Based on the accurate identification of chemical
structures as electric elements, we described charge transport mechanism in a
DNA molecule by a stepwiseLCoscillatory circuitry, in which every base pair is a capacitor, every phosphate
bridge is an inductor, and every deoxyribose is a charge router. The circuit
model agrees with established experimental evidence that has supported
super-exchange and hopping mechanisms so far. This alternative charge transport
mechanism through both strands of DNA matches the fidelity and reliability of
its chemical structure.

Abstract:
A systematic and extensible pathway enrichment method in which nodes are weighted by network centrality was proposed. We demonstrate how choice of pathway structure and centrality measurement, as well as the presence of key genes, affects pathway significance. We emphasize two improvements of our method over current methods. First, allowing for the diversity of genes’ characters and the difficulty of covering gene importance from all aspects, we set centrality as an optional parameter in the model. Second, nodes rather than genes form the basic unit of pathways, such that one node can be composed of several genes and one gene may reside in different nodes. By comparing our methodology to the original enrichment method using both simulation data and real-world data, we demonstrate the efficacy of our method in finding new pathways from biological perspective.Our method can benefit the systematic analysis of biological pathways and help to extract more meaningful information from gene expression data. The algorithm has been implemented as an R package CePa, and also a web-based version of CePa is provided.As omics and high throughput technology continues to develop, researchers can increasingly understand biological phenomena at the systems level; that is, can elucidate the complicated interactions between genes and molecules responsible for biological functions [1]. Microarray technology has been widely used to measure gene expression profiles and has produced huge amounts of data for biological analysis [2]. However, traditional single gene analysis tells us little about the cooperative roles of genes in real biological systems. New challenges for microarray data analysis are to find specific biological functions affected by a group of related genes. Biological pathways are sets of genes or molecules that act together by chemical reactions, molecule modifications or signalling transduction to carry out such functions [3]. Since pathways are essentially integrated ci

Abstract:
In the context of two-dimensional spacetime within a helium atom, both 1s electrons are characterized by wave functions that observe duality equation. They are symmetric, orthogonal and interwoven, forming a dynamic rope structure at any moment. Instead of elliptical orbit of planets around the sun, electronic orbitals take the form of matter state transformation cycle. While the kinematic movement of planets is governed by Kepler's first law, electronic transformation obeys Pythagorean theorem, both being equivalent in physical principle. The atomic spacetime is a continuous medium of electron clouds in synchronized differential and integral processes that are implemented by smooth trigonometry. In order to integrate this new approach with conventional physics, the author translates the pattern of electronic motion in the atomic spacetime into spherical volume undulation in Euclidean geometry and calculates the probability density of an electron within the sphere from the classical perspective. From the primary wave function of a 1s electron, the author also tries to derive the mathematical expression of central force that guides the surrounding bodies along the orbits. The result is exciting and surprising that questions the exactness of the venerable Coulomb's law.

Abstract:
Euclidean space and linear algebra do not characterize dynamic electronic orbitals satisfactorily for even the motion of both electrons in an inert helium atom cannot be defined in reasonable details. Here the author puts forward a novel two-dimensional spacetime model from scratch in the context of defining both electrons in a helium atom. Space and time are treated as two orthogonal, symmetric and complementary quantities under the atomic spacetime. Electronic motion observed the rule of differential and integral operations that were implemented by dynamic trigonometric functions. It is demonstrated that the atomic spacetime is not a linear vector space with Newtonian time, and within which calculus has non-classical definition, and complex wave functions have fresh physical significances. This alternative approach is original, informative and refreshing but still compatible with quantum mechanics in the formulation. The description of electronic resonance in helium is also comparable with classical mechanics such as an oscillating pendulum and with classical electromagnetism such as an LC oscillator. The study has effectively unified complex function, calculus, and trigonometry in mathematics, and provided a prospect for unifying particle physics with classical physics on the novel spacetime platform.

Abstract:
Following a previous proposition of quaternity spacetime for electronic orbitals in neon shell, this paper describes the geometrical course each electron takes as it oscillates harmonically within a certain quaternity space dimension and provides the concrete connections between geometries and trigonometric wavefunctions that observe Pythagorean theorem. By integrating four quaternity space dimensions with conventional Cartesian coordinate systems in calculus, we explain electronic motions by the Maxwell equation and general Stokes theorem from the principles of rotation operation and space and time symmetry. Altogether with the previous reports, we have effectively established quaternity spacetime as a successful theory in elucidating the orbital shapes and motions of electrons within inert atoms such as helium and neon. We point out once again that 2px, 2py, and 2pz orbitals have different geometrical shapes as well as orthogonal orientations, contrary to the traditional 2p orbital model.

Abstract:
Euclidean geometry does not characterize dynamic electronic orbitals satisfactorily for even a single electron in a hydrogen atom is a formidable mathematical task with the Schrodinger equation. Here the author puts forward a new spacetime concept that regards space and time as two orthogonal, symmetric and complementary quantities. They are inherent physical quantities that cannot be divorced from physical objects themselves. In two-dimensional helium shell, space and time are instantiated by two interactive 1s electrons; in four-dimensional neon shell, space and time dimensions blend into four types of curvilinear vectors represented by 2s, 2px, 2py, and 2pz electronic orbitals. The description of electronic orbitals constitutes an explanation of canonical spacetime properties such as harmonic oscillation, electromagnetism, and wave propagation. Through differential and integral operations, the author formulates a precise wavefunction for every electron in an inert neon atom where spacetime, as dimensional graduated by ten electrons, is continuous, and trigonometric function is the mechanism for dimension curling up. This fresh spacetime view based on dimensional interpretation of complex functions is an extension of classical mechanics and is compatible with relativity and quantum physics. It brings sharp insight into the geometries of 2p-orbitals and has broad support from chemistry.

Abstract:
The structure of white iron treated with Si-Bi-AI complex inoculant has been observed bySEM and TEM. The results show that, in comparison with the samples treated with ordinaryinoculants, disorder, overlapping and inflexion of the pearlitic lamella appear, besides, the dis-location density increases apparently. The graphitization can be quickly realized at the tem-perature lower than that of austenitic transition (720℃).

Abstract:
Under inert atmospheres and 1473 K,the evaporation rate of SnS from SnO-FeO- SiO_2 and SnO-FeO-CaO-SiO_2 slags mixed with FeS was investigated by measuring the weight Ioss and composition of samples.The experimental results show that dur- ing sulfide fuming process the evaporation of SnOfrom slags is negligible in comparison with that of SnS.Addition of CaOto slags can enhance the evaporation rate of SnS.The differential rate equation of evaporation may be expressed as: -d(%Sn)/dt=k(%Sn)(%S) where,the apparent rate constant k was found to be 4.20×10~(-3) for SnO-FeO-CaO- SiO_2 system and 2.88×10~(-3) for SnO-FeO-SiO_2 system,respectively.

Abstract:
The room temperature section and the 750℃ isothermal section of the Ag-Pd-Gd ternaryphase diagram containing 0—25 at.-% Gd are constructed by X—ray diffraction analysis andoptical microscopy.Each section consists of 3 single phase regions,3 bi-phase regions and Itri-phase region respectively.