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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20963 matches for " Kyun-Hwan Kim "
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Hepatitis B Virus e Antigen Variants
Tong Shuping,Kim Kyun-Hwan,Chante Charles,Wands Jack
International Journal of Medical Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: More than 300 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Considering the very short generation time for a virus, and the high error rate associated with the reverse transcription step of HBV replication, decades of HBV infection are probably equivalent to million years of human evolution. The most important selective force during the natural course of HBV infection appears to be the immune response. The development of anti-HBe antibody in hepatitis B patients usually correlates with reduction of HBV viremia. As a consequence, escape mutants of anti-HBe are selected. The core promoter mutants express less HBe antigen (HBeAg) through transcriptional down regulation, while precore mutants express truncated products. We recently identified additional mutations that modulate HBeAg translation initiation, proteolytic cleavage, and secondary structure maintenance through a disulfide bond. The core promoter mutants have been associated with the development of fulminant hepatitis during acute infection and liver cancer during chronic infection. Consistent with their enhanced pathogenicity, core promoter mutants were found to replicate at up to 10-fold higher levels in transfected human hepatoma cells than the wild-type virus. Moreover, some core promoter mutants are impaired in virion secretion due to missense mutations in the envelope gene. These virological properties may help explain enhanced pathogenicity of core promoter mutants in vivo.
Discovery and Development of Anti-HBV Agents and Their Resistance
Kyun-Hwan Kim,Nam Doo Kim,Baik-Lin Seong
Molecules , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/molecules15095878
Abstract: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a prime cause of liver diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The current drugs clinically available are nucleot(s)ide analogues that inhibit viral reverse transcriptase activity. Most drugs of this class are reported to have viral resistance with breakthrough. Recent advances in methods for in silico virtual screening of chemical libraries, together with a better understanding of the resistance mechanisms of existing drugs have expedited the discovery and development of novel anti-viral drugs. This review summarizes the current status of knowledge about and viral resistance of HBV drugs, approaches for the development of novel drugs as well as new viral and host targets for future drugs.
Clonal evolution of hepatitis B virus polymerase gene mutations during lamivudine-adefovir combination treatment
Soon Young Ko,Byung Kook Kim,So Young Kwon,Kyun-Hwan Kim
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i44.6437
Abstract: AIM: To identify hepatitis B virus polymerase gene mutations during antiviral therapy using lamivudine-adefovir sequential monotherapy followed by lamivudine-adefovir combination therapy. METHODS: The patient cohort included four adult chronic hepatitis B patients who had undergone sequential monotherapy, first with lamivudine (LMV) and then, after developing viral breakthrough, with adefovir (ADV) therapy. All of the patients had non-response or viral breakthrough after LMV-ADV sequential monotherapy, which resulted in the switching of their antiviral regimen to LMV-ADV combination therapy. Eleven serum samples from the four patients who showed non-response to rescue LMV-ADV combination therapy were collected sequentially at a time before the antiviral treatment and then during the LMV monotherapy, ADV monotherapy, and LMV-ADV combination therapy. For the genotypic analysis, the whole 1310-bp polymerase gene region was amplified, cloned and sequenced. RESULTS: All patients had been previously treated with 100 mg of LMV once daily for a 15- to 26-mo period. The emergence of resistance mutations to LMV, such as rtM204V/I and/or rtL180M, were found in all patients. Their antiviral regimens were switched to ADV monotherapy as the second line treatment. All patients had viral breakthrough or non-response after the LMV-ADV sequential monotherapy. ADV-resistant mutations were detected after 13 to 19 mo of LMV-ADV sequential monotherapy. The rtA181V/T mutations were predominantly identified during the ADV treatment in the LMV-resistant patients. Twenty-seven of 38 clones were combined with an amino acid change at rt181; three clones had mutations in rt236 and one clone had a combined mutation. The rtA181V/T mutations were not suppressed by the LMV-ADV combination therapy. Thirty-nine of 64 clones showed an rtA181V/T mutation and six clones showed combined mutations in rt181 and rt236. Mutations in rt204 re-emerged during the combination treatment. The rt181 and rt204 mutations did not co-exist in one clone. CONCLUSION: Add-on lamivudine therapy with adefovir for adefovir resistance may not suppress the pre-existing adefovir-resistant mutation that develops during lamivudine-adefovir sequential monotherapy.
HBx-Induced NF-κB Signaling in Liver Cells Is Potentially Mediated by the Ternary Complex of HBx with p22-FLIP and NEMO
Keo-Heun Lim, Hyo Sun Choi, Yong Kwang Park, Eun-Sook Park, Gu Choul Shin, Doo Hyun Kim, Sung Hyun Ahn, Kyun-Hwan Kim
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057331
Abstract: Sustained activation of NF-κB is one of the causative factors for various liver diseases, including liver inflammation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been known that activating the NF-κB signal by hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is implicated in the development of HCC. However, despite numerous studies on HBx-induced NF-κB activation, the detailed mechanisms still remain unsolved. Recently, p22-FLIP, a cleavage product of c-FLIPL, has been reported to induce NF-κB activation through interaction with the IκB kinase (IKK) complex in primary immune cells. Since our previous report on the interaction of HBx with c-FLIPL, we explored whether p22-FLIP is involved in the modulation of HBx function. First, we identified the expression of endogenous p22-FLIP in liver cells. NF-κB reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that the expression of p22-FLIP synergistically enhances HBx-induced NF-κB activation. Moreover, we found that HBx physically interacts with p22-FLIP and NEMO and potentially forms a ternary complex. Knock-down of c-FLIP leading to the downregulation of p22-FLIP showed that endogenous p22-FLIP is involved in HBx-induced NF-κB activation, and the formation of a ternary complex is necessary to activate NF-κB signaling. In conclusion, we showed a novel mechanism of HBx-induced NF-κB activation in which ternary complex formation is involved among HBx, p22-FLIP and NEMO. Our findings will extend the understanding of HBx-induced NF-κB activation and provide a new target for intervention in HBV-associated liver diseases and in the development of HCC.
RPS3a Over-Expressed in HBV-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma Enhances the HBx-Induced NF-κB Signaling via Its Novel Chaperoning Function
Keo-Heun Lim, Kyun-Hwan Kim, Seong Il Choi, Eun-Sook Park, Seung Hwa Park, Kisun Ryu, Yong Kwang Park, So Young Kwon, Sung-Il Yang, Han Chu Lee, In-Kyung Sung, Baik L. Seong
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022258
Abstract: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is known to play a key role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several cellular proteins have been reported to be over-expressed in HBV-associated HCC tissues, but their role in the HBV-mediated oncogenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we explored the effect of the over-expressed cellular protein, a ribosomal protein S3a (RPS3a), on the HBx-induced NF-κB signaling as a critical step for HCC development. The enhancement of HBx-induced NF-κB signaling by RPS3a was investigated by its ability to translocate NF-κB (p65) into the nucleus and the knock-down analysis of RPS3a. Notably, further study revealed that the enhancement of NF-κB by RPS3a is mediated by its novel chaperoning activity toward physiological HBx. The over-expression of RPS3a significantly increased the solubility of highly aggregation-prone HBx. This chaperoning function of RPS3a for HBx is closely correlated with the enhanced NF-κB activity by RPS3a. In addition, the mutational study of RPS3a showed that its N-terminal domain (1–50 amino acids) is important for the chaperoning function and interaction with HBx. The results suggest that RPS3a, via extra-ribosomal chaperoning function for HBx, contributes to virally induced oncogenesis by enhancing HBx-induced NF-κB signaling pathway.
Host Defense Mechanism-Based Rational Design of Live Vaccine
Yo Han Jang, Young Ho Byun, Kwang-Hee Lee, Eun-Sook Park, Yun Ha Lee, Yoon-Jae Lee, Jinhee Lee, Kyun-Hwan Kim, Baik Lin Seong
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075043
Abstract: Live attenuated vaccine (LAV), mimicking natural infection, provides an excellent protection against microbial infection. The development of LAV, however, still remains highly empirical and the rational design of clinically useful LAV is scarcely available. Apoptosis and caspase activation are general host antiviral responses in virus-infected cells. Utilizing these tightly regulated host defense mechanisms, we present a novel apoptosis-triggered attenuation of viral virulence as a rational design of live attenuated vaccine with desired levels of safety, efficacy, and productivity. Mutant influenza viruses carrying caspase recognition motifs in viral NP and the interferon-antagonist NS1 proteins were highly attenuated both in vitro and in vivo by caspase-mediated cleavage of those proteins in infected cells. Both viral replication and interferon-resistance were substantially reduced, resulting in a marked attenuation of virulence of the virus. Despite pronounced attenuation, the viruses demonstrated high growth phenotype in embryonated eggs at lower temperature, ensuring its productivity. A single dose vaccination with the mutant virus elicited high levels of systemic and mucosal antibody responses and provided complete protection against both homologous and heterologous lethal challenges in mouse model. While providing a practical means to generate seasonal or pandemic influenza live vaccines, the sensitization of viral proteins to pathogen-triggered apoptotic signals presents a potentially universal, mechanism-based rational design of live vaccines against many viral infections.
Protein Solubility and Folding Enhancement by Interaction with RNA
Seong Il Choi, Kyoung Sim Han, Chul Woo Kim, Ki-Sun Ryu, Byung Hee Kim, Kyun-Hwan Kim, Seo-Il Kim, Tae Hyun Kang, Hang-Cheol Shin, Keo-Heun Lim, Hyo Kyung Kim, Jeong-Min Hyun, Baik L. Seong
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002677
Abstract: While basic mechanisms of several major molecular chaperones are well understood, this machinery has been known to be involved in folding of only limited number of proteins inside the cells. Here, we report a chaperone type of protein folding facilitated by interaction with RNA. When an RNA-binding module is placed at the N-terminus of aggregation-prone target proteins, this module, upon binding with RNA, further promotes the solubility of passenger proteins, potentially leading to enhancement of proper protein folding. Studies on in vitro refolding in the presence of RNA, coexpression of RNA molecules in vivo and the mutants with impaired RNA binding ability suggests that RNA can exert chaperoning effect on their bound proteins. The results suggest that RNA binding could affect the overall kinetic network of protein folding pathway in favor of productive folding over off-pathway aggregation. In addition, the RNA binding-mediated solubility enhancement is extremely robust for increasing soluble yield of passenger proteins and could be usefully implemented for high-throughput protein expression for functional and structural genomic research initiatives. The RNA-mediated chaperone type presented here would give new insights into de novo folding in vivo.
Joo Hwan Cha,Young Hee Kim,Jae Kyun Lee,Yong Seo Cho
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2012, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811054730
Abstract: In the title compound, C21H21NO6, each of the cyclohexenone rings adopts a half-chair conformation. Each of the pairs of hydroxy and carbonyl O atoms are oriented to allow for the formation of intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, which are typical of xanthene derivatives.
Fabrication of Photofunctional Nanoporous Membrane and Its Photoinactivation Effect of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus
Kang-Kyun Wang,Bong-Jin Kim,Si-Hwan Ko,Dong Hoon Choi,Yong-Rok Kim
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/454507
Abstract: Fabrication and photophysical study of photofunctional nanoporous alumina membrane (PNAM) were performed, and its application of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) was investigated. Nanoporous alumina membrane (NAM) was fabricated by two-step aluminium anodic oxidation process. Surface of the fabricated NAM was modified with organo-silane agent to induce covalent bonding between NAM and a photosensitizer (PtCP: [5,10,15-triphenyl-20-(4-methoxycarbonylphenyl)-porphyrin] platinum). PtCP was covalently bonded to the surface of the modified NAM by nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction process. The morphology and the photophysical properties of the fabricated PNAM were confirmed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), steady-state spectroscopies, and nanosecond laser-induced time-resolved spectroscopy. For the efficacy study of PNAM in PACT, an enveloped animal virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), was utilized as a target organism. Antiviral effect of the PNAM-PACT was measured by the extent of suppression of plaque-forming units (PFU) after the light irradiation. In the cultures inoculated with PACT-treated VSV, the suppression of PFU was prominent, which demonstrates that PNAM is a potential bio clean-up tool.
Breast Cancer Diagnosis Using a Microfluidic Multiplexed Immunohistochemistry Platform
Minseok S. Kim,Taemin Kim,Sun-Young Kong,Soim Kwon,Chae Yun Bae,Jaekyu Choi,Chul Hwan Kim,Eun Sook Lee,Je-Kyun Park
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010441
Abstract: Biomarkers play a key role in risk assessment, assessing treatment response, and detecting recurrence and the investigation of multiple biomarkers may also prove useful in accurate prediction and prognosis of cancers. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been a major diagnostic tool to identify therapeutic biomarkers and to subclassify breast cancer patients. However, there is no suitable IHC platform for multiplex assay toward personalized cancer therapy. Here, we report a microfluidics-based multiplexed IHC (MMIHC) platform that significantly improves IHC performance in reduction of time and tissue consumption, quantification, consistency, sensitivity, specificity and cost-effectiveness.
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