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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 404661 matches for " Kyle M. Watanabe "
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Failure to prevent medication errors: We need smarter nearly error proof systems  [PDF]
Loren G. Yamamoto, Kyle M. Watanabe, Joan E. Kanemori
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.32013
Abstract: Purpose: To determine if nurses are able to identify medication errors that have the potential to bypass computer physician order entry (CPOE) and smart ordering systems. Background: Medical care systems employ computer “smart” systems to reduce medication errors by using artificial intelligence (preprogrammed methods of decision support and error reduction). However, these systems are not perfect and they can be bypassed. Nurses who carry out the order represent the last check point in error prevention prior to the administration of medication orders. Methods: A paper exercise was created with 513 physician orders. Nurses were asked to indicate whether they would carry out the order, refuse to carry out the order, consult a pharmacist for clarification, or carry out the order with special precautions. Nurses were given the option of using any nursing or medical reference. Results: The rate of correctly identifying 23 of the contraindicated orders was low. Both experienced and inexperienced nurses had high rates of not identifying the errors despite similar use of references and requests for assistance from pharmacists. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that if an error escapes a smart system, nurses were able to identify most of these errors, but not all of these. The current system features high stress, self-esteem issues, time pressure, high volume, and high risk. The system must change radically to meet the public’s expectations of being nearly error free which can only be achieved with smarter systems that are more resistant to human errors.
Soil moisture, field-scale toposequential position, and slope effects on yields in irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Honduras  [PDF]
Kyle M. Earnshaw, Blair Orr
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.48A001

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important cash crop in Honduras. The availability of inexpensive irrigation in the study area (Flores, La Villa de San Antonio, Comayagua) encourages rice farmers to neglect prescribed methods of soil and water conservation, such land leveling, puddling, and soil bunds. This study looked at the effect of failure to mitigate water loss on sloping fields. Soil moisture (Volumetric Water Content) was measured using a soil moisture probe after the termination of the first irrigation within the tillering/vegetative, panicle emergence/flowering, post-flowering/pre-maturation and maturation stages. Yield data were obtained by harvesting on 1 m2 plots in each soil moisture testing site. Data analyses looked at the relationship between yield and slope, soil moisture, farmers, and toposequential position along transects. Toposequential position influenced yields more than slope and soil moisture was not a significant predictor of yields. Irrigation politics, high water inputs, and land tenure were proposed as the major reasons for this result.

Advances in understanding genome maintenance
Kyle M Miller
Genome Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2010-11-4-301
Abstract: 'Maintenance of Genome Stability' is a biennial meeting that brings together, in a fantastic venue, diverse researchers working on how the integrity of genomes is maintained. Topics included DNA repair pathways, replication and recombination, and common themes included how these processes are regulated during the cell cycle, in the context of their chromatin or genomic location, and their involvement in cancer. Here, I summarize some highlights of the meeting, which included large-scale genomic studies, work on post-translational modifications in genome maintenance, and insights into new mechanisms and proteins involved in DNA repair pathways, telomeres and cancer.Post-translational modifications in DNA damage signaling was a common theme throughout the meeting. Jiri Bartek (Centre for Genotoxic Stress Research, Copenhagen, Denmark) presented a genome-wide proteomics screen, using quantitative mass spectrometry (stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture, SILAC), for phosphorylations of nuclear proteins that change following DNA damage in human cells. Over 7,000 phosphorylation sites were detected, with 2,000 being novel and not described in other proteomic screens. The power of this screen was that it analyzed the temporal regulation of phosphorylations after DNA damage. To accomplish this, cells were analyzed at time zero (no damage) and then at 5 minutes, 20 minutes, 1 hour and 8 hours after DNA damage. Taking into account only those phosphorylations detected at all time points, almost 600 phosphorylations were found to change by over twofold. Induced phosphorylations and dephosphorylations were detected. Phosphorylations that increased at early time points after DNA damage were enriched in substrates for the kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). Looking at the amino acid sequences surrounding the phosphorylation sites, a new phosphorylation consensus sequence, SxxQ, was determined that does not seem to be mediated by any known kinase. This da
Motivic invariants of p-adic fields
Kyle M. Ormsby
Mathematics , 2010, DOI: 10.1017/is011004017jkt153
Abstract: We provide a complete analysis of the motivic Adams spectral sequences converging to the bigraded coefficients of the 2-complete algebraic Johnson-Wilson spectra BPGL over p-adic fields. These spectra interpolate between integral motivic cohomology (n=0), a connective version of algebraic K-theory (n=1), and the algebraic Brown-Peterson spectrum. We deduce that, over p-adic fields, the 2-complete BPGL split over 2-complete BPGL<0>, implying that the slice spectral sequence for BPGL collapses. This is the first in a series of two papers investigating motivic invariants of p-adic fields, and it lays the groundwork for an understanding of the motivic Adams-Novikov spectral sequence over such base fields.
Environmental influences on egg and clutch sizes in lentic- and lotic-breeding salamanders
Jon M. Davenport,Kyle Summers
Phyllomedusa : Journal of Herpetology , 2010,
Abstract: Recent research indicates that social and environmental factors influence egg and clutch sizes in amphibians. However, most of this work is based on the reproductively diverse order Anura (frogs and toads), whereas less research has been conducted on Caudata (salamanders) and Gymnophiona (caecilians). Researchers have suggested that a relationship exists between social and environmental factors and egg and clutch sizes in salamanders, but studies controlling for phylogenetic context are lacking. We could not identify a sufficient number of comparisons for social influences on egg and clutch sizes; therefore, we focused on environmental influences for this study. Data on egg size, clutch size, environmental factors, and phylogenies for salamanders were assembled from the scientific literature. We used independent, pair-wise comparisons to investigate the association of larval salamander habitat and egg size and the association of larval salamander habitat with clutch sizes within a phylogenetic framework. There is a significant association between larval habitat and egg size; specifically, stream-breeding species produce larger eggs. There is no significant association between larval habitat and clutchsize. Our study confirms earlier reports that salamander egg size is associated with larval environments, but is the first to use phylogenetically independent contrasts to account for the lack of phylogenetic independence of the traits measured (egg size and clutch size) associated with many of the diverse lineages. Our study shows that environmental selection pressure can be quite strong on one aspect of salamander reproduction—egg size.
Josiah Parsons Cooke Jr.: Epistemology in the Service of Science, Pedagogy, and Natural Theology
Stephen M. Contakes,Christopher Kyle
Hyle : International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry , 2011,
Abstract: Josiah Parsons Cooke established chemistry education at Harvard University, initiated an atomic weight research program, and broadly impacted American chemical education through his students, the introduction of laboratory instruction, textbooks, and influence on Harvard's admissions requirements. The devoutly Unitarian Cooke also articulated and defended a biogeochemical natural theology, which he defended by arguing for commonalities between the epistemologies of science and religion. Cooke's pre-Mendeleev classification scheme for the elements and atomic weight research were motivated by his interest in numerical order in nature, which reflected his belief in a divine lawgiver.
Positive Knots and Lagrangian Fillability
Kyle Hayden,Joshua M. Sabloff
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between the existence of an exact embedded Lagrangian filling for a Legendrian knot in the standard contact $\rr^3$ and the hierarchy of positive, strongly quasi-positive, and quasi-positive knots. On one hand, results of Eliashberg and especially Boileau and Orevkov show that every Legendrian knot with an exact, embedded Lagrangian filling is quasi-positive. On the other hand, we show that if a knot type is positive, then it has a Legendrian representative with an exact embedded Lagrangian filling. Further, we produce examples that show that strong quasi-positivity and fillability are independent conditions.
Inherited destiny? Genetics and gestational diabetes mellitus
Richard M Watanabe
Genome Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/gm232
Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) refers to hyperglycemia that first presents during pregnancy and typically resolves itself post-partum. There are inadequate data on the prevalence of GDM; however, in 1988 it was estimated that about 4% of pregnancies in the United States were complicated by diabetes, with 88% of these accounted for by GDM [1]. More recent data suggest that, as with the overall increased prevalence of diabetes, rates of GDM are significantly increasing [2]. For example, Dabelea and colleagues [3] examined trends in singleton pregnancies from the Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization of Colorado between 1994 and 2002 and noted that rates of GDM increased two-fold in all ethnic groups. Accurate data on the prevalence and incidence of GDM are likely to become available given that screening during pregnancy is almost routine and consistent diagnostic criteria are now being implemented [4].Hyperglycemia during pregnancy, whether due to GDM or other forms of diabetes, has implications for mother, developing fetus, and child. Women diagnosed with GDM have a higher risk for future type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [5]. Kjos et al. [6] were the first to demonstrate that this risk was even higher in Hispanic women with previous GDM by showing that 45% of a cohort followed for 5 years post-partum developed T2DM despite plasma glucose returning to non-diabetic levels. The observation that previous GDM increases risk for future T2DM was subsequently confirmed in other ethnic groups [7]. Women with GDM have a higher rate of caesarean section, gestational hypertension, and large for gestational age deliveries [8]. Maternal diabetes has been shown to be associated with increased risk for macrosomia [8,9], and GDM-associated macrosomia is associated with increased rates of a variety of complications, including hypoglycemia and respiratory distress syndrome [10].Pettitt et al. [11] were among the first to show the association between maternal hyperglycem
Effect of Feed with Varying Protein: Energy Ratios on the Growth Performance of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella
M. Javed,T. Watanabe
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Seven diets with varying digestible protein/ digestible energy (DP:DE) ratios were tested for growth and nutrient retention in fish body. Six test diets containing DE levels of 310,330 and 360 Kcal/100g at low (24%) and sub-optimum (28%) DP levels were tested against control having 30% DP and 3100 Kcal/100g DE. However, the main protein source in control diet was fish meal while in all other six test diets corn gluten meal was provided. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in the percentage live fish weight gains at different levels of dietary protein and energy. Control fish receiving 30% dietary DP and protein / energy ratio of 81.93 gave the maximum gain in weight of 148.80 + 5.50%. However, among the six test diets, dietary P/E ratio of 73.75 shared the maximum weight gain (122.29 + 8.27%). Increase in dietary energy beyond 425.90 kcal/100g resulted in significantly poor growth. Feed intake by the fish increased significantly with increasing dietary protein while decreased non-significantly with the increased dietary lipid and energy. The results indicate consumption dependent protein and energy retention in fish body as a function of dietary protein level.
Simulation of spring snowmelt runoff by considering micro-topography and phase changes in soil layer
T. Nakayama,M. Watanabe
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2006,
Abstract: The NICE model was extended to include the effect of the micro-topography in slope and shading characteristics and the phase changes in soil moisture on snow/frost depths and snowmelt runoff by combining the land-surface, the multi-layer runoff, and the groundwater flow models (NICE-SNOW). The model was applied to the upstream regions of shrinking Kushiro Mire in the invasion of alder, where the spring runoff affects greatly the annual sediment and nutrient transports because the spring flood continues in longer time than that in typhoon seasons. The simulation reproduced excellently the observed values of annual river discharge including snowmelt runoff with the greater time-to-peak of runoff than in snow-free period, in addition to snow depth, frost depth, soil temperature, soil moisture, and groundwater level, by conducting the quantitative assessment of goodness-of-fit and parameter sensitivity analysis. We quantified that the mechanism of spring snowmelt runoff is related to changes in micro-topography, soil structure, soil temperature, soil moisture, and groundwater flow. The model shows that the local effect of snow depth and the frost depth disappears in the snowmelt runoff discharge of catchment in the same way as some previous researches though they are very important as water resources of catchment. After the frozen soil restricts the infiltration in the coldest part of winter, the thawed soil increases the pore size in the early spring. The NICE-SNOW could explain the snowmelt flood continues a longer time than that in the typhoon period because some part of meltwater flows as an intermediate flow in the partially-thawed hillslope soil layer. This is also related to the simulation result that more than half of total soil moisture stays unfrozen at some places even in winter periods, which indicates that there is a high degree of spatial heterogeneity of frozen ground.
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