growth and illness. Studies 1 and 3 examined the role of tasty and not tasty foods on height, weight, and illness, respectively. Study 2 controlled for the possibility that participants were responding to the positive and negative valence of the terms “yummy” and “yucky” in Study 1. Results revealed that young children entertain psychobiological causes for growth but not for illness. These results suggest that young children selectively apply psychobiological causes to explain different biological processes. 1. Introduction Research on children’s understanding of biological processes has primarily focused on children’s causal recognition of illness, physical development, and growth. The results of most of these studies have demonstrated that children as young as 3 years of age consistently employ biological causes for biological processes and that they reject nonbiological causes such as immanent justice (Backsheider et al. [1]; Inagaki [2]; Kalish [3]; Raman and Gelman [4]; Springer and Keil [5]; Springer and Ruckel [6]). However, research on children’s recognition of the impact of psychological factors on biological processes has generated mixed results. Some studies have demonstrated that young children and even adults entertain psychological factors for the origins of common contagious illness (Raman and Gelman [7]; Raman [8]; Schulz et al. [9]), whereas other studies have found that young children entertain biological causes for dual causal biological processes such as psychogenic illnesses (Notaro et al. [10]). One of the major limitations of these studies is that they have all primarily focused only on the biological process of illness. The following studies will further clarify this debate by examining another subdomain of biology that is of extreme importance but one that has received minimal attention—children’s understanding of the role of psychobiological factors. Psychobiological factors are factors that present an interaction of biological causes and psychological causes. There have been no studies that have examined the impact of an interaction of biological and psychological causes on biological processes, but there is a plethora of studies that have examined the role of psychological factors on the contraction of common contagious illnesses. The results of these studies have presented mixed results. Some studies have demonstrated that preschoolers maintain a strict demarcation between the
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