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Terrorist Networks, Network Energy and Node Removal: A New Measure of Centrality Based on Laplacian Energy  [PDF]
Xingqin Qi, Robert D. Duval, Kyle Christensen, Edgar Fuller, Arian Spahiu, Qin Wu, Yezhou Wu, Wenliang Tang, Cunquan Zhang
Social Networking (SN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sn.2013.21003
Abstract: In this work we propose a centrality measure for networks, which we refer to as Laplacian centrality, that provides a general framework for the centrality of a vertex based on the idea that the importance (or centrality) of a vertex is related to the ability of the network to respond to the deactivation or removal of that vertex from the network. In particular, the Laplacian centrality of a vertex is defined as the relative drop of Laplacian energy caused by the deactivation of this vertex. The Laplacian energy of network G with n vertices is defined as \"\", where \"\" is the eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix of G. Other dynamics based measures such as that of Masuda and Kori and PageRank compute the importance of a node by analyzing the way paths pass through a node while our measure captures this information as well as the way these paths are redistributed when the node is deleted. The validity and robustness of this new measure are illustrated on two different terrorist social network data sets and 84 networks in James Moodys Add Health in school friendship nomination data, and is compared with other standard centrality measures.
Modulating the Focus of Attention for Spoken Words at Encoding Affects Frontoparietal Activation for Incidental Verbal Memory
Thomas A. Christensen,Kyle R. Almryde,Lesley J. Fidler,Julie L. Lockwood,Sharon M. Antonucci,Elena Plante
International Journal of Biomedical Imaging , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/579786
Abstract: Attention is crucial for encoding information into memory, and current dual-process models seek to explain the roles of attention in both recollection memory and incidental-perceptual memory processes. The present study combined an incidental memory paradigm with event-related functional MRI to examine the effect of attention at encoding on the subsequent neural activation associated with unintended perceptual memory for spoken words. At encoding, we systematically varied attention levels as listeners heard a list of single English nouns. We then presented these words again in the context of a recognition task and assessed the effect of modulating attention at encoding on the BOLD responses to words that were either attended strongly, weakly, or not heard previously. MRI revealed activity in right-lateralized inferior parietal and prefrontal regions, and positive BOLD signals varied with the relative level of attention present at encoding. Temporal analysis of hemodynamic responses further showed that the time course of BOLD activity was modulated differentially by unintentionally encoded words compared to novel items. Our findings largely support current models of memory consolidation and retrieval, but they also provide fresh evidence for hemispheric differences and functional subdivisions in right frontoparietal attention networks that help shape auditory episodic recall. 1. Introduction Attention is known to alter neural processing at multiple levels of both the peripheral and central nervous systems, and both auditory and visual attention have been conceptualized as operating in both “top-down” and “bottom-up” modes [1–7]. Top-down mechanisms reflect goal-based control in order to direct attention to particular targets or to sustain attention over time. In contrast, bottom-up mechanisms have traditionally been defined by the phenomenon of reflexive attentional orienting, as when attention is drawn without intent by highly salient sensory stimuli such as a sudden loud noise or flash of light. Recently, however, some investigators have more broadly considered bottom-up effects as relevant for any incoming stimuli, with the relative saliency of the stimulus influencing whether it is ultimately encoded into memory [8]. Two recent theoretical models address the question of what roles stimulus saliency might play in first successfully encoding information into memory and then later retrieving it. As discussed below, the “Embedded Processes” model and the “Attention-to-Memory” model, while similar, also highlight the potentially divergent roles that
Relativized Quantum Physics Generating N-Valued Coulomb Force and Atomic Hydrogen Energy Spectrum  [PDF]
Walter J. Christensen Jr.
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.63025
Abstract: Though not well-known, Einstein endeavored much of his life to general-relativize quantum mechanics, (rather than quantizing gravity). Albeit he did not succeed, his legacy lives on. In this paper, we begin with the general relativistic field equations describing flat spacetime, but stimulated by vacuum energy fluctuations. In our precursor paper, after straightforward general relativistic calculations, the resulting covariant and contravariant energy-momentum tensors were identified as n-valued operators describing graviton excitation. From these two operators, we were able to generate all three boson masses (including the Higgs mass) in precise agreement as reported in the 2010 CODATA (NIST); moreover local, as-well-as large-scale, accelerated spacetimes were shown to naturally occur from this general relativized quantum physics approach (RQP). In this paper, applying the same approach, we produce an n-valued Coulombs Force Law leading to the energy spectrum for atomic hydrogen, without assuming quantized atomic radii, velocity and momentum, as Bohr did.
Einstein’s Gravitational Field Approach to Dark Matter and Dark Energy—Geometric Particle Decay into the Vacuum Energy Generating Higgs Boson and Heavy Quark Mass  [PDF]
Walter James Christensen
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.610147
Abstract: During an interview at the Niels Bohr Institute David Bohm stated, “according to Einstein, particles should eventually emerge … as singularities, or very strong regions of stable pulses of (the gravitational) field” [1]. Starting from this premise, we show spacetime, indeed, manifests stable pulses (n-valued gravitons) that decay into the vacuum energy to generate all three boson masses (including Higgs), as well as heavy-quark mass; and all in precise agreement with the 2010 CODATA report on fundamental constants. Furthermore, our relativized quantum physics approach (RQP) answers to the mystery surrounding dark energy, dark matter, accelerated spacetime, and why ordinary matter dominates over antimatter.
Completing the Standard Model with Gravity by General Relativizing Quantum Physics (RQP) (Coupling Spin-2 Gravitons with Spin-0 Particles to Generate Higgs Mass)  [PDF]
Walter James Christensen Jr.
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.613203
Abstract: After a straightforward general relativistic calculation on a modified flat-spacetime metric (developed from the fluctuating vacuum energy interacting with a graviton field), a pair of n-valued covariant and contravariant energy momentum tensors emerged analogous to quantized raising and lower operators. Detaching these operators from the general relativistic field equations, and then transporting them to act on extreme spacetimes, these operators were able to generate fundamental particle boson masses. In particular, the operators precisely generated Higgs mass. Then by applying a consistency approach to the gravitational field equations—similar to how Maxwell applied to the electromagnetic ones—it allowed for the coupling of spin-to-mass, further restricting the particle mass to be in precise agreement with CODATA experimental values. Since this is a massless field approach integrated discretely with a massive one, it overcomes various renormalizing difficulties; moreover it solves the mass hierarchal problem of the Standard Model of particle physics, and generates its spin and therefore shows quantum physics to be a subset of General Relativity, just as Einstein had first imagined.
Calculating God from the God Particle  [PDF]
Walter James Christensen Jr.
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.72024
Abstract: Can the existence of “God” be calculated from known science and mathematics? We argue yes, provided the question is restricted to whether or not memory and consciousness are properties of spacetime. In this sense, we are seeking the god of Spinoza and Einstein, where the Universe is thought to be identical with divinity—but with the added characteristic of “awareness”. Currently, memory and consciousness and their relationship to spacetime and matter are of great interest to many prominent physicist, neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists, and philosophers. To show “Space-time Thinks,” we begin with a thought experiment formulated in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell— together with Leó Szilárd’s discovery that memory and information are intimately related to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Finally, we verify that memory and consciousness are properties of spacetime through an analogous Maxwell-Szilárd thought experiment associated with the creation of the God Particle—Higgs boson.
God Is a Porcupine—Brain, Consciousness and Spacetime Physics  [PDF]
Walter J. Christensen Jr.
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2017.88084
Abstract: Whereas the human body requires a vast numbers of atoms to maintain its intricate anatomical functions, we assert that the human brain requires “something extra” to carry out its higher mental and emotional functions. Recently, neuroscientists are beginning to suspect brain cells are not fast enough, or intricate enough, to correlate complex spatiotemporal information into cognitive understanding. They conclude that spacetime fields may be necessary to assist the brain during neurological processing—in much the same way magnetic and electric fields are essential for the propagation of light. This “something extra,” we argue, is spacetime itself—where structures in the brain, called facilitators (somewhat like Descartes pineal gland), have evolved biologically in such a way, so as to be able to store and retrieve spacetime quanta for the formation and generation of consciousness and memory. In this way, cognition is not a thing complete. Rather it is emergent, and accumulates as discretized spacetime quanta in the brain so rapidly, we perceive our own awareness to be continuous, events spontaneous. In this paper, we consider spacetime to be a field (like all quantum fields), which can be excited into quanta particles called gravitons. We then apply this quanta excitation to help explain the brain’s cognitive processes. If the brain has indeed evolved to interact with discretized spacetime, then with the advent of improved functional imaging equipment, we might be able to map detailed correlations between neural processes, conscious experience and spacetime. In so doing, it might be possible to learn more about the fundamental workings of spacetime itself.
Soil moisture, field-scale toposequential position, and slope effects on yields in irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Honduras  [PDF]
Kyle M. Earnshaw, Blair Orr
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.48A001

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important cash crop in Honduras. The availability of inexpensive irrigation in the study area (Flores, La Villa de San Antonio, Comayagua) encourages rice farmers to neglect prescribed methods of soil and water conservation, such land leveling, puddling, and soil bunds. This study looked at the effect of failure to mitigate water loss on sloping fields. Soil moisture (Volumetric Water Content) was measured using a soil moisture probe after the termination of the first irrigation within the tillering/vegetative, panicle emergence/flowering, post-flowering/pre-maturation and maturation stages. Yield data were obtained by harvesting on 1 m2 plots in each soil moisture testing site. Data analyses looked at the relationship between yield and slope, soil moisture, farmers, and toposequential position along transects. Toposequential position influenced yields more than slope and soil moisture was not a significant predictor of yields. Irrigation politics, high water inputs, and land tenure were proposed as the major reasons for this result.

Constant Rate Distributions on Partially Ordered Sets
Kyle Siegrist
Journal of Probability and Statistics , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/675754
Abstract: We consider probability distributions with constant rate on partially ordered sets, generalizing distributions in the usual reliability setting that have constant failure rate. In spite of the minimal algebraic structure, there is a surprisingly rich theory, including moment results and results concerning ladder variables and point processes. We concentrate mostly on discrete posets, particularly posets whose graphs are rooted trees. We pose some questions on the existence of constant rate distributions for general discrete posets. 1. Preliminaries 1.1. Introduction The exponential distribution on and the geometric distribution on are characterized by the constant rate property: the density function (with respect to Lebesgue measure in the first case and counting measure in the second) is a multiple of the upper (right-tail) distribution function. The natural mathematical home for the constant rate property is a partially ordered set (poset) with a reference measure for the density functions. In this paper we explore these distributions. In spite of the minimal algebraic structure of a poset, there is a surprisingly rich theory, including moment results and results concerning ladder variables and point processes. In many respects, constant rate distributions lead to the most random way to put ordered points in the poset. We will be particularly interested in the existence question–-when does a poset support constant rate distributions? 1.2. Standard Posets Suppose that is a poset. For , let For and , let For , is said to cover if is a minimal element of . If is countable, the Hasse graph or covering graph of has vertex set and (directed) edge set . We write if and are comparable, and we write if and are noncomparable. The poset is connected if, for every , there exists a finite sequence such that , , and for . Now suppose that is a -algebra on and let denote the corresponding product -algebra on for . The main assumption that we make to connect the algebraic structure of to the measure structure is that the partial order is itself measurable, in the sense that . It then follows that for since these sets are simply the cross-sections of (see [1, 2]). Note that , so in fact all of the “intervals” , , and so forth are measurable for . Also, for and . If is countable, is the power set of . When is uncountable, is usually the Borel -algebra associated with an underlying topology (see [3, 4]). Finally, we fix a positive, -finite measure on as a reference measure. We assume that and for each . When is countable, we take to be counting measure on unless
Ants Wax Manic: A Translation in Orature
Wanberg, Kyle
452o F : Revista de Teoría de la Literatura y Literatura Comparada , 2012,
Abstract: In this study I examine a translation of the oral Ant Songs from ‘Akimel ‘O‘odham (Pima) to English, emphasizing the way obstacles to translation transfigure how they are rendered as literary works. An analysis of their performance, language, cultural codes, and orality illuminate a highly ambiguous territory. The study of this and other translations of orature, including the difficulties they give rise to, can enrich our understanding of literature as well as translation.
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