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Morbidity Patterns and Health Care Seeking Behavior among Older Widows in India
Gopal Agrawal, Kunal Keshri
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094295
Abstract: In the process of health transition, India is facing rapid pace of demographic aging. Rapid increase in older adult population posed serious concerns regarding health and health care utilization for them. However, very limited research documented resultant implications of demographic aging for health and health care use in the nexus of marital status and gender. With this perspective, the present study examined patterns in morbidity prevalence and health seeking behaviour among older widows in India. Multivariate logistic regression models were estimated to examine the effects of socio-demographic conditions on morbidity prevalence among older widows and their health care seeking behavior. Data from the latest 60th round of National Sample Survey (NSS), 2004 was used. Overall, morbidity prevalence was 13% greater among older widows compared to older widowers. Adjusted prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases was found 74 and 192 per 1000 older widows respectively. At the same time, likelihood of seeking health care services for reported morbidities was substantially lower among older widows. The findings of this study are important to support policy makers and health care providers in identifying individuals ‘at risk’ and could be integrated into the current programs of social, economic and health security for the older persons.
Shared Visual Attention and Memory Systems in the Drosophila Brain
Bruno van Swinderen, Amber McCartney, Sarah Kauffman, Kris Flores, Kunal Agrawal, Jenée Wagner, Angelique Paulk
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005989
Abstract: Background Selective attention and memory seem to be related in human experience. This appears to be the case as well in simple model organisms such as the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Mutations affecting olfactory and visual memory formation in Drosophila, such as in dunce and rutabaga, also affect short-term visual processes relevant to selective attention. In particular, increased optomotor responsiveness appears to be predictive of visual attention defects in these mutants. Methodology/Principal Findings To further explore the possible overlap between memory and visual attention systems in the fly brain, we screened a panel of 36 olfactory long term memory (LTM) mutants for visual attention-like defects using an optomotor maze paradigm. Three of these mutants yielded high dunce-like optomotor responsiveness. We characterized these three strains by examining their visual distraction in the maze, their visual learning capabilities, and their brain activity responses to visual novelty. We found that one of these mutants, D0067, was almost completely identical to dunce1 for all measures, while another, D0264, was more like wild type. Exploiting the fact that the LTM mutants are also Gal4 enhancer traps, we explored the sufficiency for the cells subserved by these elements to rescue dunce attention defects and found overlap at the level of the mushroom bodies. Finally, we demonstrate that control of synaptic function in these Gal4 expressing cells specifically modulates a 20–30 Hz local field potential associated with attention-like effects in the fly brain. Conclusions/Significance Our study uncovers genetic and neuroanatomical systems in the fly brain affecting both visual attention and odor memory phenotypes. A common component to these systems appears to be the mushroom bodies, brain structures which have been traditionally associated with odor learning but which we propose might be also involved in generating oscillatory brain activity required for attention-like processes in the fly brain.
Parallel Support Vector Machines in Practice
Stephen Tyree,Jacob R. Gardner,Kilian Q. Weinberger,Kunal Agrawal,John Tran
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate the performance of various parallel optimization methods for Kernel Support Vector Machines on multicore CPUs and GPUs. In particular, we provide the first comparison of algorithms with explicit and implicit parallelization. Most existing parallel implementations for multi-core or GPU architectures are based on explicit parallelization of Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO)---the programmers identified parallelizable components and hand-parallelized them, specifically tuned for a particular architecture. We compare these approaches with each other and with implicitly parallelized algorithms---where the algorithm is expressed such that most of the work is done within few iterations with large dense linear algebra operations. These can be computed with highly-optimized libraries, that are carefully parallelized for a large variety of parallel platforms. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches and compare them on various benchmark data sets. We find an approximate implicitly parallel algorithm which is surprisingly efficient, permits a much simpler implementation, and leads to unprecedented speedups in SVM training.
Shades of FDI Capital, Business Group Affiliation and Excess Value Creation  [PDF]
Kunal, B. V. Phani
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.815216
Abstract: This research work is focused on effect of business group affiliation on firm with different shades of FDI capital such as technology, capital and competitiveness defined on the basis of FDI policy tools designed by Indian policy makers. The analysis reveals negative effect of business group affiliation on excess value created by firm using competitiveness shaded FDI capital. This empirical evidence supports that tunneling effect of business group affiliation is highly significant in a firm with competitiveness shaded FDI capital. Once, profitability, asset utilization and growth opportunity is controlled, the tunneling effect of business group affiliation becomes highly significant in firm irrespective of the shades of FDI capital. This is in support of study reported by Bertrand et al. (2002) claiming that tunneling effect is part of non-operating profit. There is strong evidence that FDI investors’ fund is expropriated by domestic business group when host economy has sufficient capital and technology and foreign investor is intending to create excess value on account of their higher efficiency.
CT Findings in Patients with Esophageal Carcinoma and Its Correlation with Esophagographic Findings  [PDF]
Basudev Agrawal
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2018.82013
Abstract: Aim of the Study: Aim of this study is to evaluate the patients of biopsy proven esophageal carcinoma with Contrast CT studies (CECT thorax, abdomen or neck), correlate and compare the CT findings with esophagographic findings in each case and with biopsy findings wherever possible. Materials and Methods: Fifty (50) biopsy proven cases of esophageal carcinoma were taken into study in Radiology Department of Govt. Medical College, Patiala, Punjab after informed consents. All the patients underwent esophagography with barium sulphate as the contrast material and contrast enhanced CT scan of neck and/or thorax and/or abdomen. In all cases, esophagographic study preceded the CT scan. The time gap between the two studies was kept to the minimum to make the studies comparable. Results: The CT findings were found to have significant correlation with the esophagographic findings (p value > 0.05 in each finding) in regard to luminal narrowing, proximal dilatation and hold up of contrast, eccentricity of growth, site involved, length of growth, involvement of pyriform sinuses/valeculla and involvement of GE junction. Conclusions: CT study primarily helps to rule out unresectable or distant metastatic disease. Barium studies cannot provide any information regarding local invasion into mediastinal structures, regional or non-regional lymphadenopathy or metastases to distant organs which are significant for determining the treatment modality. CT has an advantage over esophagography for these information.
Peritoneal Dialysis Drop-out: Causes and Prevention Strategies
Kunal Chaudhary
International Journal of Nephrology , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/434608
Abstract: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a renal replacement therapy (RRT) has become wide spread since its inception more than twenty-five years back. Since then, several advances have been made and PD has been accepted as an alternative therapy to hemodialysis (HD), with excellent survival, lower cost, and improved quality of life. In spite of comparable survival of HD and PD, improved PD techniques over the last few years, and lower health care costs with PD, PD prevalence remains low in many countries. An important reason for the low PD prevalence is patient dropouts, that is, transfer to HD. The reasons for dropouts are multifactorial, that is, modality related, system related, and patient related. These include episodes of peritonitis, catheter-related problems, ultrafiltration failure, patient fatigue, and provider comfort. This review discusses the various factors that contribute to PD dropout and the strategies to prevent it. 1. Introduction Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been in use for the last thirty years for treatment of end-stage renal disease but barring a few countries the prevalence of PD is lower than Hemodialysis (HD). For example as per USRDS data from 2007, of approximately 368,000 patients undergoing dialysis in the United States (USA), the point prevalence for PD patients was only 7.2% [1]. Contrary to prevailing practice, a survey of nephrology professionals found that the majority picked CAPD/APD as the best initial therapy for the patient [2]. Of the ones who perform PD, few patients stay on PD for 5 years or longer from initiation of therapy. A large proportion of such patients transfer from PD to HD every year, and PD to HD switch rates of more than 35% have been reported [3, 4]. Thus transfer to HD is a significant cause for the low prevalence of PD. The risk of transfer to HD is the highest in the first few months of PD initiation, mainly due to episodes of peritonitis and catheter-related problems and decreases thereafter [5]. Modality issues such as recurrent episodes of peritonitis, inadequate dialysis or ultrafiltration failure, system issues such as lack of infrastructure as well as personal or social reasons make up the bulk of causes for transfer to HD (Table 1). Peritonitis and inadequate dialysis issues have received great attention and despite the incidences having decreased the last few years, PD drop-out still remains widespread. Strategies to prevent and manage peritonitis, ultrafiltration failure, catheter-related complications, and improving adequacy of dialysis, education of patients, and medical staff may all help with
Efficacy and safety of combination ointment "fluticasone propionate 0.005% plus mupirocin 2.0%" for the treatment of atopic dermatitis with clinical suspicion of secondary bacterial infection: An open label uncontrolled study
Khobragade Kunal
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2005,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The skin of patients with atopic dermatitis is colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. Reduction of bacterial colonization has been reported to be effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of a combination of fluticasone propionate 0.005% and mupirocin 2.0% ointment twice daily for 2 weeks in patients with atopic dermatitis clinically suspected of secondary bacterial infection. METHODS: An open-label, non-randomized study of 122 patients (64 males and 58 females) from 20 centers was conducted. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed by clinical assessment and scoring was done on the visual analogue scale (VAS). Clinical evaluation of the lesions was done on day 1 (baseline), day 8 and on day 15 of study visits. RESULTS: At baseline, many patients had moderate itching (41.8%), moderate dryness (41.8%) and mild weeping lesions (49.2%). The baseline proportions of the clinicians′ global impressions (CGI) scale for mild, moderate and severe atopic dermatitis lesions were 19.7%, 55.7% and 12.2% respectively. At the end of the treatment period, 67.2% patients had mild disease, whereas only 9% and 0.8% patients had moderate and severe disease respectively. At baseline, only 33.65% patients were comfortable with the existing lesions when assessed on visual analog scale (VAS). However, after the treatment, this proportion increased to 51.77% and 78.60% patients on day 8 and on day 15 respectively. CONCLUSION: Twice daily topical application of a fluticasone propionate 0.005% and mupirocin 2.0% ointment is an effective and safe therapeutic regimen in atopic dermatitis.
A common risk approach for oral health promotion and prevention
Oswal Kunal
Indian Journal of Dental Research , 2010,
Highly anisotropic Bose-Einstein condensates: crossover to lower dimensionality
Kunal Das
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.66.053612
Abstract: We develop a simple analytical model based on a variational method to explain the properties of trapped cylindrically symmetric Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) of varying degrees of anisotropy well into regimes of effective one dimension (1D) and effective two dimension (2D). Our results are accurate in regimes where the Thomas-Fermi approximation breaks down and they are shown to be in agreement with recent experimental data.
Masas and Bimodule Decompositions of $\rm{II}_{1}$ Factors
Kunal Mukherjee
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: The measure-multiplicity-invariant for masas in $\rm{II}_{1}$ factors was introduced in \cite{MR2261688} to distinguish masas that have the same Puk\'{a}nszky invariant. In this paper we study the measure class in the measure-multiplicity-invariant. This is equivalent to studying the standard Hilbert space as an associated bimodule. We characterize the type of any masa depending on the left-right-measure using Baire category methods (selection principle of Jankov and von Neumann). We present a second proof of Chifan's result on normalisers and a measure theoretic proof of the equivalence of weak asymptotic homomorphism property (WAHP) and singularity that appeared in \cite{MR2417416}.
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