Abstract:
This descriptive study utilized a validated questionnaire to determine the profile of two sets of students and their level of consideration in deciding to enroll in their University. It also determined whether their level of consideration in deciding to enroll in their University significantly differed from each other. It was found out that most of the University of the East (UE) and National University (NU) respondents were male respondents taking up Information Technology. They did not have a home province, lived in Manila and Quezon City, lived in family-owned houses, belonged to a family with five family members, and travelled at least an hour in going to school through jeepneys. On the other hand, they were different in terms of family monthly income (most of the UE respondents belonged to a family with a higher family monthly income) and number of family members who studied in the University (most of the NU respondents had at least one member who studied in the same University). It was also noted that more than a quarter of NU respondents lived near their school. UE and NU respondents agreed that they considered nine and five, respectively, of the eleven institutional image indicators in deciding to enroll in the University. UE respondents had the highest consideration on Admission Process and Course Offering while NU respondents had the highest consideration on Scholarships and Grants. Test of difference between means revealed that the level of considerations of the respondents on the institutional image indicators significantly differed in nine out of the eleven indicators. Thus, the null hypothesis stating that there is no significant difference in the level of consideration of the respondents in deciding to enroll in the two Universities in terms of institutional image indicators is partially rejected. Conclusions, recommendations, and limitations of the study were also discussed.

Abstract:
We show that the qubit decoherence due to zero-temperature energy relaxation can be almost completely suppressed by using the quantum uncollapsing procedure. To protect a qubit state, a partial quantum measurement moves it towards the ground state, where it is kept during the storage period, while the second partial measurement restores the initial state. This procedure preferentially selects the cases without energy decay events. Stronger decoherence suppression requires smaller selection probability; a desired point in this trade-off can be chosen by varying the measurement strength. The experiment can be realized in a straightforward way using the superconducting phase qubit.

Abstract:
We analyze simple quantum error detection and quantum error correction protocols relevant to current experiments with superconducting qubits. We show that for qubits with energy relaxation the repetitive N-qubit codes cannot be used for quantum error correction, but can be used for quantum error detection. In the latter case it is sufficient to use only two qubits for the encoding. In the analysis we demonstrate a useful technique of unraveling the qubit energy relaxation into "relaxation" and "no relaxation" scenarios. Also, we propose and numerically analyze several two-qubit algorithms for quantum error detection/correction, which can be readily realized at the present-day level of the phase qubit technology.

Abstract:
This paper investigates the nonlinear response of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) cantilever resonator electrostatically actuated by applying a soft alternating current (AC) voltage and an even softer direct current (DC) voltage between the resonators and a parallel fixed ground plate. The AC frequency is near natural frequency. This drives the resonator into nonlinear parametric resonance. The method of multiple scales (MMS) is used to solve the dimensionless differential equation of motion of the resonator and find the steady-state solutions. The reduced order model (ROM) method is used to validate the results obtained using MMS. The effect of the soft DC voltage (bias) component on the frequency response is reported. It is shown that the DC bias changes the subcritical Hopf bifurcation into a cyclic fold bifurcation and shifts the bifurcation point (where the system loses stability) to lower frequencies and larger amplitudes. 1. Introduction Electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical system cantilever resonators (EA-MEMS-CR) have been explored due to their applications as sensors of small mass objects, such as proteins, viruses, or trace amounts of chemical compounds [1, 2]. Low power, integration into a microchip design, and low cost are a couple of advantages of EA-MEMS-CRs. Resonator sensors are coated for specimen recognition. The sensing principle is based on specimen particles bonding with the coating and increasing the mass of the EA-MEMS-CR. This change in mass causes a change in EA-MEMS-CR’s natural frequency. If the frequency response to input voltage excitation is known accurately, then the increase in mass can be found from the change in natural frequency. One key feature of EA-MEMS-CRs is the nonlinear dynamics they experience [3, 4]. It is crucial to accurately predict the nonlinear dynamics of EA-MEMS-CRs as a precursor to sensing applications. Sources of nonlinearities include micro- and nanoscale surface forces [5], fringe effect [6–8], and damping [1, 9–12]. In order to solve the nonlinear differential equations of motion, methods such as reduced order model (ROM) [1, 5–8], Green’s function [9], multiple scale or perturbation [8, 12], and modal expansion [13], have been used. The steady-state solutions of these systems can be stable and/or unstable. Bifurcation points are points where stability changes. Finding stability change frequencies is necessary to accurately model and take advantage of this phenomenon for sensing purposes. In order to control the behavior of EA-MEMS-CRs, one uses the properties of the applied

Abstract:
An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the \geoclaw framework and compared to \adcirc for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run.

Abstract:
Given an undirected graph with edge costs and node weights, the minimum bisection problem asks for a partition of the nodes into two parts of equal weight such that the sum of edge costs between the parts is minimized. We give a polynomial time bicriteria approximation scheme for bisection on planar graphs. Specifically, let $W$ be the total weight of all nodes in a planar graph $G$. For any constant $\varepsilon > 0$, our algorithm outputs a bipartition of the nodes such that each part weighs at most $W/2 + \varepsilon$ and the total cost of edges crossing the partition is at most $(1+\varepsilon)$ times the total cost of the optimal bisection. The previously best known approximation for planar minimum bisection, even with unit node weights, was $O(\log n)$. Our algorithm actually solves a more general problem where the input may include a target weight for the smaller side of the bipartition.

Abstract:
A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to establish the relationship between nitrogen (N) isotope composition of cattle manure and ammonia emissions, potential contribution of nitrogenous gases other than ammonia to manure N volatilization losses, and to determine the relative contribution of urinary- vs. fecal-N to ammonia emissions during the initial stage of manure storage. Data confirmed that ammonia volatilization losses from manure are most intensive during the first 2 to 3 days of storage and this coincides with a very rapid loss (hydrolysis) of urinary urea. Long-term (30 days) monitoring of δ 15N of manure and emitted ammonia indicated that the dynamics of N isotope fractionation may be complicating the usefulness of the isotope approach as a tool for estimating ammonia emissions from manure in field conditions. The relationship between δ 15N of manure and ammonia emission appears to be linear during the initial stages of manure storage (when most of the ammonia losses occur) and should be further investigated. These experiments demonstrated that the main source of ammonia-N volatilized from cattle manure during the initial 10 days of storage is urinary-N, representing on average 90% of the emitted ammonia-N. The contribution of fecal-N was relatively low, but gradually increased to about 10% by day 10. There appears to be substantial emissions of nitrogenous gases other than ammonia, most likely dinitrogen gas, which may account for up to 25% of N losses during the first 20 days of manure storage. This finding, which has to be confirmed in laboratory and field conditions, may be indicative of overestimation of ammonia emissions from cattle operations by the current emissions factors.

Abstract:
Recent works in quantitative evolution have shown that biological structures are constrained by selected phenotypes in unexpected ways . This is also observed in simulations of gene network evolution, where complex realistic traits naturally appear even if they have not been explicitly selected . An important biological example is the absolute discrimination between different ligand "qualities", such as immune decisions based on binding times to T cell receptors (TCRs) or Fc$\epsilon$RIs. In evolutionary simulations, the phenomenon of absolute discrimination is not achieved without detrimental ligand antagonism: a "dog in the manger" effect in which ligands unable to trigger response prevent agonists to do so. A priori it seems paradoxical to improve ligand discrimination in a context of increased ligand antagonism, and how such contradictory phenotypes can be disentangled is unclear. Here we establish for the first time a direct mathematical causal link between absolute discrimination and ligand antagonism. Inspired by the famous discussion by Gould and Lewontin, we thus qualify antagonism as a "phenotypic spandrel": a phenotype existing as a necessary by-product of another phenotype. We exhibit a general model for absolute discrimination, and further show how addition of proofreading steps inverts the expected hierarchy of antagonism without fully cancelling it. Phenotypic spandrels reveal the internal feedbacks and constraints structuring response in signalling pathways, in very similar way to symmetries structuring physical laws.

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important cash
crop in Honduras. The availability of inexpensive irrigation in the study
area (Flores, La Villa de San Antonio, Comayagua) encourages rice farmers to
neglect prescribed methods of soil and water conservation, such land leveling,
puddling, and soil bunds. This study looked at the effect of failure to
mitigate water loss on sloping fields. Soil moisture (Volumetric Water Content)
was measured using a soil moisture probe after the termination of the first
irrigation within the tillering/vegetative, panicle emergence/flowering,
post-flowering/pre-maturation and maturation stages. Yield data were obtained by harvesting on 1 m^{2} plots in each soil moisture testing site. Data analyses looked at the relationship between yield and slope, soil
moisture, farmers, and toposequential position along transects. Toposequential
position influenced yields more than slope and soil moisture was not a significant
predictor of yields. Irrigation politics, high water inputs, and land tenure
were proposed as the major reasons for this result.

Abstract:
We consider probability distributions with constant rate on partially ordered sets, generalizing distributions in the usual reliability setting that have constant failure rate. In spite of the minimal algebraic structure, there is a surprisingly rich theory, including moment results and results concerning ladder variables and point processes. We concentrate mostly on discrete posets, particularly posets whose graphs are rooted trees. We pose some questions on the existence of constant rate distributions for general discrete posets. 1. Preliminaries 1.1. Introduction The exponential distribution on and the geometric distribution on are characterized by the constant rate property: the density function (with respect to Lebesgue measure in the first case and counting measure in the second) is a multiple of the upper (right-tail) distribution function. The natural mathematical home for the constant rate property is a partially ordered set (poset) with a reference measure for the density functions. In this paper we explore these distributions. In spite of the minimal algebraic structure of a poset, there is a surprisingly rich theory, including moment results and results concerning ladder variables and point processes. In many respects, constant rate distributions lead to the most random way to put ordered points in the poset. We will be particularly interested in the existence question–-when does a poset support constant rate distributions? 1.2. Standard Posets Suppose that is a poset. For , let For and , let For , is said to cover if is a minimal element of . If is countable, the Hasse graph or covering graph of has vertex set and (directed) edge set . We write if and are comparable, and we write if and are noncomparable. The poset is connected if, for every , there exists a finite sequence such that , , and for . Now suppose that is a -algebra on and let denote the corresponding product -algebra on for . The main assumption that we make to connect the algebraic structure of to the measure structure is that the partial order is itself measurable, in the sense that . It then follows that for since these sets are simply the cross-sections of (see [1, 2]). Note that , so in fact all of the “intervals” , , and so forth are measurable for . Also, for and . If is countable, is the power set of . When is uncountable, is usually the Borel -algebra associated with an underlying topology (see [3, 4]). Finally, we fix a positive, -finite measure on as a reference measure. We assume that and for each . When is countable, we take to be counting measure on unless