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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 152 matches for " Ladan Javidi "
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Adjustment of Preoperative Fasting Guidelines for Adult Patients Undergoing Elective Surgery  [PDF]
Eissa Bilehjani, Solmaz Fakhari, Samira Yavari, Jafar Rahimi Panahi, Mohammadreza Afhami, Bahman Nagipour, Hojjat Pourfathi, Haleh Farzin, Ladan Javidi
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2015.54016
Abstract: Introduction: The typical order of nothing per oral (NPO) after midnight has been challenged in recent years, thus the American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) revised in practice guidelines for preoperative fasting in healthy patients undergoing elective procedures, but many studies have showed that guidelines were not considered in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adjustment of preoperative NPO time with fasting guidelines in adult elective ophthalmic surgeries in a university educational ophthalmology hospital in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: In 3 months period, this descriptive study was conducted on 250 patients who scheduled for elective eye surgery. The investigator interviewed with patients before beginning of anesthesia and evaluated fasting duration for heavy meal, light meal and clear liquids and his or her satisfaction from NPO time and also investigated which staff recommended NPO time before anesthesia induction. Results: Fasting duration from heavy and light meal and clear liquids was 14.31 hours (8 - 23 hours), 12.46 hours (6 - 21 hours) and 11.54 hours (3 - 18 hours), respectively, that was not consistent with ASA guidelines. The discontent of the patients from prolonged NPO time was 60.8%. The most complaint was thirsty (42%). Ward nurses were the personnel who had the primary role in patients fasting time period (47.6%). Conclusion: Preoperative fasting duration for heavy and light meal and clear liquids for elective ophthalmic surgery in this teaching hospital was very long and not consistent with ASA guidelines. Ward nurses had the major role in this malpractice. Thus it seems that personnel education may be very helpful.
Cultural Differences between English and Persian in Technical Translation
Ladan Hosseinimanesh
International Journal of English Linguistics , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijel.v1n1p227
Abstract: Nowadays, a major amount of translation work being done all over the world is not poetry or novel translation but technical, scientific, and specialized translation. The reason is the fast paced growing of science and technology and the growing need of all nations for information. But technical translation is mostly considered a straight forward process dependent solely on a competent knowledge of subject matter and terminology. Technical texts are referred to as free from cultural embedding. The aim of the present study is to show that cultural embedding does exist in technical texts and needs attention. The focus is on English and Persian and it refers to Stolze (2009) who discusses culture in technical translation under 5 headings: terminology, language form, syntax, text structure and pragmatics plus one additional heading: stylistics. Examples are extracted from various instances of technical texts: a textbook in computer software engineering, legal deeds, user manuals of electronic appliances, etc.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
H Javidi,M Yadollahie
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Unexpected extreme sudden traumatic stressor may cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Important traumatic events include war, violent personal assault (e.g., sexual assault, and physical attack), being taken hostage or kidnapped, confinement as a prisoner of war, torture, terrorist attack, severe car accidents, and natural disasters. In childhood age sexual abuse or witnessing serious injuries or unexpected death of a beloved one are among important traumatic events. PTSD can be categorized into two types of acute and chronic PTSD: if symptoms persist for less than three months, it is termed “acute PTSD,” otherwise, it is called “chronic PTSD.” 60.7% of men and 51.2% of women would experience at least one potentially traumatic event in their lifetime. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD is significantly higher in women than men. Lifetime prevalence of PTSD varies from 0.3% in China to 6.1% in New Zealand. The prevalence of PTSD in crime victims are between 19% and 75%; rates as high as 80% have been reported following rape. The prevalence of PTSD among direct victims of disasters was reported to be 30%–40%; the rate in rescue workers was 10%–20%. The prevalence of PTSD among police, fire, and emergency service workers ranged from 6%–32%. An overall prevalence rate of 4% for the general population, the rate in rescue/recovery occupations ranged from 5% to 32%, with the highest rate reported in search and rescue personnel (25%), firefighters (21%), and workers with no prior training for facing disaster. War is one of the most intense stressors known to man. Armed forces have a higher prevalence of depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol abuse and PTSD. High-risk children who have been abused or experienced natural disasters may have an even higher prevalence of PTSD than adults. Female gender, previous psychiatric problem, intensity and nature of exposure to the traumatic event, and lack of social support are known risk factors for work-related PTSD. Working with severely ill patients, journalists and their families, and audiences who witness serious trauma and war at higher risk of PTSD. The intensity of trauma, pre-trauma demographic variables, neuroticism and temperament traits are the best predictors of the severity of PTSD symptoms. About 84% of those suffering from PTSD may have comorbid conditions including alcohol or drug abuse; feeling shame, despair and hopeless; physical symptoms; employment problems; divorce; and violence which make life harder. PTSD may contribute to the development of many other disorders such as anxiety disorders, major
Content-Based Computer Simulation of a Networking Course: An Assessment
Giti Javidi,Ehsan Sheybani
Journal of Computers , 2008, DOI: 10.4304/jcp.3.3.64-72
Abstract: This paper presents a successful lab simulation experience to teach signal modulation and demodulation concepts in communication and computer networks to computer science and computer engineering students. Two sections of the same college course with a total of 80 subjects participated in this study. After receiving the same lecture at the same time, the subjects in each course were randomly split into two treatment groups. One group completed two laboratory experiments using the computerized simulation program, while the other completed the same two laboratory experiments using the traditional physical laboratory equipments. Upon the completion of the laboratory assignments, the performance instrument was individually administered to each student. The groups were compared on understanding the concepts, remembering the concepts, and displaying a positive attitude toward the treatment tools. Scores on a validated Concepts Test were collected once after the treatment and another time after three weeks in order to gain some insight on students’ knowledge retention. The validated Attitude Survey and qualitative study was administered at the completion of the treatment. The findings of this research indicate that conceptual simulation programs could be feasible substitute for hands-on exercises.
Cholecystitis and its Risk Factors among Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Daryoush Javidi,Masih Shafa
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of cholecystitis and its risk factors in patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG). In a cohort study, 574 patients undergoing CABG in Dr. Shariati Hospital from March 2003 to March 2004 were enrolled. In patients with cholecystitis signs and symptoms, ultrasonography and Liver Function Tests (LFTs) were performed. All the patients were followed for six months following the surgery. In 6 patients (1.06%) cholecystitis occurred, all during hospitalization. There were no significant differences in mean of age, BMI, CPB and cross clamp time, both sexes and patients with three vessels involvement and low cardiac output frequencies between patients with or without cholecystitis. In bivariate analysis, Frequency of patients with diabetes (83.33 vs. 12.16% with OR 36.10; 95% CI 4.16-313.67), hyperlipidemia (83.33 vs. 29.87% with OR 11.74; 95% CI 1.36-101.23) and postoperative biliary colic (83.33 vs. 3.58% with OR 70.54; 95% CI 8.03-619.53) were significantly higher in patients with cholecystitis than others. Also elevation of LFTs, Inotropic and IABP usage were significantly higher in patients with cholecystitis (All p = 0.01). When all variables were modeled using multivariable logistic regression analysis, a significant association was revealed between diabetes mellitus and post CABG cholecystitis (p = 0.01). All the patients with cholecystitis were treated by medical strategies including IV fluids, GI resting and broad spectrum antibiotics and no patients need surgical interventions. The presence of preoperative diabetes, hyperlipidemia, postoperative biliary colic, inotropic usage, elevation of LFTs and IABP could be significantly more frequent in patients with postoperative cholecystitis, although in multivariable analysis, diabetes mellitus was only detected as a significant risk factor of post CABG cholecystitis. Medical treatments for management of post-CABG cholecystitis carry acceptable results, advocating more studies.
Existence of solutions to quasilinear elliptic systems with combined critical Sobolev-Hardy terms
Nemat Nyamoradi,Mohamad Javidi
Electronic Journal of Differential Equations , 2012,
Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of multiple positive solutions to a singular elliptic system where the nonlinearity involves a combination of concave and convex terms. Using the effect of the coefficient of the critical nonlinearity, and a variational method, we establish the main result which is based on a compactness argument.
Existence of multiple positive solutions for fractional differential inclusions with m-point boundary conditions and two fractional orders
Nemat Nyamoradi,Mohamad Javidi
Electronic Journal of Differential Equations , 2012,
Abstract: We study boundary-value problems of nonlinear fractional differential equations and inclusions with m-point boundary conditions. Several results are obtained by using suitable fixed point theorems when the right hand side has convex or non convex values.
Active sequential hypothesis testing
Mohammad Naghshvar,Tara Javidi
Mathematics , 2012, DOI: 10.1214/13-AOS1144
Abstract: Consider a decision maker who is responsible to dynamically collect observations so as to enhance his information about an underlying phenomena of interest in a speedy manner while accounting for the penalty of wrong declaration. Due to the sequential nature of the problem, the decision maker relies on his current information state to adaptively select the most ``informative'' sensing action among the available ones. In this paper, using results in dynamic programming, lower bounds for the optimal total cost are established. The lower bounds characterize the fundamental limits on the maximum achievable information acquisition rate and the optimal reliability. Moreover, upper bounds are obtained via an analysis of two heuristic policies for dynamic selection of actions. It is shown that the first proposed heuristic achieves asymptotic optimality, where the notion of asymptotic optimality, due to Chernoff, implies that the relative difference between the total cost achieved by the proposed policy and the optimal total cost approaches zero as the penalty of wrong declaration (hence the number of collected samples) increases. The second heuristic is shown to achieve asymptotic optimality only in a limited setting such as the problem of a noisy dynamic search. However, by considering the dependency on the number of hypotheses, under a technical condition, this second heuristic is shown to achieve a nonzero information acquisition rate, establishing a lower bound for the maximum achievable rate and error exponent. In the case of a noisy dynamic search with size-independent noise, the obtained nonzero rate and error exponent are shown to be maximum.
Efficient Object Detection for High Resolution Images
Yongxi Lu,Tara Javidi
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Efficient generation of high-quality object proposals is an essential step in state-of-the-art object detection systems based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) features. Current object proposal algorithms are computationally inefficient in processing high resolution images containing small objects, which makes them the bottleneck in object detection systems. In this paper we present effective methods to detect objects for high resolution images. We combine two complementary strategies. The first approach is to predict bounding boxes based on adjacent visual features. The second approach uses high level image features to guide a two-step search process that adaptively focuses on regions that are likely to contain small objects. We extract features required for the two strategies by utilizing a pre-trained DCNN model known as AlexNet. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm by showing its performance on a high-resolution image subset of the SUN 2012 object detection dataset.
Sequentiality and Adaptivity Gains in Active Hypothesis Testing
Mohammad Naghshvar,Tara Javidi
Statistics , 2012, DOI: 10.1109/JSTSP.2013.2261279
Abstract: Consider a decision maker who is responsible to collect observations so as to enhance his information in a speedy manner about an underlying phenomena of interest. The policies under which the decision maker selects sensing actions can be categorized based on the following two factors: i) sequential vs. non-sequential; ii) adaptive vs. non-adaptive. Non-sequential policies collect a fixed number of observation samples and make the final decision afterwards; while under sequential policies, the sample size is not known initially and is determined by the observation outcomes. Under adaptive policies, the decision maker relies on the previous collected samples to select the next sensing action; while under non-adaptive policies, the actions are selected independent of the past observation outcomes. In this paper, performance bounds are provided for the policies in each category. Using these bounds, sequentiality gain and adaptivity gain, i.e., the gains of sequential and adaptive selection of actions are characterized.
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