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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9326 matches for " Kyong Soo Park "
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Effects of Chemosignals from Sad Tears and Postprandial Plasma on Appetite and Food Intake in Humans
Tae Jung Oh, Min Young Kim, Kyong Soo Park, Young Min Cho
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042352
Abstract: Chemosignals from human body fluids may modulate biological functions in humans. The objective of this study was to examine whether chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma modulate appetite. We obtained fasting and postprandial plasma from male participants and sad tears and saline, which was trickled below the eyelids, from female volunteers. These samples were then randomly distributed to male participants to sniff with a band-aid containing 100 μl of each fluid on four consecutive days in a double-blind fashion. We checked appetite by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and food intake by measuring the consumption of a test meal. In addition, the serum levels of total testosterone and LH were measured. Twenty men (mean age 26.3±4.6 years) were enrolled in this study. They could not discriminate between the smell of fasting and postprandial plasma and the smell of sad tears and trickled saline. Appetite and the amount of food intake were not different between the groups. Although the VAS ratings of appetite correlated with the food intake upon sniffing fasting plasma, postprandial plasma, and trickled saline, there was no such correlation upon sniffing sad tears. In addition, the decrease in serum testosterone levels from the baseline was greater with sad tears than with the trickled saline (?28.6±3.3% vs. ?14.0±5.2%; P = 0.019). These data suggest that chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma do not appear to reduce appetite and food intake. However, further studies are necessary to examine whether sad tears may alter the appetite-eating behavior relation.
Simple Sequence Repeat Polymorphisms (SSRPs) for Evaluation of Molecular Diversity and Germplasm Classification of Minor Crops
Yong-Jin Park,Ju Kyong Lee,Nam-Soo Kim
Molecules , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/molecules14114546
Abstract: Evaluation of the genetic diversity among populations is an essential prerequisite for the preservation of endangered species. Thousands of new accessions are introduced into germplasm institutes each year, thereby necessitating assessment of their molecular diversity before elimination of the redundant genotypes. Of the protocols that facilitate the assessment of molecular diversity, SSRPs (simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) or microsatellite variation is the preferred system since it detects a large number of DNA polymorphisms with relatively simple technical complexity. The paucity of information on DNA sequences has limited their widespread utilization in the assessment of genetic diversity of minor or neglected crop species. However, recent advancements in DNA sequencing and PCR technologies in conjunction with sophisticated computer software have facilitated the development of SSRP markers in minor crops. This review examines the development and molecular nature of SSR markers, and their utilization in many aspects of plant genetics and ecology.
Rim 2/Hipa CACTA transposon display ; A new genetic marker technique in Oryza species
Soon-Jae Kwon, Kyong-Chul Park, Jin-Hong Kim, Ju Lee, Nam-Soo Kim
BMC Genetics , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-6-15
Abstract: Rim2/Hipa-TD generated ample polymorphic profiles among the different rice accessions, and the amplification profiles were highly reproducible between different thermocyclers and Taq polymerases. These amplification profiles allowed for clear distinction between two different ecotypes, Japonica and Indica, of Oryza sativa. In the analysis of RIL populations, the Rim2/Hipa-TD markers were found to be segregated largely in a dominant manner, although in a few cases, non-parental bands were observed in the segregating populations. Upon linkage analysis, the Rim2/Hipa-TD markers were found to be distributed in the regions proximal to the centromeres of the chromosomes. The distribution of the Rim2/Hipa CACTA elements was surveyed in 15 different Oryza species via Rim2/Hipa-TD. While Rim2/Hipa-TD yielded ample amplification profiles between 100 to 700 bp in the AA diploid Oryza species, other species having BB, CC, EE, BBCC and CCDD, profiles demonstrated that most of the amplified fragments were larger than 400 bp, and that our methods were insufficient to clearly distinguish between these fragments. However, the overall amplification profiles between species in the Oryza genus were fully distinct. Phenetic relationships among the AA diploid Oryza species, as evidenced by the Rim2/Hipa-TD markers, were matched with their geographical distributions.The abundance of the Rim2/Hipa TIR sequences is very informative since the Rim2/Hipa-TD produced high polymorphic profiles with ample reproducibility within a species as well as between species in the Oryza genus. Therefore, Rim2/Hipa-TD markers can be useful in the development of high-density of genetic map around the centromeric regions. Rim2/Hipa-TD may also prove useful in evaluations of genetic variation and species relationships in the Oryza species.Transposable elements (TEs) constitute a large fraction of plant genomes, and exert critical effects on the formation of the current genomes [1]. With the genome sequences av
Android Fat Depot Is More Closely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome than Abdominal Visceral Fat in Elderly People
Seon Mee Kang, Ji Won Yoon, Hwa Young Ahn, So Yeon Kim, Kyoung Ho Lee, Hayley Shin, Sung Hee Choi, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, Soo Lim
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027694
Abstract: Background Fat accumulation in android compartments may confer increased metabolic risk. The incremental utility of measuring regional fat deposition in association with metabolic syndrome (MS) has not been well described particularly in an elderly population. Methods and Findings As part of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging, which is a community-based cohort study of people aged more than 65 years, subjects (287 male, 75.9±8.6 years and 278 female, 76.0±8.8 years) with regional body composition data using Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for android/gynoid area, computed tomography for visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT), and cardiometabolic markers including adiponectin and high-sensitivity CRP were enrolled. We investigated the relationship between regional body composition and MS in multivariate regression models. Mean VAT and SAT area was 131.4±65.5 cm2 and 126.9±55.2 cm2 in men (P = 0.045) and 120.0±46.7 cm2 and 211.8±65.9 cm2 in women (P<0.01). Mean android and gynoid fat amount was 1.8±0.8 kg and 2.5±0.8 kg in men and 2.0±0.6 kg and 3.3±0.8 kg in women, respectively (both P<0.01). VAT area and android fat amount was strongly correlated with most metabolic risk factors compared to SAT or gynoid fat. Furthermore, android fat amount was significantly associated with clustering of MS components after adjustment for multiple parameters including age, gender, adiponectin, hsCRP, a surrogate marker of insulin resistance, whole body fat mass and VAT area. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized role of android fat as a pathogenic fat depot in the MS. Measurement of android fat may provide a more complete understanding of metabolic risk associated with variations in fat distribution.
Chronic Exposure to the Herbicide, Atrazine, Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Insulin Resistance
Soo Lim, Sun Young Ahn, In Chan Song, Myung Hee Chung, Hak Chul Jang, Kyong Soo Park, Ki-Up Lee, Youngmi Kim Pak, Hong Kyu Lee
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005186
Abstract: There is an apparent overlap between areas in the USA where the herbicide, atrazine (ATZ), is heavily used and obesity-prevalence maps of people with a BMI over 30. Given that herbicides act on photosystem II of the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, which have a functional structure similar to mitochondria, we investigated whether chronic exposure to low concentrations of ATZ might cause obesity or insulin resistance by damaging mitochondrial function. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) were treated for 5 months with low concentrations (30 or 300 μg kg?1 day?1) of ATZ provided in drinking water. One group of animals was fed a regular diet for the entire period, and another group of animals was fed a high-fat diet (40% fat) for 2 months after 3 months of regular diet. Various parameters of insulin resistance were measured. Morphology and functional activities of mitochondria were evaluated in tissues of ATZ-exposed animals and in isolated mitochondria. Chronic administration of ATZ decreased basal metabolic rate, and increased body weight, intra-abdominal fat and insulin resistance without changing food intake or physical activity level. A high-fat diet further exacerbated insulin resistance and obesity. Mitochondria in skeletal muscle and liver of ATZ-treated rats were swollen with disrupted cristae. ATZ blocked the activities of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I and III, resulting in decreased oxygen consumption. It also suppressed the insulin-mediated phosphorylation of Akt. These results suggest that long-term exposure to the herbicide ATZ might contribute to the development of insulin resistance and obesity, particularly where a high-fat diet is prevalent.
Gene Expression Pattern in Transmitochondrial Cytoplasmic Hybrid Cells Harboring Type 2 Diabetes-Associated Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups
Seungwoo Hwang, Soo Heon Kwak, Jong Bhak, Hae Sun Kang, You Ri Lee, Bo Kyung Koo, Kyong Soo Park, Hong Kyu Lee, Young Min Cho
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022116
Abstract: Decreased mitochondrial function plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recently, it was reported that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups confer genetic susceptibility to T2DM in Koreans and Japanese. Particularly, mtDNA haplogroup N9a is associated with a decreased risk of T2DM, whereas haplogroups D5 and F are associated with an increased risk. To examine functional consequences of these haplogroups without being confounded by the heterogeneous nuclear genomic backgrounds of different subjects, we constructed transmitochondrial cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cells harboring each of the three haplogroups (N9a, D5, and F) in a background of a shared nuclear genome. We compared the functional consequences of the three haplogroups using cell-based assays and gene expression microarrays. Cell-based assays did not detect differences in mitochondrial functions among the haplogroups in terms of ATP generation, reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cellular dehydrogenase activity. However, differential expression and clustering analyses of microarray data revealed that the three haplogroups exhibit a distinctive nuclear gene expression pattern that correlates with their susceptibility to T2DM. Pathway analysis of microarray data identified several differentially regulated metabolic pathways. Notably, compared to the T2DM-resistant haplogroup N9a, the T2DM-susceptible haplogroup F showed down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and up-regulation of glycolysis. These results suggest that variations in mtDNA can affect the expression of nuclear genes regulating mitochondrial functions or cellular energetics. Given that impaired mitochondrial function caused by T2DM-associated mtDNA haplogroups is compensated by the nuclear genome, we speculate that defective nuclear compensation, under certain circumstances, might lead to the development of T2DM.
The Association of Maximum Body Weight on the Development of Type 2 Diabetes and Microvascular Complications: MAXWEL Study
Soo Lim, Kyoung Min Kim, Min Joo Kim, Se Joon Woo, Sung Hee Choi, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, James B. Meigs, Deborah J. Wexler
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080525
Abstract: Background Obesity precedes the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the relationship between the magnitude and rate of weight gain to T2D development and complications, especially in non-White populations, has received less attention. Methods and Findings We determined the association of rate and magnitude of weight gain to age at T2D diagnosis (AgeT2D), HbA1c at T2D diagnosis (HbA1cT2D), microalbuminuria, and diabetic retinopathy after adjusting for sex, BMI at age 20 years, lifestyles, family history of T2D and/or blood pressure and lipids in 2164 Korean subjects aged ≥30 years and newly diagnosed with diabetes. Body weight at age 20 years (Wt20y) was obtained by recall or from participants’ medical, school, or military records. Participants recalled their maximum weight (Wtmax) prior to T2D diagnosis and age at maximum weight (Agemax_wt). The rate of weight gain (Ratemax_wt) was calculated from magnitude of weight gain (ΔWt = Wtmax–Wt20y) divided by ΔTime (Agemax_wt –20 years). The mean Agemax_wt and AgeT2D were 41.5±10.9 years and 50.1±10.5 years, respectively. The Wt20y and Wtmax were 59.9±10.5 kg and 72.9±11.4 kg, respectively. The Ratemax_wt was 0.56±0.50 kg/year. After adjusting for risk factors, greater ΔWt and higher Ratemax_wt were significantly associated with earlier AgeT2D, higher HbA1cT2D after additional adjusting for AgeT2D, and microalbuminuria after further adjusting for HbA1cT2D and lipid profiles. Greater ΔWt and higher Ratemax_wt were also significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy. Conclusions This finding supports public health recommendations to reduce the risk of T2D and its complications by preventing weight gain from early adulthood.
Changes in Hepatic Gene Expression upon Oral Administration of Taurine-Conjugated Ursodeoxycholic Acid in ob/ob Mice
Jae-Seong Yang,Jin Taek Kim,Jouhyun Jeon,Ho Sun Park,Gyeong Hoon Kang,Kyong Soo Park,Hong Kyu Lee,Sanguk Kim,Young Min Cho
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013858
Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent and associated with considerable morbidities. Unfortunately, there is no currently available drug established to treat NAFLD. It was recently reported that intraperitoneal administration of taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) improved hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice. We hereby examined the effect of oral TUDCA treatment on hepatic steatosis and associated changes in hepatic gene expression in ob/ob mice. We administered TUDCA to ob/ob mice at a dose of 500 mg/kg twice a day by gastric gavage for 3 weeks. Body weight, glucose homeostasis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and hepatic gene expression were examined in comparison with control ob/ob mice and normal littermate C57BL/6J mice. Compared to the control ob/ob mice, TUDCA treated ob/ob mice revealed markedly reduced liver fat stained by oil red O (44.2±5.8% vs. 21.1±10.4%, P<0.05), whereas there was no difference in body weight, oral glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and ER stress. Microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression demonstrated that oral TUDCA treatment mainly decreased the expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis among the components of lipid homeostasis. At pathway levels, oral TUDCA altered the genes regulating amino acid, carbohydrate, and drug metabolism in addition to lipid metabolism. In summary, oral TUDCA treatment decreased hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice by cooperative regulation of multiple metabolic pathways, particularly by reducing the expression of genes known to regulate de novo lipogenesis.
EGb761, a Ginkgo Biloba Extract, Is Effective Against Atherosclerosis In Vitro, and in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes
Soo Lim, Ji Won Yoon, Seon Mee Kang, Sung Hee Choi, Bong Jun Cho, Min Kim, Ho Seon Park, Hyun Ju Cho, Hayley Shin, Young-Bum Kim, Hyo Soo Kim, Hak Chul Jang, Kyong Soo Park
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020301
Abstract: Background EGb761, a standardized Ginkgo biloba extract, has antioxidant and antiplatelet aggregation and thus might protect against atherosclerosis. However, molecular and functional properties of EGb761 and its major subcomponents have not been well characterized. We investigated the effect of EGb761 and its major subcomponents (bilobalide, kaemferol, and quercetin) on preventing atherosclerosis in vitro, and in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Methods and Results EGb761 (100 and 200 mg/kg) or normal saline (control) were administered to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, an obese insulin-resistant rat model, for 6 weeks (from 3 weeks before to 3 weeks after carotid artery injury). Immunohistochemical staining was performed to investigate cell proliferation and apoptosis in the injured arteries. Cell migration, caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation, monocyte adhesion, and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 levels were explored in vitro. Treatment with EGb761 dose-dependently reduced intima-media ratio, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and induced greater apoptosis than the controls. Proliferation and migration of VSMCs in vitro were also decreased by the treatment of EGb761. Glucose homeostasis and circulating adiponectin levels were improved, and plasma hsCRP concentrations were decreased in the treatment groups. Caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation increased while monocyte adhesion and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 levels decreased significantly. Among subcomponents of EGb761, kaemferol and quercetin reduced VSMC migration and increased caspase activity. Conclusions EGb761 has a protective role in the development of atherosclerosis and is a potential therapeutic agent for preventing atherosclerosis.
Effect of a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitor, Des-Fluoro-Sitagliptin, on Neointimal Formation after Balloon Injury in Rats
Soo Lim, Sung Hee Choi, Hayley Shin, Bong Jun Cho, Ho Seon Park, Byung Yong Ahn, Seon Mee Kang, Ji Won Yoon, Hak Chul Jang, Young-Bum Kim, Kyong Soo Park
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035007
Abstract: Background Recently, it has been suggested that enhancement of incretin effect improves cardiac function. We investigated the effect of a DPP-IV inhibitor, des-fluoro-sitagliptin, in reducing occurrence of restenosis in carotid artery in response to balloon injury and the related mechanisms. Methods and Findings Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were grouped into four: control (normal saline) and sitagliptin 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg per day (n = 10 per group). Sitagliptin or normal saline were given orally from 1 week before to 2 weeks after carotid injury. After 3 weeks of treatment, sitagliptin treatment caused a significant and dose-dependent reduction in intima-media ratio (IMR) in obese diabetic rats. This effect was accompanied by improved glucose homeostasis, decreased circulating levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and increased adiponectin level. Moreover, decreased IMR was correlated significantly with reduced hsCRP, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity. In vitro evidence with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) demonstrated that proliferation and migration were decreased significantly after sitagliptin treatment. In addition, sitagliptin increased caspase-3 activity and decreased monocyte adhesion and NFκB activation in VSMCs. Conclusions Sitagliptin has protective properties against restenosis after carotid injury and therapeutic implications for treating macrovascular complications of diabetes.
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