Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99


Any time

2019 ( 3 )

2013 ( 5 )

2012 ( 23 )

2011 ( 7 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 65 matches for " LW Biruk "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /65
Display every page Item
Age Determination at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa University.
S Hailu, R Fikre, H Yohannes, A Daniel, LW Biruk
East and Central African Journal of Surgery , 2011,
Abstract: Background: African doctors, besides their enormous work load, are frequently involved in indirect clinical practices like age determination, disability evaluation and writing various kinds of certificates. This is a retrospective study aimed at assessing profile of subjects presenting for age determination. It determines different characteristics of subjects and the process of age determination. Age determination board/clinic of “Tikur-Anbessa” Specialized Hospital, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study from January 2008 to June 2010. Age is estimated at age determination board using medical and skeletal criteria’s by a committee consisting of physicians from internal medicine, radiology and orthopedic departments. All subjects were having elbow and wrist x-rays, sexual maturity assessment and dental examinations. The final age (also referred as “board-age”) is determined/assigned based on the consensus made between the three physicians. This document is signed and strictly/confidentially compiled by the head of outpatient department. Data was collected based on prepared questioner through retrieval of subjects’ records/documents. Results: A total of 976 subjects, with male predominance 67.7%, have been evaluated by the board in the two years. Almost all had stated age range 5-22 years. Majority’s stated age falls in the age group 9-15(66.1%). 92% of subjects claim they are below 18 years of age.838(85.9%) subjects are from Addis Ababa. The board decided that 461 (47.2%) were between 16 and 17 years of age. There was less agreement between stated age and board age with (Kappa) κ score of 0.147. Radiologic age and board age had excellent agreement with κ score of 0.976 Conclusion: Radiologic age is cornerstone of age determination in our circumstance. Age determination is crucial for prosecution of young population using skeletal and clinical method. Most subjects tend to lower their age, hence attention should be given for evidence based age determination.
Analysis of Rural Households Food Security in Western Ethiopia  [PDF]
Seid Sani, Biruk Kemaw
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.103019
Abstract: This study analyzed rural households’ food security and its determinants in western Ethiopia. The study used a primary data collected from 276 randomly selected households using interview schedule. In addition, focus group discussion (FGD) and key informants interview were also used to obtain a qualitative primary data. As to the method of data analysis, the study employed descriptive statistics (such as mean, frequency, range and percentage) and binary logit model (BLM). The finding of the study revealed that, in the study area, 59.06% of the sampled households were food insecure and 40.94% of them were food secure. Besides, the study indicated that 86.87% of the households were vulnerable to different shocks, risks, and seasonality’s and 41.67% of the households faced shortage of food. Moreover, the finding indicated that only 31.88% of the households were food self-sufficient from own production. Low productivity, climate related problems and inadequacy of cultivable land were identified as the top three main causes of food shortage and/or food self-insufficiency from own production. The estimated BLM pointed out that sex, age, access to irrigation, off-farm and non-farm income, input cost, access to credit and distance to market were significant in determining household’s food security status. Therefore, policies and actions directed towards improving households’ food security and reducing their vulnerability should focus on the aforementioned factors.
Acclimatization of in Vitro Propagated Pineapple (Ananas comosuss (L.), var. Smooth cayenne) Plantlets to ex Vitro Condition in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Ayelign Mengesha, Biruk Ayenew, Tewodros Tadesse
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.42042
Abstract: Pineapple (Ananas comosuss, var. Smooth cayenne), which is a popular tropical fruit, is propagated vegetatively. Conventional propagation alone does not provide clean and adequate planting material demanded in Ethiopia. Recently, in vitro multiplication has become a promising technique for large-scale production. However, the acclimatization to the external environment procedure impedes the efficiency, which needs carefully optimized acclimatization techniques. We report optimized acclimatization procedures following first- and second-stage hardening methods for in vitro pineapple plantlets. Primarily, Jiffy-7 peat pellet allowed growing plants vigorously and provided above 8% survival rate over soil mix. Nevertheless, in Ethiopia, soil mix is cheaper and locally accessible. The primarily acclimatized plantlets are needed to be hardened further for better establishment and survival in the field. Black polybag and polysleeve pots filled with soil mix were evaluated in the greenhouse. A significant difference was obtained between pots for number of roots and substrate weight. Polybags had higher root number than polysleeves and saved about 27% of substrates per plant, which is a reduction of 25% of total transportation cost. Hence, the soil mix and polybags were found to be preferable over substrates and pots, for subsequent in vitro pineapple acclimatization.
Accuracy of Physicians in Diagnosing HIV and AIDS-Related Death in the Adult Population of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tekebash Araya, Biruk Tensou, Gail Davey, Yemane Berhane
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.22012
Abstract: Background: The lack of cause of death information is the main challenge in monitoring the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing HIV and AIDS-related deaths in countries where the majority of deaths occur at home. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of physician reviewers of verbal autopsies in diagnosing HIV and AIDS-related deaths in the adult population of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. Methods: This study was done within the context of a burial surveillance system in Addis Ababa. Trained interviewers completed a standard verbal autopsy questionnaire and an independent panel of physicians reviewed the completed form to assign cause of death. Physicians' review was compared to a reference standard constructed based on prospectively collected HIV-serostatus and patients' hospital record. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated to validate the physicians' verbal autopsy diagnoses against reference standards. Results: Physicians accurately identified AIDS-related deaths with sensitivity and specificity of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.80 - 0.93) and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.64 - 0.87), respectively. Generally, there was high level of agreement (Cohen's Kappa Statistic (K > 0.6) between the first two physicians with some yearly variations. In 2008 and 2009 there was an almost perfect agreement (K > 0.80). Conclusion: This study demonstrated the agreement level between two independent physicians in diagnosing AIDS-related death is very high and thus using a single verbal autopsy coder is practical for programmatic purposes in countries where there is critical shortage of doctors.
Application of Optimal Control to the Epidemiology of Dengue Fever Transmission  [PDF]
Okey Oseloka Onyejekwe, Ayalnesh Tigabie, Biruk Ambachew, Abebe Alemu
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2019.71013
Abstract: In this paper, we build an epidemiological model to investigate the dynamics of the spread of dengue fever in human population. We apply optimal control theory via the Pontryagins Minimum Principle together with the Runge-Kutta solution technique to a simple SEIRS disease model. Controls representing education and drug therapy treatment are incorporated to reduce the latently infected and actively infected individual populations. The overall thrust is the minimization of the spread of the disease in a population by adopting an optimization technique as a guideline.
Epidemiological Study and Optimal Control for Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Okey Oseloka Onyejekwe, Abebe Alemu, Biruk Ambachew, Ayalnesh Tigabie
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2019.91002
Abstract: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an infectious, fatal skin disease of cattle caused by a virus of the family Poxviridae (genus Capripox). In addition, severely affected animals suffer from reduced weight, cessation of milk production and infertility. The aim of this paper is to computationally apply epidemiological (SEIR) and optimal control (OC) techniques to study the transmission and the impact of vaccination on LSD. Based on our numerical experiments, we were able to deduce the overall impact of the optimal strategy adopted for this study on the cattle population for vaccination rates within the range of 0 v 0.85. It is shown that the vaccination as a control strategy significantly reduced the effects of LSD on the cattle population if properly managed and that an optimal performance of the control strategy adopted hererin is achieved at an approximate value of v = 0.6.
The distribution of inherent phosphorus in fifteen water treatment residues from South Africa
M Norris, LW Titshall
Water SA , 2012,
Abstract: Water treatment residues (WTR), the by-products of the production of potable water, are chemically benign, inorganic materials which are suitable for disposal by land application, though they are frequently reported to have high phosphorus (P) sorption capacities. An understanding of the distribution of inherent P in WTR is, however, required, if sorption-desorption processes are to be correctly interpreted. The aim of this investigation was to characterise the chemical properties relevant to P-sorption/desorption processes of 15 South African WTR and to determine the inherent distribution of P within the WTR using a chemical fractionation procedure. The pH, exchangeable Ca and organic carbon content ranged from 4.77 to 8.37, 238 to 8 980 mg·kg-1 and 0.50 to 11.6 g·100 g-1, respectively. Dithionate, oxalate and pyrophosphate extractable Al fractions ranged from 741 to 96 375, 1 980 to 82 947 and 130 to 37 200 mg·kg-1, respectively, and dithionate, oxalate and pyrophosphate extractable Fe ranged from 441 to 15 288, 3 865 to 140 569 and 230 to 90 000 mg·kg-1, respectively. Mechanisms of P-retention are residue specific, being dependent on the chemical properties of the WTR. Elevated Ca and amorphous Al and Fe concentrations did, nevertheless, suggest that all residues had the capacity to adsorb high amounts of P and to retain this P in forms unavailable for plant uptake.
Characterisation of some South African water treatment residues and implications for land application
LW Titshall, JC Hughes
Water SA , 2005,
Abstract: Land application of water treatment residue (WTR) the by-product from the production of potable water, is becoming the preferred method of disposal, as there are environmental concerns and increasingly high costs associated with other disposal options. However, before WTR can be applied to land, consideration needs to be given to their chemical and physical characteristics to determine potential impacts. Six WTR samples were obtained from five South African water treatment facilities (Faure Water Treatment Plant (two samples), Rand Water, Umgeni Water, Amatola Water and Midvaal Water Company). The Rand Water WTR was a CaO, FeCl3, long-chain organic polymer (LCP) residue with activated silica and CO2 being added. The Umgeni and Amatola Water WTRs were lime and LCP residues. The Midvaal Water WTR was an Al2(SO4)3.nH20, FeCl3, lime and LCP residue and the Faure WTRs were Fe2(SO4)3, activated charcoal, lime and LCP residues. These WTR samples were analysed for some physical (particle size distribution, particle density and plant available water) and chemical attributes (pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, calcium carbonate equivalence, exchangeable acidity, extractable bases and metal cations, total and plant available nutrients, total elemental analysis and metal fractionation) and mineralogical properties, and their potential for application to land considered. The WTRs tended to be neutral to alkaline in pH, with low electrical conductivity. Generally, amounts of N, P and K were low, but some of the WTRs showed potential to supply other plant nutrients (Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu and Fe). Their physical characteristics were variable, showing a wide range in particle size distribution as well as plant available water. Heavy metal concentrations tended to be low, but Mn was elevated in some WTRs, especially in the Faure WTRs, which may lead to plant growth problems. Land application of these WTRs appears to be a feasible disposal option, but currently they are regulated by the ‘minimum requirements for disposal of hazardous waste\'. Delisting would firstly be required for land application and if then permitted by legislation, the application rates would need to be based on existing soil conditions, the characteristics of a particular WTR, and the proposed land use. Water SA Vol.31 (3) 2005: pp.299-308
Malaysian Family Physician , 2008,
Biruk Sintayehu*, Kaleab Asres and Avijit Mazumder
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: In Ethiopian traditional medicine, the aqueous decoction of the leaves of Cineraria abyssinica Sch. Bip. exA. Rich (Asteraceae) is used for treatments of various ailments including diarrhea, however, to date, there appear to have been no reports on the phytochemistry and the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The main aim of this study was, therefore, to carry out preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities on leaf extracts of C. abyssinica. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the aqueous and 80% methanolic crude extracts of the leaves of C. abyssinica were investigated against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by agar disc diffusion method. Both the aqueous and 80% methanolic extracts showed various degrees of potent antibacterial activities comparable to the standard drug ciprofloxacin against all of the bacteria tested except Bacillus species. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, terpenoids and phytosterols. The acute toxicity studies showed the nontoxic nature of the plant up to 3 g/kg. Therefore, the present study revealed for the first time the presence of antimicrobial phytochemicals in the leaves of C. abyssinica that scientifically validated the traditional use and its great potential to be used for treatment of infectious diarrhea.
Page 1 /65
Display every page Item

Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.