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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 208284 matches for " L Mwamakamba "
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Public health and food safety in the WHO African region
P Mensah, L Mwamakamba, C Mohamed, D Nsue-Milang
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Contaminated food continues to cause numerous devastating outbreaks in the African Region. In Africa, a large proportion of ready-to-eat foods are sold by the informal sector, especially as street foods. The hygienic aspects of vending operations and the safety of these foods are problematic for food safety regulators. The global food crisis has worsened an already precarious food situation because when food is in short supply people are more concerned about satisfying hunger than the safety of the food. The aetiological agents include various pathogenic bacteria, parasites and viruses. Chemical contaminants are becoming increasingly important. Human factors including: unhygienic practices and deliberate contamination, environmental factors, such as unsafe water, unsafe waste disposal and exposure of food to insects and dust,undercooked food, and prolonged storage of cooked food without refrigeration are the main predisposing factors. WHO’s position is that food safety must be recognised as a public health function and access to safe food as a basic human right. The work of WHO in food safety is in line with its core functions and various global and regional commitments, especially the document entitled “Food Safety and Health: A Strategy for the WHO African Region (AFR/RC57/4) adopted in 2007. WHO has been supporting countries to strengthen food safety systems and partnerships and advocacy; to develop evidence-based food safety policies; strengthen laboratory capacity for foodborne disease surveillance; enhance participation of countries in the standard-setting activities of the Codex Alimentarius Commission; and strengthen food safety education using the WHO Five Keys to Safer Food . The implementation of the Regional Food Safety Strategy adopts a holistic farm-to-fork approach which addresses the entire food control system. Much has been achieved since the adoption of the document Food Safety and health: A Strategy for the WHO African Region, but commitment to food safety still remains low due to competing priorities. In particular, countries are now shifting away from fragmented food control implementation towards multi-agency and coordinated as well as single agency systems. The Codex Trust Fund has facilitated participation and capacity building for Codex work. Although funding for the Food Safety Programme has increased as compared to the levels in 2002, this remains inadequate. WHO will continue to support countries to strengthen food safety systems in line with its core functions and as enshrined in the regional food safety strategy.
Strengthening foodborne diseases surveillance in the WHO African region: An essential need for disease control and food safety assurance
P Mensah, L Mwamakamba, S Kariuki, MC Fonkoua, A Aidara-Kane
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Several devastating outbreaks of foodborne diseases have been reported in the African region including acute aflatoxicosis in Kenya in 2004 and bromide poisoning in Angola in 2007. There are concerns about transmission of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria and pesticide residues in foods. The globalization of the food trade which could increase the spread of food contaminants internationally is an emerging issue. The new International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) cover events of international importance including contaminated food and outbreaks of foodborne disease. The IHR (2005) and other international as well as regional agreements require Member States to strengthen surveillance systems including surveillance for foodborne diseases. WHO has been supporting countries to strengthen foodborne disease surveillance since 2003. This paper reports on the work of WHO and partners in the area of foodborne disease surveillance, the challenges and opportunities and provides perspectives for the area of its work. The paper shows that laboratory-based surveillance is the preferred system for foodborne disease surveillance since it allows early detection of outbreak strains and identification of risk factors with laboratory services as the cornerstone. Foodborne disease surveillance has been included in the revised Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) Strategy and there are guidelines for use by countries. WHO in collaboration with partners, especially the Global Food Infections Network (GFN), has been supporting countries to strengthen national analytical capacity for foodborne disease surveillance and research. Training for countries to detect, control and prevent foodborne and other enteric infections from farm to table has been conducted. The training for microbiologists and epidemiologists from public health, veterinary and food sectors involved in isolation, identification and typing of Salmonella sp, Campylobacter sp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio sp. and Shigella from human and food samples have been carried out. Research into specific topics in microbiology and chemical contaminants has been conducted. Three institutions in Cameroun, Mali and Nigeria have been designated as centres of excellence for chemical contaminants. Despite these significant achievements, a number of challenges remain. Most food safety programmes and food safety systems remain fragmented resulting in duplication of efforts and inefficient use of resources; and most laboratories in the African Region are poorly resourced. In countries where facilities exist, there is underutilization and lack of synergy among laboratories. Countries should, therefore, conduct audits of existing laboratories to determine their strengths and weaknesses and strategize as appropriate. It is also imperative to continue to strengthen partnerships and forge new ones and increase resources for food safety, in general, and for foodborne disease surveillance, in particular, and conti
Developing and maintaining national food safety control systems: Experiences from the WHO African region
L Mwamakamba, P Mensah, K Takyiwa, J Darkwah-Odame, A Jallow, F Maiga
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: The establishment of effective food safety systems is pivotal to ensuring the safety of the national food supply as well as food products for regional and international trade. The development, structure and implementation of modern food safety systems have been driven over the years by a number of developments. These developments include: a reorientation of quality assurance protocols; emphasis on the development of integrated and holistic food safety systems with a farm-to-table approach; increased recognition of the respective roles of the different stakeholders along the food chain; increased food trade coupled with obligations under trade agreements; and advances in the control of foodborne hazards. At its core, a modern food safety system includes enabling food laws, policies, regulations and standards; mechanisms for coordination; operational food inspection and laboratory services as well as national information, education and communication programmes. While progress has been made in some countries in the WHO African Region at modernizing their food safety systems, many others are still grappling with the basics for development of effective food control systems. The traditional food control systems in a number of African countries do not provide the concerned agencies with a clear mandate and authority to prevent food safety problems. Effective food control in a number of these countries is undermined by a number of challenges including limited awareness about food safety, inadequate enabling policy, outdated legislation and regulations; inadequate coordination; and inadequate capacity and resources for food safety. This paper reviews the components of a modern national food safety control system and examines efforts at strengthening national food safety control systems in the African Region. It includes experiences from countries that have made efforts at strengthening their national food safety control systems in view of current developments. The paper further discusses some of the challenges of food control systems in the Region and prospects for improvements. It concludes by suggesting the way forward for improving national food safety control systems in the Region.
The WHO five keys to safer food: A tool for food safety health promotion
L Mwamakamba, P Mensah, F Fontannaz-Aujoulat, M Hlabana, F Maiga, F Bangoura, C Mohamed, L Ingenbleek
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Foodborne diseases continue to be significant causes of morbidity and mortality within the African Region. Many cases of foodborne disease occur due to basic errors in food preparation or handling either in food service establishments or at home. Educating food handlers, including consumers, therefore, can significantly reduce the chances of contracting food-borne illnesses and the effects of outbreaks, as well as improve public health. Food safety education programmes need to particularly target certain segments of the population who, either directly have a role in food preparation and/or have increased vulnerability to foodborne diseases. In response to the increasing need to educate food handlers, including consumers about their responsibilities for assuring the safety of food, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a health promotion campaign around five simple rules, "the five keys to safer food" to help ensure food safety during food handling and preparation. The core messages of the WHO five keys to safer food are: keep clean; separate raw and cooked; cook thoroughly; keep food at safe temperatures; and use safe water and raw materials. These messages have been adapted to different target audiences and settings such as healthy food markets; emergency situations such as prevention of outbreaks; food safety for travellers; preparation of mass gathering events; streetvended foods; training of women; and growing of safer fruits and vegetables. Educational projects targeting different types of food handlers, high-risk groups and settings are being implemented in several countries in the African Region. This article discusses how the WHO five keys to safer food have been used as a tool for food safety education. Experiences of selected countries in the African Region in the promotion of the WHO five keys to safer food in different settings are presented. It further discusses opportunities and future perspectives in the promotion of the WHO five keys to safer food in the African Region.
Computing Reachable Sets as Capture-Viability Kernels in Reverse Time  [PDF]
No?l Bonneuil
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.311219
Abstract: The set SF(x0;T) of states y reachable from a given state x0 at time T under a set-valued dynamic x’(t)∈F(x (t)) and under constraints x(t)∈K where K is a closed set, is also the capture-viability kernel of x0 at T in reverse time of the target {x0} while remaining in K. In dimension up to three, Saint-Pierre’s viability algorithm is well-adapted; for higher dimensions, Bonneuil’s viability algorithm is better suited. It is used on a large-dimensional example.
Three Dimensional Evolution of SN 1987A in a Self-Gravitating Disk  [PDF]
L. Zaninetti
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.32010
Abstract:

The introduction of an exponential or power law gradient in the interstellar medium (ISM) allows to produce an asymmetric evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) when the framework of the thin layer approximation is adopted. Unfortunately both the exponential and power law gradients for the ISM do not have a well defined physical meaning. The physics conversely is well represented by an isothermal self-gravitating disk of particles whose velocity is everywhere Maxwellian. We derived a law of motion in the framework of the thin layer approximation with a control parameter of the swept mass. The photon’s losses, which are often neglected in the thin layer approximation, are modeled trough velocity dependence. The developed framework is applied to SNR 1987A and the three observed rings are simulated.

The Luminosity Function of Galaxies as Modeled by a Left Truncated Beta Distribution  [PDF]
L. Zaninetti
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.41013
Abstract: A first new luminosity function of galaxies can be built starting from a left truncated beta probability density function, which is characterized by four parameters. In the astrophysical conversion, the number of parameters increases by one, due to the addition of the overall density of galaxies. A second new galaxy luminosity function is built starting from a left truncated beta probability for the mass of galaxies once a simple nonlinear relationship between mass and luminosity is assumed; in this case the number of parameters is six because the overall density of galaxies and a parameter that regulates mass and luminosity are added. The two new galaxy luminosity functions with finite boundaries were tested on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in five different bands; the results produce a better fit than the Schechter luminosity function in two of the five bands considered. A modified Schechter luminosity function with four parameters has been also analyzed.
On the Dark Matter’s Halo Theoretical Description  [PDF]
L. M. L. M. Chechin
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.35052
Abstract: We argued that the standard field scalar potential couldn’t be widely used for getting the adequate galaxies’ curve lines and determining the profiles of dark matter their halo. For discovering the global properties of scalar fields that can describe the observable characteristics of dark matter on the cosmological space and time scales, we propose the simplest form of central symmetric potential celestial-mechanical type, i.e. U(φ) = –μ/φ. It was shown that this potential allows get rather satisfactorily dark matter profiles and rotational curves lines for dwarf galaxies. The good agreement with some previous results, based on the N-body simulation method, was pointed out. A new possibility of dwarf galaxies’ masses estimation was given, also.
Analytical Approximation to the Dynamics of a Binary Stars System with Time Depending Mass Variation  [PDF]
Gustavo V. López, Elkin L. López
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2018.63053
Abstract: We study the classical dynamics of binary stars when there is an interchange of mass between them. Assuming that one of the stars is more massive than others, the dynamics of the lighter one is analyzed as a function of its time depending mass variation. Within our approximations and models for mass transference, we obtain a general result which establishes that if the lightest star looses mass, its period increases. If the lightest star wins mass, its period decreases.
Quantization and Stable Attractors in a DissipativeOrbital Motion  [PDF]
Daniel L. Nascimento, Antonio L. A. Fonseca
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.24030
Abstract: We present a method for determining the motion of an electron in a hydrogen atom, which starts from a field Lagrangean foundation for non-conservative systems that can exhibit chaotic behavior. As a consequence, the problem of the formation of the atom becomes the problem of finding the possible stable orbital attractors and the associated transition paths through which the electron mechanical energy varies continuously until a stable energy state is reached.
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