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OALib Journal期刊

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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among Adolescents Schooled in Public Schools  [PDF]
Khalid Astitene, Amina Barkat1, Laila Lahlou
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105019
Abstract:
Objective: A traumatic event has a negative impact on the psychological well-being of adolescents, the purpose of our study is to assess the post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD in adolescents in public schools of the prefecture of Salé in Morocco, to evaluate comorbid disorders and thus to study the effect of PTSD on their social and academic life. Method and measures: 871 school adolescents who completed the objectives of the study, their age varied between 12 and 17 years and they completed by themselves the questionnaires concerning socio-demographic data, a list of life events, the CPTS-RI (Children’s Post Traumatic Stress Reaction Index) for assessing the symptoms of PTSD, STAIY (State Trait Inventory Anxiety) and CDI (Children Depression Inventory). Results: A large proportion of post-traumatic stress disorder was found in students with 63.9% but with different levels (19.5% PTSD low, 25.1% PTSD moderate, 18.1% PTSD severe and only 1.2% PTSD very severe). 84.4% of students are anxious and 55.2% of students have depression. Adolescents who have been exposed to at least one traumatic event in their lifetime have 88.69%. In the event, the main traumatic condition that caused the post-traumatic stress disorder was the sudden and unexpected death of a loved one with 27.7%. PTSD, anxiety and depression have a negative effect on students’ school life; therefore, 72.5% of students have poor grades. Conclusion: A traumatic event can develop at a PTSD. There is a high rate of post-traumatic stress disorder and students are in school deficit. There are practical implications for the support and care provided to these adolescents.
The Success of Natural Products in Drug Discovery  [PDF]
Mouhssen Lahlou
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2013.43A003
Abstract:

Drug discovery leading to robust and viable lead candidates’ remains a challenging scientific task, which is the transition from a screening hit to a drug candidate, requires expertise and experience. Natural products and their derivatives have been recognized for many years as a source of therapeutic agents and of structural diversity. However, in addition to their chemical structure diversity and their biodiversity, the development of new technologies has revolutionized the screening of natural products in discovering new drugs. Applying these technologies compensates for the inherent limitations of natural products and offers a unique opportunity to re-establish natural products as a major source for drug discovery. The present article attempts to describe the utilization of compounds derived from natural resources as drug candidates, with a focus on the success of these resources in the process of finding and discovering new and effective drug compounds, an approach commonly referred to as “natural product drug discovery”.

Prevalence of Neural Tube Defects: Moroccan Study 2008-2011  [PDF]
Mohammed Amine Radouani, Naima Chahid, Loubna Benmiloud, Leila El Ammari, Aicha Kharbach, Larbi Rjimati, Laila Acharrai, Khalid Lahlou, Hassan Aguenaou, Amina Barkat
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.53038
Abstract: Background: Neural tube defects have a considerable importance because they can be prevented by supplementing Folic acid & Vitamin B12 during periconceptional period and fortification of staple foods. In Morocco, the Ministry of Health launched a national program for fortification of flour with folic acid. Our goal should be to evaluate the prevalence of neural tube defects after fortification. Description: This is a retrospective descriptive at the National Reference Centre for Nutrition and Neonatology of the Children’s Hospital of Rabat over 4 years. Data were identified from the registry of congenital malformations held at the perinatology unit. Results: During the 4 years, 674 congenital malformations were identified. The neural tube defects NTDs account for 11.9%. Their annual prevalence decreased significantly from 21.78 in 2008 to 12.1 per 10,000 total births in 2011. The most common form was anencephaly (60%). Neural tube defects were isolated in 85% of cases and associated with other malformations in 15% of cases. 49.4% of infants with neural tube defects were female and 50.6% were male. Perinatal mortality in newborns with neural tube defects was 63.8% versus 25.2% in malformed newborns without neural tube defects. Conclusions: The neural tube defects seem to be common in our context. Permanent epidemiological surveillance is needed to determine the true prevalence at the national as well as its temporal trends level.
Factors of Neonatal Morbidity at the Provincial Hospital Center of Missour  [PDF]
Loubna Doukkali, Nada Bennani Mechita, Laila Lahlou, Fatima Zahra laamiri, Mouna Habibi, Amina Barkat
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2016.45005
Abstract: Background: Although neonatal mortality decreases in different regions of the world, it is still a major problem in developing countries and particularly in Morocco. Purpose: The aims of this study are to examine the characteristics of pregnant women in the hospital center in the urban commune of Missour as well as the morphological data of the newborn and identify the risk factors implicated in neonatal morbidity. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of collected data from records of women who gave birth in the Maternity of Missour during 2012. As well as a prospective study conducted at the maternity in 2013. Results: A total of 1108 women were included in this retrospective survey, of which 45% come from areas located far from the hospital center of the province and sometimes the access is tough in winter. Only 55.1% of pregnancy was followed. Among 1121 births, 49 babies (4.3%) showed a problematic birth situation: 31 (2.7%) newborns were hospitalized in pediatrics, of which 14 are premature. Neonatal mortality rate is 0.6% that is to say 7 early deaths. The risk factors associated to neonatal morbidity are gestational age and weight birth (in 50% of the cases, 85.7% of deaths are premature infants less than 1500 g). 14 (1.2%) were referred and 11 (0.9%) malformed were noticed. The prospective study states that among the 194 women analyzed, 89.7% are housewives. 89.1% have no medical coverage and 25.4% are illiterate. Only 29.2% benefit from a blood sample during pregnancy and 50% benefit from regular ultrasound follow-up. Conclusion: Mortality and neonatal morbidity constitute a public health priority in Morocco. Our work insists on the interest of an organized support of the newborn from the community to the different levels of the health pyramid.
The Issue of Care Given to Premature Infants in the Provincial Hospital Center of Missour  [PDF]
Loubna Doukkali, Fatima Zahra laamiri, Nada Bennani Mechita, Laila Lahlou, Mouna Habibi, Amina Barkat
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2016.45008
Abstract: Background: Preterm birth is common in Morocco and it’s around 8%. Several management rules of taking care of preterm infants have been developed but have not been put into action. The geo-graphical inaccessibility to specialized hospitals and the weakness of the reception capacity of the care centers hinder the management of the complications associated with preterm birth. Purpose: The present study is designed to present some epidemiological data of preterm births within the Provincial Hospital Center of Missour during 2012 and to discuss the various problems emerging in the management of treatment and care. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of preterm births in the maternity ward in the Hospital of Missour during 2012. Results: 37 preterm births among 1121 (3.3%) have been analyzed (51.3% severe premature infants, 45.9% late preterm infants and 2.7% extremely premature infants). 64.2% are originally from difficult areas to reach during winter. All mothers have received upon arrival at the maternity a corticosteroid and calcium antagonists (Adalate*) and an antibiotic treatment to those with a positive infectious anamnesis found in half of the women. We have recorded 3 twin pregnancies and 2 gravidic toxemias. Only 21 babies have been given back to their mothers (namely 56.7%). 5 premature infants (namely 13%) have been referred to the university hospital center of Fez (2 respiratory distress, a malformation and 2 severe premature births) given that there is an absence of a specialized care unit at the hospital, knowing that no baby has received neither surfactant nor caffeine at birth. 14 premature babies (namely 37.8%) have been transferred to the pediatric unit with a total death rate of 16.2% (6 premature) mainly related to neonatal infection and to suffering of the hyaline membranes disease. Conclusion: We emphasize the interest of prevention programs which demand an early diagnosis of preterm birth threats and monitoring high-risk pregnancies, improving the medical care given to low-weight premature by creating “Kangaroo” units at a regional level and the targeting of measures for rural and under-covered areas.
Effect of Salinity on in vitro Trichoderma harzianum Antagonism Against Verticillium dahliae
Amina Regragui,Houria Lahlou
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: This in vitro study led to test the sodium chloride tolerance of Trichoderma harzianum and to evaluate the impact of salinity on its antagonistic capacities, in order to use it as a biological agent controlling Verticillium wilt of tomato in Moroccan saline soils. Trichoderma harzianum tolerates the salinity for its mycelial growth but its sporulation is significantly reduced. The efficiency of the antagonistic modes of action of Trichoderma against Verticillium depends on the saline concentration used. Thus, the antagonism by competition is slightly affected by moderated salt concentrations (6 g L-1). The antagonism by antibiosis decreases with the increase of salt. The antagonistic compounds produced by Trichoderma in presence of 8 g L-1 NaCl concentration still reduce the pathogen growth but have no action on the abundance of microsclerotia. The in vitro antagonistic properties of T. harzianum obtained at low salt concentrations may be applied for the biological control of Verticillium wilt of tomato in Moroccan saline soils where levels of salinity are equivalent to salt concentrations favorable to Trichoderma antagonism.
The accuracy of brackets placement in direct bonding technique: a comparison between the pole-like bracket positioning gauge and the star-like bracket positioning gauge  [PDF]
Lahcen Ousehal, Laila Lazrak
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2011.14019
Abstract: The accuracy of brackets placement is a key factor in successful orthodontic therapy. An in vitro study was conducted in ten models from a natural maxillary teeth model in order to compare the accuracy of brac- kets placement between two direct bonding instru- ments: the Pole-like Bracket Positioning Gauge and the Star-like Bracket Positioning Gauge. Our results have shown that: The Star-like Bracket Positioning Gauge is more precise in placing brackets vertically, whereas the Pole-like Bracket Positioning Gauge al-lows a better angulation of the bracket. Considering each tooth separately, there is no statistically signifi-cant difference between the two positioning gauges, except that the Star-like gauge gives better results in bracket’s height for the second premolar and the ca-nine, whereas the Pole-like gauge allows for a better positioning and a better vertical angulation of the brackets for the lateral incisor. No statistically signi- ficant difference was found between the two gauges on the mesiodistal position. Overall, the Star-like gau- ge showed a better accuracy in positioning brackets.
On Dedekind's criterion and monogenicity over Dedekind rings
M. E. Charkani,O. Lahlou
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2003, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171203211534
Abstract: We give a practical criterion characterizing the monogenicity of the integral closure of a Dedekind ring R, based on results on the resultant Res (p,pi) of the minimal polynomial p of a primitive integral element and of its irreducible factors pi modulo prime ideals of R. We obtain a generalization and an improvement of the Dedekind criterion (Cohen, 1996), and we give some applications in the case where R is a discrete valuation ring or the ring of integers of a number field, generalizing some well-known classical results.
β1-integrins signaling and mammary tumor progression in transgenic mouse models: implications for human breast cancer
Hicham Lahlou, William J Muller
Breast Cancer Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2905
Abstract: Breast cancer continues to be the most common cancer diagnosed and the leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. In North America it has been estimated that one woman out of nine will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime and that one in four among them will die from the disease [1]. As with other cancers, the combination of genetic and epigenetic alterations is fundamental in the genesis of breast cancer [2]. As the result of multiple alterations, mammary cancer progresses through multiple stages in a multistep process that drives normal breast cells into highly malignant cells. The resulting tumor cells can then invade through surrounding tissues and metastasize to distal organs, particularly to bones, brain, liver, and lungs [3].The majority of breast cancers are carcinomas of ductal origin since they arise from epithelial cells lining the mammary ducts. The pathogenesis involves an initial benign intraductal hyperplasia, which progresses through cellular atypia (atypical hyperplasia) and occlusion of the duct (ductal carcinoma in situ). This later step can be followed by locally invasive carcinoma and subsequent metastasis to secondary sites [4]. The acquired invasive properties include enhanced migratory behavior and the capacity of the tumor cells to breach the mammary basement membrane (BM), the dense matrix surrounding tumors and the blood vessel walls [5]. All of these processes involve dynamic adhesion of the tumor cell to extracellular matrices (ECMs) through integrins, a major family of α/β heterodimeric cell surface receptors [6].The integrin family contains, in mammals, 18 α-subunits and eight β-subunits that form 24 distinct receptors with specific tissue distribution and that appear to have specific and nonredundant functions as shown by their specificity for ECM ligands and knockout mouse phenotypes [7]. The primary function of the integrin family is to mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Furthermore, the binding of
Role of laboratory in the virological diagnosis of pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)v
I. Lahlou Amine,S. Zouhair
Technologies de Laboratoire , 2009,
Abstract: The new pandemic influenza, occurred in april 2009 in Mexico is also called swine Influenza. It is caused by a new Influenza virus A(H1N1)v, completely new, never before found in any species and results from complex genetic reassortment. The role of the laboratory is essential for the virological diagnosis of this emerging flu. It can provide the definitive diagnosis in patients whose clinical and epidemiological context is suggestive of infection with virus A(H1N1)v. The virological confirmation of an infection case caused by this virus is provided by the positivity of the laboratory following tests: RT-PCR and/or viral culture and/or four-fold rise in the rate of specific neutralizing antibodies directed against A(H1N1)v virus on a pair of sera collected two weeks apart. The real time RT-PCR is currently the tool of choice because of its rapidity, sensitivity and specificity. Immunological rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can detect the presence of the nucleoprotein antigens of seasonal influenza viruses type A and B. The evaluation of these tests showed, in the current pandemic context, a low sensitivity which not confer them a negative predictive value compatible with widespread use. Their results must be interpreted with caution and despite their good positive predictive value, they allow a presumptive diagnosis, confirmation by real time RT-PCR will be conducted whenever necessary.
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