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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14808 matches for " Kwamena William Coleman Sagoe "
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The Role of Human Herpesvirus Type-6 (HHV-6) in Convulsions Seen in Children at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra  [PDF]
Ankrah Lennox-Mac, Adiku Theophilus, Badoe Eben, Kwamena William Coleman Sagoe, Anna Aba Kafintu-Kwashie, Makafui Seshie
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.41009
Abstract:
Background: Since the isolation of HHV-6 in 1986, extensive investigation has revealed it to be ubiquitous and responsible for the majority of cases of a common febrile rash illness of infants known as roseola. Other clinical associations including seizure disorders, encephalitis and meningitis have also been stated in various publications. Objective: The aim of the study is to find out if there is any association between HHV-6 infection and the convulsions prevailing at the Child Health Department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra-Ghana. Methods and Results: Children admitted into the Department of Child Health with episode of convulsions were recruited after informed consent had been sought from subjects. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Plasma were obtained from patients. PCR directed at the detection of the large tegument protein (LTP) gene in the SIE strain of the HHV-6 in Plasma and CSF from patients was done. The mean age of study subjects was 37.44 months with 53 (64.6%) being males. There was a significant relationship between the convulsions and fever (P < 0.05). Based on CSF characteristics gathered, viral infections may be the probable cause of the observed convulsions but not malaria or bacterial infections. None of the samples from the patients had evidence of HHV-6. Conclusion: The study was unable to establish HHV-6 infection in the CSF and Plasma of patients. What role if any HHV-6 has in convulsions seen in children or neurological diseases at large merits further studies. Other neurotropic viruses need to be investigated as possible causes for the convulsions.
Misclassification of recent HIV-1 seroconversion in sub-Saharan Africa using the sensitive/less sensitive technique
Kwabena O Duedu, Anna A Hayford, Kwamena W Sagoe
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-176
Abstract: We used the modified Determine HIV-1/2 sensitive/less sensitive method for determining recent HIV-1 seroconversion to determine recent infections among ELISA repeat HIV-1 positive samples from blood donors. Furthermore, HIV-1 seropositivity was confirmed using a line immunoassay and the results used to validate the performance of the modified Determine HIV-1/2 S/LS assay. The results confirmed reported misclassifications of recent HIV-1 seroconversion in sub-Saharan Africa. It was noted that, lack of confirmation of HIV-1 seropositivity in suspected cases of HIV-1 contributed to misclassifications.It was concluded that, with confirmation of HIV-1 seropositivity, the modified Determine HIV-1/2 S/LS assay will be a rapid and cost effective method for determining HIV-1 recent infections and estimating incidence in resource-limited settings. The need for detailed studies to validate simple methods for determining recent HIV-1 infections is emphasized.In resource-limited settings where HIV-1 is a burden, the need for reliable incidence surveillance data to help access performance of interventions as well as monitor transmission patterns cannot be overestimated. It is however unfortunate that such settings are coupled with challenges such as equipment and technical expertise. Standard assays, like the 3A11-LS for determining recent HIV infections may be impossible to use in these settings which therefore calls for alternative reliable but cheaper methods to determine recent HIV-1 seroconversion and estimate incidence. Improved laboratory methods for determining recent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seroconversion and estimating incidence have been widely reported [1-9]. Improvements in these methods help eliminate the use of longitudinal studies, back calculations and other cohort studies which are not only costly but also require consistent follow up of clients and repeated testing which is problematic and much difficult to perform in resource-poor settings
HIV-1 CRF 02 AG polymerase genes in Southern Ghana are mosaics of different 02 AG strains and the protease gene cannot infer subtypes
Kwamena W Sagoe, Magda Dwidar, Theophilus K Adiku, Max Q Arens
Virology Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-6-27
Abstract: The partial polymerase gene sequences of 25 HIV-1 strains obtained with Viroseq reagents were aligned with reference subtypes and alignments trimmed to a 300 bp protease, 661 bp and 1005 reverse transcriptase sequence alignments. Phylogenetic relationships of these alignments were determined with the Neighbour-Joining method using 1000 replicates and recombination patterns determined for the sequences with RIP 3.0 in the HIV sequence database.Unlike the other alignments, the protease gene had nodes with bootstrap values < 100% for repeat control sequences. Majority of the CRF 02_AG sequences from Ghana were made up of fragments of several strains of CRF 02_AG/AG strains. The protease gene alone is not suitable for phylogenetic analysis.The polymerase genes of HIV-1 strains from Ghana are made up of recombinants of several CRF 02_AG strains from Ghana, Senegal and Cameroon, but the clinical implications are unknown. Using the HIV-1 protease gene for subtyping will not infer subtypes correctly.HIV-1 strains can be divided into three genetic groups (M, N and O) with the group M further divided into 9 pure subtypes [1-3]. Recombination has however led to the circulation of mosaic HIV-1 strains, and these include the circulation of circulating recombinant forms (CRF) which play an important role in the epidemic [4-9].Several studies have used the polymerase (pol), protease (prot.), and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes for phylogeny [9-19]. Also, the pol gene has been shown to be useful for subtyping in areas with multiple subtypes [17]. In settings where the CRF 02_AG is found, fragments of the RT gene have been shown to provide a useful method for HIV-1 subtyping [9,12,14,15,17,18]. However, there are conflicting reports on the usefulness of the prot. gene for subtype classification [12,14,15,18].In Ghana, the predominant subtype for the prot. gene is most likely to be CRF 02 AG [14]. Furthermore, it has recently been shown with HIV-1 envelope-glycoprotein gene (env-gp4
Are Midwestern fish retailers willing to pay more for regionally grown fresh-on-ice fish?  [PDF]
Rejeana M. Gvillo, Kwamena Quagrainie, Nicole Olynk, Jennifer Dennis
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.46A006
Abstract: The fish and seafood market in the Midwestern region of the United States is currently dominated by frozen products. Fish producers in the region may be able to market their products as fresh, regionally grown and farmed fish. Fish producers may be able to supply fresh fish products that have not been previously frozen but preserved fresh with ice. The study examined retailers’ willingness to pay more for Midwestern fresh fish adopting the literature on consumers’ willingness to pay for market services or products, assuming that retailers understand their customers, and that they are able to add any premiums paid for to their retail prices. The overall probability of retailers paying more for regionally grown fresh-on-ice fish is low though consistency in supply and sourcing out of state positively affected the probability to pay more. In spite of these positive factors on willingness to pay more for Midwestern fresh-on-ice fish, Midwestern fish producers would probably remain non-competitive in the fresh-on-ice fish market in the short and medium term, and should continue to focus on the live market.
Post Mid-Staffordshire Inquiries Reaction, in and about the National Health Service (NHS), England. The Missing Pieces: Organizational, Care and Virtue Ethics Perspectives  [PDF]
Albert Coleman
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.516131
Abstract:

The release of the Mid Staffordshire hospital report otherwise called the Francis report once again ignited the debate about the issue of abuse of especially vulnerable patients, while navigating the care pathway as inpatients in hospitals; within the National health service (NHS), England. Once more the official reaction from the NHS directorate is more “standards” to monitor failed standards in patient care. Of interest in the official responses so far, are the unheard voices addressing the issue of healthcare and organizational ethics concerns that need revisiting. This article seeks to revisit practice, systems and care issues leading to incidents of the type of the Staffordshire abuses, and the important but yet unheralded place of organizational and care ethics in helping to curb such abuses from re-occurring.

Road Traffic Accidents in Ghana: A Public Health Concern, and a Call for Action in Ghana, (and the Sub-Region)  [PDF]
Albert Coleman
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.411092
Abstract: This paper highlights the increasing problem of road traffic accident (RTA) related morbidity and mortality in Ghana, and the public health measures needed to control the problem. Descriptive data in the public domain from statutory bodies and media houses reports on country RTA information, as well as academic papers on the problem, were used as source of information about the problem. The observed trend in Ghana indicates that RTA related fatalities and injuries continue to be increasing, as morbidity and mortality factors since the year 2000. Most of the remedial measures suggested in academic papers, and state agencies measures to curb the RTA trend in Ghana to date, have discussed the problem in terms of injury and safety issues/measures. This paper suggests that the increasing RTAs with associated morbidity and mortality in Ghana need to be looked at more as a public health problem and priority that requires prompt tackling using a public health problem orientated approach and measures, than just as a safety problem due to RTAs’, as is currently done.
Stress repair mechanism activity explains inflammation and apoptosis  [PDF]
Lewis S. Coleman
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2012.324065
Abstract: A review of modern evidence using Internet resources has identified the Stress Repair Mechanism (SRM) postulated by Hans Selye in 1951. SRM activity regulates thrombin generation to govern tissue maintenance, tissue repair, hemodynamic physiology, inflammation, and apoptosis. Thrombin utilizes ATP to energize coagulation, capillary hemostasis, chemotaxis, immune activity, mitosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, and the release of chemokines, cytokines, bradykinins, and prostaglandins that enable cell-to-cell communications, promote perfusion, loosen cell connections, and sensitize nociceptors during tissue repair. The orchestration of these diverse activities by the SRM explains the disparate elements of the inflammation syndrome, including dolor (pain), rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), and Functio laesa (loss of function). Inflammation resolves as tissue repair nears completion and declining SRM activity restores thrombin to maintenance levels. As thrombin levels decline below a critical threshold, repair cells undergo apoptosis and clots disintegrate. Apoptosis shrinks granulation tissues to enable wound closure. Apoptosis also facilitates embryological development. Occult systemic SRM hyperactivity due to sepsis, surgery, trauma, chemicals, pain, fear, and emotional memories causes inflammatory effects that manifest as the fever, edema, malignancy, organ disruption, eclampsia, Multi-System Organ Failure (MS-OF), Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SI-RS), Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) and other pathologies.
What Is “African Bioethics” as Used by Sub-Saharan African Authors: An Argumentative Literature Review of Articles on African Bioethics  [PDF]
Albert Mark E. Coleman
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2017.71003
Abstract:
The term “African bioethics” is more often used by some Sub-Saharan African (SSA) authors to denote an African framework of resolving pertinent moral dilemmas arising in the interface of human persons with biomedical sciences, as juxtaposed against what is deemed “Western bioethics paradigms/theories, considered otherwise as a form of “moral/ethical imperialism”; and considered foreign to SSA tradition(s). This article is a literature review of articles on African bioethics to clarify what actually is meant epistemologically by African bioethics vis a vis, Western bioethics, as well as ascertain whether African bioethics as used by SSA authors is wishful thinking, yet to be realised in actuality.
Scottish Primary School Children Who Consume Greater Levels of Fruit and Vegetables Have Improved Health Markers  [PDF]
Heba Althubaiti, Madeline Coleman
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.85034
Abstract: Background: There is conflicting information about whether Scottish children follow the UK government recommendation of consuming 5 portions of fruit and vegetable (F & V) a day, or whether increased intake of F & V promotes improved health. Objective: This study aimed to 1) perform a cross-sectional study of the number of F & V portions that primary school children consume in relation to age (4 - 13 years old) and sex, 2) establish the relationship between F & V intake and health parameters. Methods: Data were collected from 466 children using a specific F & V intake questionnaire. Health parameters (weight, height, blood pressure, waist circumference, hip circumference and lung function) were measured from all of the children. Results: Children consumed on average a total of 4.50 (SD 1.86) portions of F & V per day. F
Palliative Care, Suffering, Death Trajectory: A View of End-of-Life Care (EOL) Related Issues in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)  [PDF]
Albert M. E. Coleman
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2018.93015
Abstract: Palliative care in the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region despite some progress made since the first hospice was opened in Zimbabwe in 1979, still lags far behind that of countries with developed economies, and relatively suffers from not being wholly included into mainstream public health service delivery in SSA. The situation is made worse due to relatively poor and pervasive socio-politico-economic factors and the challenge of the changing and increasing non-communicable disease epidemiology in SSA countries. This situation results in a tension between scarce resources and service needs/provision which prevails in a good number of SSA countries. In large part the situation where palliative care, end of life and the death trajectory converge in SSA countries currently portrays one of scarcity of resources and suffering for those ill SSA patients who need the services. This article is an overview of the current situation as pertains to palliative care services in the SSA region and some of the factors that contribute to or perpetuate the current state of palliative care delivery in SSA countries.
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