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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 209920 matches for " Ladislav Gaál "
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Projected Changes in Flood-Generating Precipitation Extremes Over the Czech Republic in High-Resolution Regional Climate Models
Jan Kysely, , Ladislav Gaál, , , Romana Beranová
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10098-011-0018-4
Abstract: Climate change scenarios of high quantiles of 5-day precipitation amounts (proxies for flood-generating events) over the Czech Republic are evaluated in an ensemble of high-resolution Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations from the ENSEMBLES project. The region-of-influence method of the regional frequency analysis is applied as a pooling scheme. This means that for any single gridbox, a homogeneous region (set of gridboxes) is identified and data from that region are used when fitting the Generalized Extreme Value distribution. The climate change scenarios for the late 21st century (2070-2099) show widespread increases in high quantiles of 5-day precipitation amounts in winter, consistent with projected changes in mean winter precipitation. In summer, increases in precipitation extremes occur despite an overall drying (prevailing declines in mean summer precipitation), which may have important hydrological implications. The results for summer suggest a possible substantial change in characteristics of warm-season precipitation over Central Europe, with more severe dry as well as wet extremes. The spatial pattern of projected changes in summer precipitation extremes, with larger increases in the western part of the area and smaller changes towards east, may also point to a declining role of Mediterranean cyclones in producing precipitation extremes in Central Europe in a future climate. However, uncertainties of the climate change scenarios remain large, which is partly due to biases in reproducing precipitation characteristics in climate models, partly due to large differences among the RCMs, and partly due to factors that are poorly or not at all represented in the examined ensemble. The latter are related also to uncertainties in future emission scenarios and socio-economic development in general.
Optimal Endogenous Tariffs with Implicit Campaign Contributions  [PDF]
Gal Lagadec
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.44040

This article proposes a model of endogenous protection by integrating informed and non-informed voters in the population. The model also distinguishes between interest groups and pressure groups, by considering that the members of one interest group do not necessarily organize as a pressure group (lobby). The endogenous tariff stemming from the model is an increasing function of the relative influence of the lobby, and the aforementioned function itself increases in accordance with the part of non-informed voters. This framework avoids formalizing contributions. It also permits to show that the conditions of the lobbying’s efficiency depend on the nature of the free rider comportment of the interest group members.

Participatory Teaching and Happiness in Developed Nations  [PDF]
Gal Brulé
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.411028
Abstract: Average happiness differs considerably across nations. Much of this difference is in societal development, but average happiness differs also among developed nations. Much of that latter difference seems to be due to cultural factors and education is a main carrier of these. In that context we explored the effect of teaching styles on happiness. In a first study on the general public in 37 developed nations we found that people feel happier in the nations where participatory teaching prevailed. Much of this difference can be explained by the effect of teaching style on psychological autonomy. Participatory teaching fosters autonomy and autonomy adds to happiness. In a second study among high school pupils we found no correlation between average happiness and dominant teaching style in the nation, which fits the explanation that the effect of participatory teaching is in personality formation, with the consequences for happiness of which manifest in adulthood.
The Effects of Neurofeedback Training on Memory Performance in Elderly Subjects  [PDF]
Gal Lecomte, Jacques Juhel
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.28129
Abstract: Neurofeedback or electroencephalographic operant conditioning (EEG-OC) is an EEG biofeedback technique used to train individuals to control or modify their cortical activity through learned self-regulation. Initially used for treating a variety of pathologies, neurofeedback has been employed more recently to improve the physical or cognitive performance of human beings. The purpose of this study is to assess the hypothesis of the effect of neurofeedback (the ‘awakened mind’ model) on the memory performance of subjects aged over 65. 30 participants were shared equally between 3 groups: an experimental group that underwent 4 neurofeedback training sessions; a non-neurofeedback group trained at relaxation; and a ‘waiting list’ control group. Results showed that the members of the Neurofeedback group learned to increase the spectral power of the alpha frequency range as well as the alpha/thêta ratio, and that compared with the members of the two other groups, neurofeedback training resulted in a more pronounced decrease, albeit without any relation to changes in EEG activity and the level of stress and anxiety of participants undergoing such training. Yet contrary to expectations, no improvement of memory performance (differed recall of words and learning of lists of words) was observed. These mixed results, which suggest a wide range of applications, underline the need for a more systematic assessment of the potential applications of NFB training in elderly humans in order to be better able to specify the effects of the retained protocol on cognitive performance.
Average Happiness and Dominant Family Type in Regions in Western Europe around 2000  [PDF]
Gal Brulé, Ruut Veenhoven
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.412031
Abstract: Research on the relation between family and happiness has focused on the micro level and considered the effects of an individual’s place in the family system, such as whether or not one is married and exchange of support with kin. Macro level differences in the family system as such have received little attention as yet. In this paper we consider regional differences in family types in Europe and explore the relationship with average happiness. Data on dominant family type in regions are taken from Todd (1990), who distinguishes five family types: 1) absolute nuclear; 2) egalitarian nuclear; 3) communitarian; 4) stem family; and 5) incomplete stem family. Data on average happiness in regions are taken from the Eurobarometer surveys. Average happiness appears to be highest in regions where family pattern of “absolute nuclear” prevails and lowest in the regions where “egalitarian nuclear” family dominates. Control for economic prosperity in regions does not change this picture. A possible interpretation of these findings is that freedom adds more to happiness than equality does. It is not true for types of freedom. If horizontal freedom (intragenerational freedom) seems to be important in terms of well-being, the results are much less convincing as far as vertical freedom (intergenerational freedom) is concerned. The findings might have some far reach contribution in the field of family policy.
Coloring plane graphs with independent crossings
Daniel Král',Ladislav Stacho
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: We show that every plane graph with maximum face size four whose all faces of size four are vertex-disjoint is cyclically 5-colorable. This answers a question of Albertson whether graphs drawn in the plane with all crossings independent are 5-colorable.
Transformation of the Angular Power Spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Radiation into Reciprocal Spaces and Consequences of This Approach  [PDF]
Ladislav ?ervinka
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.211165
Abstract: A formalism of solid state physics has been applied to provide an additional tool for the research of cosmological problems. It is demonstrated how this new approach could be useful in the analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data. After a transformation of the anisotropy spectrum of relict radiation into a special two-fold reciprocal space it was possible to propose a simple and general description of the interaction of relict photons with the matter by a “relict radiation factor”. This factor enabled us to process the transformed CMB anisotropy spectrum by a Fourier transform and thus arrive to a radial electron density distribution function (RDF) in a reciprocal space. As a consequence it was possible to estimate distances between Objects of the order of ~102 [m] and the density of the ordinary matter ~10-22 [kg.m-3]. Another analysis based on a direct calculation of the CMB radiation spectrum after its transformation into a simple reciprocal space and combined with appropriate structure modelling confirmed the cluster structure. The internal structure of Objects may be formed by Clusters distant ~10 [cm], whereas the internal structure of a Cluster consisted of particles distant ~0.3 [nm]. The work points in favour of clustering processes and to a cluster-like structure of the matter and thus contributes to the understanding of the structure of density fluctuations. As a consequence it may shed more light on the structure of the universe in the moment when the universe became transparent for photons. On the basis of our quantitative considerations it was possible to derive the number of particles (protons, helium nuclei, electrons and other particles) in Objects and Clusters and the number of Clusters in an Object.
The Utility of 2,2′-Bipyrimidine in Lanthanide Chemistry: From Materials Synthesis to Structural and Physical Properties
Gal Zucchi
International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/918435
Abstract: This paper reviews the recent investigations undertaken on the use of 2,2′-bipyrimidine (bpm) as a ligand for designing molecular complexes as well as polymeric lanthanide materials. A special emphasis is put on the ability of this polydentate neutral ligand to yield compounds of various dimensionalities, to act as a connector between these large ions, and influence their emissive and magnetic properties. This ligand can adopt a terminal or a bridging coordination mode with lanthanide ions, thus generating a wealth of frameworks of various topologies with the 4f elements. The main focus of this review is to show the originality brought by bpm in lanthanide structural chemistry and solid-state photophysics and magnetism. 1. Introduction Lanthanide ions and their complexes with organic ligands have generated a continuously growing interest over the last decades. These elements show typical electronic properties that potentially give great advantages to the complexes they form with organic ligands. In the trivalent state, they are hard Lewis acids that have interesting applications in catalysis in the fields of polymer synthesis [1–7], organic chemistry [8–17], and bioinorganic chemistry [18–26]. Some of them possess a high number of unpaired electrons making them highly paramagnetic (the effective magnetic moment is up to 10.65?μB for Dy3+) [27] and of special interest for applications related to magnetic properties. In particular, they are widely studied for magnetic resonance imaging applications [28–32], and their paramagnetism is used for obtaining NMR shift reagents that help the elucidation of solution structures of complex molecules such as proteins [33, 34], and chiral coordination complexes are useful for the determination of enantiomers [35–38]. Also, the trivalent lanthanide ions are subject of an excited research in molecular magnetism, especially since the discovery that a ferromagnetic interaction between Cu2+ and Gd3+ could occur [39]. However, the difficulty to find efficient synthetic strategies for obtaining such mixed 3d–4f compounds has been an impediment to the progress of this research area, and most of the studies were restricted to Cu/Gd systems [40]. Among the series, Gd3+ was first investigated because its ground state is orbitally nondegenerate and well separated from the excited states, giving simple single ion magnetic properties. In the last years, studies have been extended to other paramagnetic trivalent lanthanide ions, and a special interest has been devoted to their use in single molecule magnets [41–46]. Luminescence is
Vend me: étude chrono-chorématique
Gal Simon
M@ppemonde , 2010,
Abstract: L’étude chrono-chorématique de Vend me du VIe au XIe siècle a mis en évidence la trajectoire urbaine d’une ville qui peut être considérée comme l’archétype de ces villes moyennes qui constituaient et constituent encore le réseau urbain secondaire. La confrontation entre modèle spécifique et chorotype a permis de mettre en exergue les points communs et surtout les différences existant entre ces deux modèles obtenus et de mieux comprendre les spécificités de l’objet d’étude.
Effect of diet on maintenance of acid-basal balance in blood of dairy cows
Gaál T.
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl0304159g
Abstract: High-performance breeds of ruminants often exhibit production disorders which can be accompanied by a disturbed acid-basal balance. Most of the disorders in the acid-basal balance are closely related to digressions in the diet norms of these animals. A deficiency or surplus of energy equally cause disorders in the acid-basal status of the organism. Metabolic acidosis is the most frequent of the four types of basic disorders in the acid-basal balance in ruminants. It appears as a consequence of rumen acidosis, ketosis, or diarrhea. Acute disorders in the acid-basal balance are far more dangerous than chronic ones. Therapy of the basic diseases is generally sufficient compensation for the effects of the acid-basal disorders, but in certain cases it is necessary to perform alkalization, that is, acidification of the rumen content using the necessary preparations.
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