Abstract:
Pregnancy
has been considered a special period with cognitive defect and unstable
emotion. However, physiological and psychological changes jointly reshape the
brain of pregnant women, which makes them more patient and prefer future
outcomes. Specifically, they become more future-orientated, self-controlled and
more positive to the future. These phenomena can be accounted for evolution
perspective and construal level theory. Furthermore, we recommend that future
researches pay attention to the effect of pregnancy on intertemporal choice in
different domains and the relevant influence of expectant fathers on delay
discounting.

Abstract:
When the Grover’s algorithm is applied to search an unordered database, the probability of success usually decreases with the increase of marked items. To address this phenomenon, a fixed-phase quantum search algorithm with more flexible behavior is proposed. In proposed algorithm, the phase shifts can be fixed at the different values to meet the needs of different practical problems. If research requires a relatively rapid speed, the value of the phase shifts should be appropriately increased, if search requires a higher success probability, the value of the phase shifts should be appropriately decreased. When the phase shifts are fixed at , the success probability of at least 99.38% can be obtained in iterations.

A method is introduced to stabilize unstable discrete
systems, which does not require any adjustable control parameters of the
system. 2-dimension discrete Fold system and 3-dimension discrete hyperchaotic
system are stabilized to fixed points respectively. Numerical simulations are
then provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed chaos
and hyperchaos controlling scheme.

Abstract:
Generating and utilizing are the two sources of the information risk, reflecting the quality of financial reporting and investors’ information interpreting ability respectively. Using accrual quality to represent the financial reporting quality and the earnings transparency to represent investors’ information interpreting ability, we examine the correlation among them. By combining the generating and utilizing steps of information, we construct a two-dimensional information risk factor, which equals the excess return of portfolios in high-risk areas subtract that in low-risk areas. Then, taking the Fama-MacBeth two-stage cross-sectional regression procedure, we test whether the information risk factor is a pricing factor with individual stocks and industry portfolios respectively, and the empirical results support the point that information risk is priced by market.

Characteristic analysis of
transient electromagnetic disturbance data is very important. In this paper, the
time-domain and frequency-domain characteristics of transient electromagnetic
disturbance caused by switching operations in substations are analyzed. Two
methods are adopted in time-domain analysis. One method is histogram and the
other one is normality test. An appropriate procedure for the normality test is
proposed. Furthermore, the method used in frequency- domain analysis is to obtain
overall envelope. These statistical characteristic analysis methods are showed
to be of great value in analyses of the measured samples. The simulation
results showed that these methods are effective.

Abstract:
Environmental
issues in the process of rapid urbanization are critical to the sustainability
of China. Compact cities, characterized by relative high density, mixed
land-use and pedestrian-oriented habitation, have been proposed as one solution
for sustainable urban planning. However, given the fact that Chinese cities are
characterized by high population densities, the applicability of a more compact
solution to expanding cities in China remains questionable. Essential to the
decision-making is a deeper understanding about the relationship between urban
compactness and the sustainable environment of the cities. This study is
proposed for an evaluation about the urbanization and urban development in
China’s context from environmental perspective, especially with respect to
atmospheric environment, water resources, waste pollution, and noise problems.

A method of cooperative relay selection based on network coding security is proposed for relay selection problem of cooperative communication system security in networked multi-relay scenarios, which is different from the existing relay node selection method. The algorithm not only merged with timestamp and homomorphic signature to construct the node degree of safety to find reliable relay, at the same time to considers the received signal to noise ratio at all relay nodes value and the channel gain to the source node. The simulation results show that the proposed method can improve the achievable rate of the destination node and reduce the outage probability on the basis of guaranteeing the safety of the relay node.

Abstract:
The pyramid structure of the SOEs along with the process of continuous reform has significantly affected the business activities and the decision-making behaviors of enterprises. Based on the data from 2007 to 2015, the paper validates the influence of the length of the control chain of SOEs on the R & D investment behavior of enterprises. Through analysis, we find that, with the control chain being lengthened, it suggests the significant decrease in R & D investment, but this correlation is not obvious for the central SOEs. Further research finds that, although there is no significant effect between the length of the control chain of the central SOEs and the R & D investment in the case of the whole sample, when the control layer is greater than median, the elongation of the control chain significantly inhibits the R & D investment of central SOEs and local SOEs. What’ s more, we find that the negative correlation of the number of control layers and R & D investment for local SOEs is only significant when the agent cost is lower.

Abstract:
A new mathematical model for elucidating neutrino
mass from beta decay is proposed. It is based upon the solutions of transformed
Fredholm and Abel integral equations. In principle, theoretical beta-particle
spectra can consist of several neutrino-mass eigenstates. Integration of the
beta spectrum with a normalized instrumental response function results in the
Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. This equation is then transformed
to yield a solution in a form of superposition of Heaviside step-functions, one
for each neutrino mass eigenstate. A series expansion leading to matrix linear
equations is then derived to solve the transformed Fredholm equation. Another
approach is derived when the theoretical beta spectrum is obtained by a
separate deconvolution of the observed spectrum. It is then proven that the
transformed Fredholm equation reduces to the Abel integral equation. The Abel
equation has a general integral solution, which is proven in this work by using
a specific equation for the beta spectrum. Several examples of numerical solutions
of the Abel equation are provided, which show a fractional sensitivity of about
10^{-3}？for subtle neutrino
eigenstate searches and can distinguish from the beta-spectrum discrepancies,
such as minute shape and energy nonlinearities.

Abstract:
In this paper, we propose and construct an observer design based on a Self-Recurrent Consequent-Part Fuzzy Wavelet Neural Network (SRCPFWNN) for a class of nonlinear system. We use a Self-Recurrent Wavelet Neural Network (SRWNN) to construct a self-recurrent consequent part for each rule of the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) model in the SRCPFWNN and analyze the structure of the fuzzy wavelet neural network model. Based on the Direct Adaptive Control Theory (DACT) and a back propagation-based learning algorithm, all parameters of the consequent parts are updated online in the SRCPFWNN. On this basis, we propose a design method using an adaptive state observer based on an SRCPFWNN for nonlinear systems. Using the Lyapunov function, we then prove the stability of this observer design method. Our simulation results confirm that the observer can accurately and quickly estimate the state values of the system.